References of "Thomé, Jean-Pierre"
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See detailProteome variations in Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone: a gel-free proteomic approach
Lafontaine, Anne ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg; Forget-Leray, Joelle et al

Poster (2015, May 06)

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See detailThe effects of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls on hippocampal neurogenesis
Pinson, Anneline ULg; Parent, Anne-Simone ULg; chatzi, christina et al

Poster (2015, May)

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See detailAssociations of Plasma Concentrations of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and Polychlorinated Biphenyls with Prostate Cancer: A Case–Control Study in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)
Emeville, Elise; Giusti, Arnaud ULg; Coumoul, Xavier et al

in Environmental Health Perspectives (2015), 123(4), 317-323

Background: Long-term exposure to persistent pollutants with hormonal properties (endocrine-disrupting chemicals, EDCs) may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). However, epidemiological ... [more ▼]

Background: Long-term exposure to persistent pollutants with hormonal properties (endocrine-disrupting chemicals, EDCs) may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). However, epidemiological evidence remains limited. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between PCa and plasma concentrations of universally widespread pollutants, in particular p,p’- dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) and the non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB153). Methods and Findings: We evaluated before treatment 576 men with newly diagnosed PCa and 655 controls in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Exposure was analyzed according to case-control status. Associations were assessed by unconditional logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors. Missing data were handled by multiple imputation. We estimated a significant positive association between DDE and PCa (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.53; 95% CI 1.02, 2.30 for the highest versus lowest quintile of exposure; PTrend= 0.01). PCB153 was inversely associated with PCa (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19, 0.47 for the highest versus lowest quintile of exposure values; PTrend<0.001). Also, PCB153 was more strongly associated to low-grade than high grade PCa. Conclusions: Associations of PCa with DDE and PCB153 were in opposite directions. This may reflect differences in the mechanisms of action of these EDCs, and although our findings need to be replicated in other populations, they are consistent with complex effects of EDCs on human health. [less ▲]

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See detailEco-toxicological analysis of free-ranging cetaceans from the North-western Mediterranean Sea
Pinzone, Marianna ULg; Ody, Denis; Lepoint, Gilles ULg et al

Conference (2015, March 25)

The numerous anthropogenic activities occurring nowadays in the North-western Mediterranean Sea strongly affect top predators such as marine mammals, especially through the bioaccumulation of lipophilic ... [more ▼]

The numerous anthropogenic activities occurring nowadays in the North-western Mediterranean Sea strongly affect top predators such as marine mammals, especially through the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. In order to assess the eco-toxicological status of local living cetaceans blubber biopsies were collected between 2006 and 2013. Selected persistent organic pollutants POPs (31PCBs, 15 organochlorine compounds, 9 PBDEs and 17 PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 49 long-finned pilot whales Globicephala melas, 61 sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus and 70 fin whales Balaenoptera physalus. δ13C, δ15N values and POPs levels were assessed through IR-MS and GC-MS respectively. To assess the toxic potency of the dioxin-like compounds, the TEQ approach was applied. δ15N values were 12.2±1.3‰ for sperm whales, 10.5±0.7‰ for pilot whales and 7.7±0.8‰ in fin whales, positioning sperm whales at higher trophic levels. δ13C instead was similar and amounted to −17.3±0.4‰, −17.8±0.3‰ and −18.7±0.4‰ respectively. Pilot whales presented higher concentrations than sperm whales for ΣPCBs (38666±25731ng.g-1 lw and 22849±15566ng.g-1 lw respectively), ΣPBDEs (712±412ng.g-1 lw and 347±173ng.g-1 lw respectively) and ΣDDTs (46081±37506ng.g-1 lw and 37647±38518ng.g-1 lw respectively). Fin whales presented the lowest values, in accordance with its trophic position (ΣPCBs: 5721±5180ng.g-1 lw, ΣPBDEs: 177±208ng.g-1 lw and ΣDDTs: 6643±5549ng.g-1 lw). The PCA analysis confirmed how p,p’DDT and p,p’DDE were influential in differentiating the species, as a consequence of their migratory behavior and distribution. Pollutant concentrations were significantly higher than both their Southern Hemisphere and North Atlantic counterparts, possibly due to the particular Mediterranean geomorphology, which influences pollutants distribution and recycle. Dioxin-like  PCBs accounted for over 80% of the total TEQ. This study demonstrated (1) an important exposure to pollutants of Mediterranean toothed-whales, often surpassing the estimated threshold toxicity value of 17000ng.g−1 lw for blubber in marine mammals; and (2) how their geographical distribution can influence the pollutants profile and concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluences of blubber composition and profile in the assessment of POPs levels in free-ranging cetaceans
Pinzone, Marianna ULg; Budzinski, Hélène; Tasciotti, Aurelie et al

Poster (2015, February 28)

Investigating the food and feeding ecology of free-ranging cetaceans has always been very challenging. Still now, mass stranding events represent almost the only opportunity to collect valid information ... [more ▼]

Investigating the food and feeding ecology of free-ranging cetaceans has always been very challenging. Still now, mass stranding events represent almost the only opportunity to collect valid information on these large and elusive animals. Biopsy darting is a non-lethal tissue sampling technique which permits the collection of tissues from living and healthy individuals. However, important discussions exist about how efficient this method is in chemical analyses where the percentage lipid content of the tissue is of great importance. Biopsies of skin and blubber were conducted on 49 long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), 61 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) and 70 fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in the North Western Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) from 2006 to 2013. Lipid content, δ13C, δ15N values and ΣPCBs were analysed and compared with previous studies conducted on stranded and biopsied individuals. Lipids extraction was operated via ASE; δ13C, δ15N values and POPs levels were assessed through IR-MS and GC-MS respectively. δ15N values were 12.2±1.3‰ for sperm whales, 10.5±0.7‰ for pilot whales and 7.7±0.8‰ in fin whales, positioning sperm whales at higher trophic levels. δ13C instead was similar and amounted to −17.3±0.4‰, −17.8±0.3‰ and −18.7±0.4‰ respectively. Pilot whales presented the highest concentrations of ΣPCBs (38666 ± 25731ng.g-1 lw) followed by sperm whales (22849 ± 15566ng.g-1 lw) and fin whales (5721±5180ng.g-1 lw). Lipids percentage differed significantly between species. Sperm whales showed the lowest lipid content with an average of 12±9%, whereas for long-finned pilot whales it was 22±21% and for fin whales 31±14%. Lipid content of the two odontocetes varied between years of sampling, whilst for fin whales remained similar. The PCBs concentrations, especially in sperm whales, were in discordance with previous studies conducted in the same area and our δ13C, δ15N values. We hypothesized that (1) the extreme low lipid content found in the blubber, (2) the extraction procedure and (3) the biopsies technique, could explain such different pattern. Several papers demonstrated how POPs concentrations in cetaceans blubber are strongly influenced by its thickness, stratification and lipid profile. Therefore, the particular characteristics of blubber composition of deep—diving income breeders such as sperm whales, may not allow an efficient representation of POPs concentrations through the use of biopsies. [less ▲]

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See detailPOPs in free-ranging pilot whales, sperm whales and fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea: Influence of biological and ecological factors
Pinzone, Marianna ULg; Budzinski, Hélène; Tasciotti, Aurélie et al

in Environmental Research (2015), 142

The pilot whale Globicephala melas, the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus and the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus are large cetaceans permanently inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. These species are ... [more ▼]

The pilot whale Globicephala melas, the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus and the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus are large cetaceans permanently inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. These species are subjected to numerous anthropogenic threats, such as exposure to high levels of contaminants. Therefore, selected persistent organic pollutants, POPs (29 PCBs, 15 organochlorine compounds, nine PBDEs and 17 PCDD/Fs), were analysed in the blubber biopsies of 49 long-finned pilot whales, 61 sperm whales and 70 fin whales collected in the north-western Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) from 2006 to 2013. The contamination profile and species feeding ecology were combined through the use of stable isotopes. δ13C, δ15N values and POPs levels were assessed through IR-MS and GC-MS, respectively. To assess the toxic potency of the dioxin-like compounds, the TEQ approach was applied. δ15N values were 12.2 ± 1.3‰ for sperm whales, 10.5 ± 0.7‰ for pilot whales and 7.7±0.8‰ in fin whales, which positions sperm whales at higher trophic levels. δ13C of the two odontocetes were similar and amounted to −17.3±0.4‰ for sperm whales and −17.8±0.3‰ for pilot whales, whereas the result for fin whales reflected more depleted (−18.7±0.4‰). This outcome indicates a partial overlap in the feeding habits of toothed whales and confirms the differences in feeding behaviour of the mysticete. Pilot whales had higher concentrations than sperm whales for ΣPCBs (38666 ± 25731 ng.g-1 lw and 22849 ± 15566 ng.g-1 lw, respectively), ΣPBDEs (712±412 ng.g-1 lw and 347±173 ng.g-1 lw, respectively) and ΣDDTs (46081±37506 ng.g-1 lw and 37647±38518 ng.g-1 lw, respectively). Fin whales had the lowest values, which reflected its trophic position (ΣPCBs: 5721±5180 ng.g-1 lw, ΣPBDEs: 177±208 ng.g-1 lw and ΣDDTs: 6643±5549 ng.g-1 lw). Each species was characterized by large inter-individual variations that are more related to sex than trophic level. Males presented a higher contaminant burden than females. The discriminant analysis (DA) confirmed how DDTs and highly chlorinated PCBs could differentiate the three species. The pollutant concentrations of our species were significantly higher than both their southern hemisphere and North Atlantic counterparts. This result is possibly due to Mediterranean geomorphology, which influences the distribution and recycling of pollutants. Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for over 80% of the total TEQ. This study demonstrated (1) the pollutants of Mediterranean cetaceans often surpassed the estimated threshold toxicity value of 17000 ng.g−1 lw for blubber in marine mammals and (2) how the final pollutant burden in these animals is strongly influenced not only by trophic position but also by numerous other factors, including sex, age, body size and geographical distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailPOPs in free-ranging pilot whales and sperm whales from the Mediterranean Sea: influence of ecological factors
Pinzone, Marianna ULg; Tasciotti, Aurelie; Ody, Denis et al

Conference (2014, December 13)

The pilot whale Globicephala melas and the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus are large toothed whales, which permanently inhabit the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, where they feed mainly on cephalopods ... [more ▼]

The pilot whale Globicephala melas and the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus are large toothed whales, which permanently inhabit the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, where they feed mainly on cephalopods. Here they are subjected to numerous anthropogenic threats such as exposure to high levels of contaminants. Selected persistent organic pollutants POPs (29PCBs, 15 organochlorine compounds, 9 PBDEs and 17 PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in blubber biopsies of 49 long-finned pilot whales and 61 sperm whales sampled in NWMS from 2006 to 2013. δ13C, δ15N values and POPs levels were assessed through IR-MS and GC-MS respectively. To assess the toxic potency of the dioxin-like compounds, the TEQ approach was applied. δ15N values were 12.2±1.3‰ for sperm whales and 10.5±0.7‰ for pilot whales, positioning sperm whales at higher trophic levels. δ13C instead was similar and amounted to −17.3±0.4‰ and −17.8±0.3‰ respectively. Pilot whales presented higher concentrations than sperm whales for ΣPCBs (38666±25731ng.g-1 lw and 22849±15566ng.g-1 lw respectively), ΣPBDEs (712±412ng.g-1 lw and 347±173ng.g-1 lw respectively) and ΣDDTs (46081±37506ng.g-1 lw and 37647±38518ng.g-1 lw respectively). Each species was characterized by large inter-individual variations that could probably be more related to sex than trophic level, with males presenting higher contaminant burden than females. The PCA analysis confirmed how p,p’DDT and p,p’DDE were influential in differentiating the two species, as a consequence of their migratory behavior and distribution. Pollutant concentrations of our species were significantly higher than both their Southern Hemisphere and North Atlantic counterparts, possibly due to the particular Mediterranean geomorphology, which influences pollutants distribution and recycle. Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for over 80% of the total TEQ. This study demonstrated (1) an important exposure to pollutants of Mediterranean toothed-whales, often surpassing the estimated threshold toxicity value of 17000ng.g−1 for blubber in marine mammals1; and (2) how the final pollutant burden in these animals is strongly influenced by numerous ecological factors. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial variation in the concentrations of mercury and persistent organic pollutants in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from South Florida
Damseaux, France ULg; Kiszka, Jeremy; Heithaus et al

Poster (2014, December 12)

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an abundant apex predator found in nearshore waters of South Florida, especially in the Lower Florida Keys (Key West) and the coastal waters of Everglades ... [more ▼]

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an abundant apex predator found in nearshore waters of South Florida, especially in the Lower Florida Keys (Key West) and the coastal waters of Everglades National Park (ENP). The objective of this study was to assess variation in contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (NDL-PCBs, PBDEs, DDT, HCH, HCB, PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) in bottlenose dolphins found offshore of the densely populated Key West (n = 27) and from undeveloped ENP (n = 20). T-Hg and POPs were analysed in skin and blubber, respectively, by the mean of Direct Mercury analyser (for THg), GC-ECD (POPs) and GC-HRMS (DLCs). The 7 ICES PCBs were the main compounds found in bottlenose dolphins from Key West (8229 ng.g-1 lipids) and the ENP (2289 ng.g-1 lipids), while the concentrations of PCDD/Fs remained low (Key West: 104 pg.g-1 lipids, ENP: 102 ng.g-1 lipids). POP concentrations were higher in individuals from Key West compared to those from the ENP. However, POPs concentrations in Key West dolphins were lower than those from other locations in Florida and around the world. Unlike organic pollutants, T-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in ENP dolphins (Key West: 2941 ng.g-1 dw versus ENP: 9314 ng.g-1 dw) highlighting the specific cycle of Hg in mangrove ecosystems. To conclude, sources of T-Hg and POPs differed between Key West and ENP as reflected by their concentrations in skin and blubber of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins highlighting their role as sentinels of their environment. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary early-life exposure to contaminated eels does not impair spatial cognitive performances in adult offspring mice as assessed in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze
Dridi, Imen; Leroy, Delphine; Guignard, Cedric et al

in Nutrition Research (2014), 34(12), 1075-1084

Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Many environmental contaminants are introduced via the diet and may act as neurotoxins and endocrine disrupters, especially influencing growing organisms in early life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary exposure of dams to fish naturally contaminated with xenobiotics, especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (e.g. mercury and lead), resulted in cognitive function deficits in adult offspring mice. Daily, four groups of dams (n = 10/group) ingested standard diet plus paste with/without eels, during gestation and lactation, from gestational day (GD) six until post natal day (PND) 21 (weaning). Dams orally ingested a standardized amount of eel (0.8 mgkg-1 d-1) containing the six non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs (σ6 NDL-PCBs: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) at 0, 85, 216, and 400 ngkg-1 d-1. Results showed that early-life exposure to contaminated eels did not (compared to non-exposed controls) impair immediate working memory in the Y-maze in the offspring assessed at PND 38. Furthermore, it did not significantly impact spatial learning and retention memory as measured in the Morris water maze in adult offspring mice (PND 120-123). Our results suggest that perinatal exposure to contaminated eels does not affect spatial cognitive performances, as assessed by the Y-maze and Morris water maze at adult age. Adverse effects of xenobiotics reported earlier might be camouflaged by beneficial eel constituents, such as n-3 fatty acids. However, additional studies are needed to differentiate between potential positive and negative effects following consumption of food items both rich in nutrients and contaminants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis
Giusti, Arnaud ULg; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2014), 493

The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active ... [more ▼]

The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests. [less ▲]

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See detailMoult-related changes in the integument, midgut, and digestive gland in the freshwater amphipod gammarus pulex
Trevisan, Mélissa ULg; Leroy, Delphine; Decloux, Nicole ULg et al

in Journal of Crustacean Biology (2014), 34(5), 539-551

On the basis of macroscopic aspects (body and eye colour, lipid droplets), it was possible to sort specimens of Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus, 1758) into five categories that correspond to moult periods and ... [more ▼]

On the basis of macroscopic aspects (body and eye colour, lipid droplets), it was possible to sort specimens of Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus, 1758) into five categories that correspond to moult periods and stages (A, B, C, D1 and D2) based on integument features (tergite cuticle stiffness, layers and thickness). These stages also correspond to changes in digestive tract histology (gut content, cell ultrastructure, and lipid storage). With reference to the pereion tergite integument, this makes it possible to standardize moulting stage terminology and criteria with those applied to decapods while validating a quick, simple, moult-staging method that avoids injury and informs us about the physiology of the whole organism. The moult cycle was very short (about 12-15 days), with a "virtual," practically non-existent, anecdysis or "integument resting period" between post-ecdysis and pre-ecdysis. The pore canals previously known to be "open to the outside" appeared closed at early post-ecdysis by a lipid-rich fillng material that could be responsible for the cuticular waterproofing barrier allowing mineral deposition. In the digestive tract, the main structural changes were late post-ecdysial loss of midgut cells and digestive gland B-cells (probably by extrusion) when restarting the feeding cycle. Pre-ecdysial increase and post-ecdysial decrease in storage lipids are also obvious. We present a quick moult-staging method to sort a great number of G. pulex for physiological or toxicological assays investigating how animals at specific periods of their moult cycle respond to both natural and anthropogenic environmental changes. [less ▲]

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