References of "Vandenberghe, Christophe"
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See detailPerformance de l'indicateur Azote Potentiellement Lessivable pour l'évaluation de la gestion du nitrate en agriculture et du risque pour la qualité de l’eau
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

Since the end of last century, the nitrate concentration in groundwater has steadily increased in Wallonia as in other parts of Europe, particularly in regions where agriculture is intensively practised ... [more ▼]

Since the end of last century, the nitrate concentration in groundwater has steadily increased in Wallonia as in other parts of Europe, particularly in regions where agriculture is intensively practised. In response to this, Europe developed a ' Nitrates ' directive in 1991 that each member state had to transcribe in its legislation. In the Walloon region, the transcription took the form of a Sustainable Nitrogen Management Program (PGDA). This program provides among others control of farms through the analysis of nitrate nitrogen soil residue, in autumn, the beginning of the leaching period of nitrate. This measure is commonly referred to as APL for ‘Potentially Leachable Nitrogen’. The results are assessed by comparison to references established annually based on observations in plots where PGDA is applied and where fertilization recommendations are based on nitrogen balance. In case of non -compliance, the farmer has to follow an observation program, or even to pay a fine. The aim of the thesis is to evaluate the performance of the APL as agronomic (nitrogen management) and environmental indicator (risk to groundwater quality). On the agronomic side, through experimentations or treatment of field APL controls, it has been demonstrated that the indicator was well correlated with fertilization practices and intercrop management. The performance of the indicator has been validated. Some uncertainty factors (intra-plot variability, temporal variability, bulk density, stone content) were quantified. Finally, the influence of soil physicochemical properties on the APL was studied and discussed. The performance of the APL control was also discussed and improvements to regulation have been proposed. On the environmental side, through observations made during a decade in plots equipped with a lysimiter or in a small watershed, the dependence of the nitrate concentration in water (at the base of the root zone or in aquifer) to the APL has been demonstrated. It therefore appears that the APL can be used to firstly assess the reality of the sustainable nitrogen management in controlled farms and also to validate or, if necessary, complete the PGDA to make it more efficient for water quality preservation / restoration. [less ▲]

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See detail4. La fumure azotée
Meza Morales, Walter ULg; Monfort, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ULg et al

in Watillon, Bernard; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2016, February 24)

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See detailL’épandage d’engrais de ferme avant le semis d’une culture intermédiaire (CIPAN) présente-t-il un risque important de lixiviation de nitrate ?
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; De Toffoli, Marc; Lambert, Richard et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(2),

Description of the subject. The implementation of the Nitrates Directives in the Walloon region (in the south of Belgium) allows the summer spreading of any kind of manure on soils in preparation for the ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. The implementation of the Nitrates Directives in the Walloon region (in the south of Belgium) allows the summer spreading of any kind of manure on soils in preparation for the sowing of a catch crop. Objectives. This paper aims to assess whether the spreading of a manure before sowing a catch crop is more risky for groundwater quality than planting a cereal followed by another crop without any action being implemented between the harvesting of the cereal and the sowing (winter or spring) of the next crop. Method. This study is based on measurements of the nitrate nitrogen content of soils, at the beginning of the leaching period, performed on reference parcels and on controlled parcels. Results. Three thousand six hundred soil analyses performed in relation to controlled parcels between 2008 and 2013 showed that the presence of a catch crop (information about the possible application of a manure was not known) led to a nitrate nitrogen content (median) lower (with a very highly significant difference) than in a situation where no action was implemented between the two main crops. For the same period, the analysis of 600 results in reference parcels led to the same conclusion. Moreover, no significant difference was found between the two kinds of manure (“fast action”, such as pig slurry or “low action”, such as bovine manure). Conclusions. After the harvesting of a cereal, the spreading of a manure before sowing a catch crop creates no higher risk for water quality than the succession of a cereal by a crop sowed in the autumn. [less ▲]

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See detailMéthodologie de diagnostic environnemental autour de captages d’eau potabilisable sensibles qualitativement du point de vue nitrate
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Bah, Boubacar Billo ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Report (2015)

Le projet s’inscrit dans le cadre des « contrats de captages » dont la mise en oeuvre est assurée par la SPGE (Société Publique de Gestion de l’Eau) et ce, conformément au contrat de gestion qui lie cette ... [more ▼]

Le projet s’inscrit dans le cadre des « contrats de captages » dont la mise en oeuvre est assurée par la SPGE (Société Publique de Gestion de l’Eau) et ce, conformément au contrat de gestion qui lie cette dernière avec le Gouvernement wallon. L’objectif se décline en trois phases : 1. établir une méthodologie commune de détermination et priorisation des actions à entreprendre autour de captages en vue d’y préserver ou de restaurer la qualité de l’eau ; 2. tester la méthodologie (définition des actions à entreprendre) sur six situations jugées représentatives sur des captages de la SWDE (Société Wallonne des Eaux) ; 3. proposer et coordonner des actions à mettre en oeuvre sur deux ou trois des six sites pilotes. La méthodologie est traduite en logigrammes d’actions qui proposent des démarches communes de diagnostic et d’actions à entreprendre autour de captages en vue d’y préserver ou de restaurer la qualité de l’eau. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvey surfaces agricoles. Etablissement des APL de référence 2014.
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; De Toffoli, Marc; Bachelart, Florent ULg et al

Report (2015)

Soil nitrate nitrogen residue standards for sugar beat, wheat, corn, potatoes, ... in the walloon region (Belgium) in 2014

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See detailSuivi de la minéralisation vernale en culture de froment et colza. Résultats d’expérimentations menées à GxABT
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Meza Morales, Walter ULg; Cartrysse, Christine et al

Report (2015)

In 2014, Grenera was inserted in two experiments in the Gembloux region by the Crop Unit Temperate Regions of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg) and the APPO respectively on winter wheat and oilseed rape ... [more ▼]

In 2014, Grenera was inserted in two experiments in the Gembloux region by the Crop Unit Temperate Regions of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (ULg) and the APPO respectively on winter wheat and oilseed rape 'winter. The objectives of such monitoring were  to measure the mineralization of humus in order to contribute to the validation of fertilization tips and more specifically the term relating to the production of nitric nitrogen by the vegetation being ground;  to confirm that fertilization does not lead to leave in the soil at harvest, a nitrogen balance significantly higher than that observed in the presence of reduced or no fertilization. In 2014, following an unusually mild winter, vegetation recovery was rapid and early in winter oilseed rape and winter wheat. The observations made during these experiments have confirmed the second argument in the context of two cultures followed. As regards the mineralization potential of the soil, a difference was observed between winter wheat and winter rape plots. In the latter, the production of nitric nitrogen vegetation being was only slightly exceeds 50 kg NO3-N / ha while the winter wheat parcel, the mineralization of humus soil brought some 90 kg NO3-N / ha during the same period (February-July 2014); these two values ​​are however higher than expected as estimated by the harmonized method REQUASUD - Nitrawal (about 30 kg NO3-N / ha for rapeseed and 60 kg NO3-N / ha for wheat). These observations, coupled with those made earlier this year by Grenera and UCL scientists Nitrawal members will contribute to the validation or adaptation of the references used for the nitrogen fertilization advice to achieve an optimal agronomic performance and environmental impact minimum. [less ▲]

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See detailRéponse de la fertilisation azotée en culture de maïs sur les sols crayeux et limoneux de la région de Givry et suivi du reliquat azoté
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Oost, Jean-François; Colinet, Gilles ULg

Report (2015)

In 2014, the CIPF and Grenera (Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech ULg) conducted an experiment to measure the response (quantitative and qualitative) corn yield to fertilization (mineral and / or organic) increasing ... [more ▼]

In 2014, the CIPF and Grenera (Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech ULg) conducted an experiment to measure the response (quantitative and qualitative) corn yield to fertilization (mineral and / or organic) increasing (6 items 4 repeats). The experimental plots consisted of two geographically close but different in texture (silty and chalky). The objectives were to assess:  the impact of nitrogen fertilization and soil texture on performance,  the impact of the texture on the production of nitrogen by the ground and the manure (provided in the spring) and  the relevance of REQUASUD Nitrawal-fertilization advice. Monitoring of the remaining nitrogen in bare soil (with or without application of manure in four repetitions) highlighted in the context of a rainy year, the greater sensitivity of chalky soil nitrate leaching during the period vegetation. Comments (yield & nitrogen balance) performed at harvest have confirmed the quality of fertilization advice REQUASUD-Nitrawal: a near maximum yield with a remaining nitrogen to very low harvest (about 40 kg NO3-N /Ha). This suggests that it is possible to get a fairly low APL in a chalky context, contrary to reports commonly APL observations under the control commissioned by the SPW. Regarding the quality of fertilization advice, estimating the nitrogen supply by the compartments 'soil' and 'manure' seem to be respectively undervalued and over priced in the chalky and generally quite good in the context silty context. Finally, for the same levels of fertilization, loamy soil yielded 15-20% more yield compared to a chalky soil. [less ▲]

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See detail4. La fumure azotée
Meza Morales, Walter ULg; Monfort, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ULg et al

in Watillon, Bernard; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2015, February 25)

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See detailDegree of phosphorus saturation in agricultural loamy soils with a near-neutral pH
Renneson, Malorie ULg; Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Dufey, Joseph et al

in European Journal of Soil Science (2015), 66

The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) represents the ratio of sorbed phosphorus (P) to the P sorption capacity (PSC) of soils. In some countries, DPS is used to evaluate the risk of P loss and surface ... [more ▼]

The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) represents the ratio of sorbed phosphorus (P) to the P sorption capacity (PSC) of soils. In some countries, DPS is used to evaluate the risk of P loss and surface water eutrophication. This study investigated DPS measurement and prediction in neutral loamy soils fromWallonia, Belgium. A total of 57 agricultural topsoil samples subject to diverse P management were evaluated. No satisfactory relationship could be found between PSC determined by a one-point short-term isotherm in the laboratory and the sum of aluminium and iron extracted by oxalate (Alox +Feox). The equation PSC=a Alox +b pHw appeared to be more appropriate for estimating PSC in the soils studied. These soils had a near-neutral pH, and P fixation processes linked to the presence of calcium ions or carbonates were important. Comparisons of DPS with soil-test P and water-extracted P suggested that DPS could be a useful agronomic and/or environmental indicator. Our results also showed that DPS values between 20 and 30% corresponded to the agronomic optimum of soil P content. Consequently, DPS may be used as an indicator of P status in neutral soils, provided that the PSC assessment is adapted to the local soil characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detail4. La fumure azotée
Meza Morales, Walter ULg; Monfort, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ULg et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc céréales (2014, February 26)

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See detailOn the use of Belgian Soil Map to predict risk of nitrate and pesticide lixiviation
Bah, Boubacar Billo ULg; Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Deneufbourg, Mathieu ULg et al

Poster (2014, February 26)

Pollution by nitrate and pesticides has impacts on drinking water reserves and aquatic systems. Nowadays, this problem is the key point of the European Policy with the implementation of the Water ... [more ▼]

Pollution by nitrate and pesticides has impacts on drinking water reserves and aquatic systems. Nowadays, this problem is the key point of the European Policy with the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). According to these legislations, Member States are supposed to take measures to limit environmental and toxicological effects caused by nitrate and pesticides use. This paper presents three different approaches allowing assessment of diffuse (non-point sources) pollution risks of water resources by nitrate and pesticides. The first approach consists on the interpretation of the geomorphopedological information (geologic substratum type, presence of karst phenomena, soil texture, natural drainage, profile development, type and percent of stoniness, soil thickness, …) provided by the Digital Soil Map of Wallonia. Soil physical characteristics are assessed in terms of soil water percolation/infiltration, runoff, pollutants retention, mineralization, and erosion. Second approach consists on the use of spatially distributed mechanistic models. Nitrate lixiviation from agricultural land to groundwater has been simulated from the SWAT model. Pesticide lixiviation from soil to groundwater has been predicted from the one-dimensional, dynamic, multi-layered model named PEARL (Pesticide Emission Assessment at Regional and Local scales). Model input parameters are mainly extracted from the existing soil physical and physico-chemical, crop and pesticides properties databases. Relevant soil parameters not directly available in existing databases, such as bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, potential evapotranspiration… have been derived from pedotransfers functions. Third approach consists on in situ lixiviation studies by the way of lysimeters. Concentrations measured at the bottom (2 m deep) of lysimeters represent a straight “index of risk” for groundwater and, on the other hand, allow the validation of simulation models used to predict nitrate and pesticides lixiviation risk under different scenarios. The Digital Soil Map of Wallonia, one of the core data source, allows the spatialisation of the predicted lixiviation risk at regional level, providing to the local authorities and the decision makers a tool for the identification of the areas at risk of pollution, where specific monitoring actions and prevention measures for the protection of waters can be implemented. [less ▲]

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