References of "Vandersmissen, Jan"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Peer Reviewed
See detailDébats européens sur les formes de la vie marine au Siècle des Lumières
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Jullien, Vincent; Nicolaidis, Efthymios; Skordoulis, Kostas (Eds.) Europe et sciences modernes, histoire d’un engendrement mutuel (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe débat sur la véritable nature du corail
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Actes du IXe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFishermen’s Knowledge in the Academic Salon: Jean-André Peyssonnel’s Observations of Coral in Marseilles, North Africa and the French West-Indies
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Klemun, Marianne; Spring, Ulrike (Eds.) Expeditions as Experiments: Documentation between Observation and Knowledge (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailScience at the fringe of the French colonial world: the circulation of Jean-André Peyssonnel’s treatises on medicine and the natural history of Guadeloupe
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2014, December 05)

Jean-André Peyssonnel, born in Marseille in 1694, was a physician who in 1720-1721 earned his spurs in the fight against the plague that ravaged his hometown. Fascinated by the sea and the work of ... [more ▼]

Jean-André Peyssonnel, born in Marseille in 1694, was a physician who in 1720-1721 earned his spurs in the fight against the plague that ravaged his hometown. Fascinated by the sea and the work of fishermen, he turned in following years to the study of marine life. While conducting observational research along the coasts of the Provence and North Africa, he found evidence of the animal nature of coral. This controversial claim caused a heated debate with Réaumur, who blocked his career plans in France. Out of necessity Peyssonnel was forced to accept the post of “Médecin du Roi” in Guadeloupe. In this remote outpost of the French colonial empire, Peyssonnel continued his scientific activities. He received orders to fight a local outburst of leprosy, which resulted in a comprehensive study on the disease. In addition, he produced dozens of treatises on the natural history of the French Antilles, including volcanic, oceanographic, botanical and zoological studies. This contribution tells the story of these remarkable documents which, on their way to the learned world in Europe, passed through many hands. Spread over several intellectual centres – London, Paris, Marseille, Rouen, Bordeaux, Angers – these manuscripts shed a unique light on the circulation of knowledge in a Republic of Sciences turning global. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailThe philosophical and political commitments of Eugène Catalan
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2014, October 14)

In 1865 the French mathematician Eugène Catalan was appointed professor at the University of Liege. In the nineteenth century the Belgian government developed a policy of attracting famous foreign ... [more ▼]

In 1865 the French mathematician Eugène Catalan was appointed professor at the University of Liege. In the nineteenth century the Belgian government developed a policy of attracting famous foreign scholars, mainly coming from the German principalities and France, in order to bring the education system to a higher level. In this case, however, the appointment had an outspoken political and philosophical dimension. Catalan sought and found refuge in Belgium because his career prospects in France were severely hindered due to his strong republican and anti-Bonapartist viewpoints. In a speech he gave at the University’s Academic Hall on the occasion of his retirement on December 7, 1881, Catalan emphasized he had two passions in life: la Politique militante et les Mathématiques [“Militant Politics and Mathematics”]. In this paper, we will investigate the first of these passions against the background of the revolutionary tensions of the time on the basis of a series of primary sources: first, a brochure edited by Catalan himself at the end of his life, entitled Miettes littéraires et politiques, par un vieux mathématicien (Liège, 1889); second, Catalan’s correspondence, covering several decades, and preserved at the Manuscripts Department of the University of Liège; third, a journal kept by Catalan during the years 1858 to 1862, entitled Journal d’un bourgeois de Paris. An in-depth analysis of these sources will allow us to discover Catalan’s own perception of his political and philosophical commitments, the reasons behind his involvement in the revolutionary uprisings of 1830, 1848 and 1851, the exact nature of his activism, his interpretation of the republican ideal, his political hopes and deceptions, his view on both French and European social and political realities, his struggle with the Catholic Church, the meaning of his engagement in Freemasonry. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes traductions de récits de voyage et leurs arrière-plans politiques
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2014, May 08)

Ce papier s’inscrit dans un projet de recherche financé par le Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique – FNRS qui vise à mettre en rapport l’intérêt accru des savants pour l’Afrique à la fin du XVIIIe siècle ... [more ▼]

Ce papier s’inscrit dans un projet de recherche financé par le Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique – FNRS qui vise à mettre en rapport l’intérêt accru des savants pour l’Afrique à la fin du XVIIIe siècle et l’intensification de la compétition économique et militaire entre la France et la Grande-Bretagne. Ce projet ambitionne de démontrer comment une connaissance de plus en plus précise du terrain africain a influencé la façon dont les gouvernements des deux pays ont intégré l’expertise coloniale dans une politique scientifique complexe appropriée aux besoins spécifiques des deux états. L’originalité de cette étude consiste en l’approche comparative des « politiques scientifiques » coloniales successives de la France et de la Grande-Bretagne. Les récits de voyage ont joué évidemment un rôle important dans la collecte d’informations. Les expéditions ont été suivies de près par le public lettré, par les institutions scientifiques mais aussi par les décideurs politiques des deux côtés de la Manche. En plus de nouvelles données scientifiques, les récits contenaient également des informations d’importance économique et stratégique. Les fonctionnaires ont donc soumis les récits à l’analyse critique dès leur parution. On avait intérêt à faire traduire les récits composés par les concurrents. Ce papier mettra l’accent sur la traduction de récits de voyage français et britanniques, et sur leurs arrière-plans politiques. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe geographical societies of Brussels and Antwerp, and their focus on Africa in the period preceding the Berlin Conference (1876-1885)
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Van Schuylenbergh, Patricia; Lanneau, Catherine; Plasman, Pierre-Luc (Eds.) L'Afrique belge aux XIXe et XXe siècles. Nouvelles recherches et perspectives en histoire coloniale. (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL’Afrique et la science impériale britannique dans une phase de transition: une étude de cas de l’expédition au Congo en 1816 sous la direction de James Hingston Tuckey
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2013, November 16)

This paper fits in a broader research project funded by the Belgian F.R.S.-Fonds national de la Recherche scientifique. It is entitled: Africa in the “science policies” of France and Great Britain from ... [more ▼]

This paper fits in a broader research project funded by the Belgian F.R.S.-Fonds national de la Recherche scientifique. It is entitled: Africa in the “science policies” of France and Great Britain from the eighteenth to the mid- nineteenth century: the scholarly background of the Scramble. This general project aims at completing in an original way recent studies on the interactions between the “New Science” derived from the Scientific Revolution and the building of colonial empires in the Atlantic area from the Enlightenment to the apogee of the first Industrial Revolution. Its objective is to investigate how in this period Africa has become a scientific object in its own right for the colonial administrations of France and Great Britain. Botanical knowledge (industrial plants, food crops and medicinal herbs) that originated in Africa was first applied in the plantations of slave economies in the Caribbean and North America. It was increased with knowledge about the geography and natural history of the continent’s interior through a revival of exploration in Africa itself. The project aims to relate the increased interest from scholars for Africa to the intensification of economic and military competition between the powers. It also wants to demonstrate how a more precise knowledge of the African terrain influenced the ways in which the governments of both countries have integrated colonial expertise in a complex science policy adapted to the specific needs of the two states. In this paper I will focus on the British side of the spectrum. I will investigate the changing British attitude towards Africa in the early nineteenth century through a case study of an expedition to the River Congo organized in 1816. Although this expedition ended in disaster (a majority of the members died in the course of the undertaking), it offers a series of useful examples that help to illustrate the transformation of British science policies under the pressure of competition with the French. Thus, it is my aim to show how Great Britain in the face of state-oriented French science has abandoned its policy of informal relationships and started to encourage its administration and scientific institutions to intervene more directly in exploration. Crucial in this evolution was the way in which the Admiralty absorbed the scholarly input of a number of learned societies and institutions, such as the Royal Society, the British Museum or the so-called “African Association” – the latter combining both scientific and commercial objectives. Thus the expedition illustrates the transition from Late Enlightenment “Banksian” exploration, inspired by the omnipotent science organizer Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), towards a more thorough imperial design of exploration under the command of Sir John Barrow (1764-1848). Already since the French conquest of Egypt, “scientific” expeditions relied on the collaboration between learned networks and the military, an example that would be copied later in Algeria. At the British side, it was the Admiralty that strengthened its grip on exploration. Tuckey’s expedition illustrates very well the amplification of operations, the more direct intervention by the government, and the growing importance of the commercial agendas of science. I will focus here on the interaction between the Admiralty and the learned societies with regard to the composition of the instruction text given to the leader of the expedition on the eve of his departure, on the specific choice of the area he had to explore (related to the “Niger question”), on the practical organization (e.g. the development of special steam engines by the engineer Watt, the scientific equipment offered with the help of the British Museum, etc.), on the choice of the scientists who formed a real team of experts (e.g. Christen Smith, John Cranch, etc.), on the collection of scientific data and their integration in collections in Britain, on the presentation of the expedition’s results in a published report entitled Narrative of an expedition to explore the river Zaire, usually called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816, under the direction of Captain J. K. Tuckey, R.N., (London, 1818), and finally, on the circulation of these results in the rest of Europe due to the translation of the report in Dutch and French. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLalande on Africa: science policies in late eighteenth-century France and the growing interest for the exploration of the continent's inner regions
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2013, July 27)

In his Mémoire sur l’intérieur de l’Afrique (An III de la République, 1794-95) the influential French scholar Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (1732-1807) outlines the goals of a project which directly ... [more ▼]

In his Mémoire sur l’intérieur de l’Afrique (An III de la République, 1794-95) the influential French scholar Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (1732-1807) outlines the goals of a project which directly links scientific exploration to the needs of the State, urging both men of learning and state officials to work closely together in the organization of research missions that enhance man’s knowledge of the geography, natural history and commerce of Africa’s yet unknown inner regions – in particular the vast area between Senegal and the Sudan. This paper analyzes Lalande’s aims, arguments and claims against the background of scientific, commercial, political and military tensions between France and Britain. It situates Lalande’s discourse within the broader context of the competing “science policies” of both states in the second half of the eighteenth century. The notion of “science policy” as a working hypothesis refers to the way a government applies the knowledge and expertise provided by the scientific world according to the needs of the country. It is an investigation of the sudden re-emergence of Africa as an object of knowledge in the relationship between power and science. The paper focuses on the continuous interaction between France and Britain in African affairs, and highlights the shift from a mere “enlightened” exploration from the 1720s to the 1780s – a period which saw, on the one hand, the progressive integration of useful knowledge gathered by explorers in African coastal regions into the French “colonial” system, and, on the other hand, the installation of an informal structure of knowledge transfer at the British side – towards Lalande’s revolutionary time – the 1790s – when Africa became the subject of a “Banksian” takeover, enhancing British interest in the “unknown” interior of the African continent by setting up large-scale, interrelated research missions with practical goals (the expeditions organized by the African Association, e.g. Mungo Park), but also provoking reactions from the French side, a reflection of which can be found in Lalande’s dissertation, thus stimulating a new wave of French initiatives in the field. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLaplace et le développement des politiques scientifiques en Europe
Grell, Chantal; Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2013, March 27)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDébats européens sur les formes de la vie marine au Siècle des Lumières
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2013, February 22)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg)
See detailCorrespondance de Pierre Simon Laplace (1749-1827)
Hahn, Roger; Radelet de Grave, Patricia; Vandersmissen, Jan ULg et al

Book published by Brepols (2013)

Ce nouveau volume de la Collection de travaux est à bien des égards exceptionnel. C'est l'oeuvre d'une vie, car pendant cinquante ans, jusqu'à sa mort en 2011, Roger Hahn a patiemment rassemblé les ... [more ▼]

Ce nouveau volume de la Collection de travaux est à bien des égards exceptionnel. C'est l'oeuvre d'une vie, car pendant cinquante ans, jusqu'à sa mort en 2011, Roger Hahn a patiemment rassemblé les lettres de Laplace éparses dans les collections publiques et privées. C'est aussi un document capital pour l'histoire du XVIIIe et du XIXe siècle, depuis l'Ancien Régime jusqu'à la Restauration, dans tous ses aspects. En effet, Laplace ne fut pas seulement un scientifique de premier ordre en mécanique céleste, en astronomie, en mathématique, il exerça d'importantes fonctions politiques et administratives sous les régimes successifs. Enfin, la correspondance apporte un témoignage de première main, souvent émouvant, sur la vie personnelle et sur l'évolution philosophique du "doyen des athées". [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes voyages organisés par ordre du roi
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences (2012), 62(169), 491-504

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe débat sur la véritable nature du corail
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2012, August 24)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (14 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe "New Science" and the Sea - Academies, Learned Societies and Marine Knowledge in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2012, July 05)

Academies and learned societies were the main tools for the application of the “new science” in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This paper aims to contribute to the research on marine science ... [more ▼]

Academies and learned societies were the main tools for the application of the “new science” in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This paper aims to contribute to the research on marine science, nautical knowledge and empire building by studying academies and learned societies in their role of bureaus of investigation of the colonial reality. As a fact, institutions such as the Académie Royale des Sciences in Paris and the Royal Society of London played an important role as mediators in the development of various models of “science policies”. This paper focuses on the implication of these institutions in overseas scientific exploration in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It stresses the specific importance of “academic” voyages for the development of navigational techniques, from Huygens and Hooke to Maskelyne and Harrison. This comparative study thus tries to show how through these new centers of knowledge production a scholarly interest for day-to-day nautical practices influenced the scientized perfection of navigational techniques. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailL’histoire des sciences au carrefour des sources et des méthodes.
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2012, January 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 598 (9 ULg)