References of "Surlemont, Bernard"
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See detailL'entrepreneur: ses caractéristiques et ses motivations
Surlemont, Bernard ULg; Janssen, Frank

in Janssen, Frank (Ed.) Entreprendre: une introduction à l'entrepreneuriat (2009)

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See detailLes partenaires de l'entrepreneur
Surlemont, Bernard ULg

in Janssen, Frank (Ed.) Entreprendre: Introduction à l'entrepreneuriat (2009)

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See detailEntrepreneuriat: éléments de définition
Surlemont, Bernard ULg; Janssen, Frank

in Janssen, Frank (Ed.) Entreprendre: Une introduction à l'entrepreneuriat (2009)

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See detailDe l'idée à l'opportunité
Surlemont, Bernard ULg

in Janssen, Frank (Ed.) Entreprendre: Une introduction à l'entrepreneuriat (2009)

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See detailVenture Creation Intentions and Midlife Crisis
Heuer, Annamaria ULg; Surlemont, Bernard ULg

Conference (2008, November 21)

Aim of the paper This paper aims to analyse the relationship between life stages and the drivers of venture creation intention and, hence, the venture creation. The objective is to analyse the extent to ... [more ▼]

Aim of the paper This paper aims to analyse the relationship between life stages and the drivers of venture creation intention and, hence, the venture creation. The objective is to analyse the extent to which the single-minded focus of most policy measures on early adult population to spur intention is not understating the importance of adapting the approach to specific life stages of the target population. Using different conceptualisations of age biological, psychological, organisational and life span related , we will take here a closer look at the midlife age cluster, centred around the 35th year. Contribution to the literature Numerous studies have applied models based on cognition research to understand entrepreneurial intentions and the factors that impact them (e.g. Autio et al., 2001; Kolvereid, 1996; Krueger, Reilly and Carsrud, 2000; Kristiansen and Indarti, 2004). However, besides a few exceptions, such as Douglas and Shepherd (2002) or Davidsson (1995), most scholars have conducted their studies on university students, due to their advantages as sample, like easier information access and homogeneity of population. Not much attention has been paid to the potential influence of the life-stage factor and its potential impact on policy formulation. Taking a chronological age perspective, Levinson (1986) proposed that there is an “underlying order in human life course”, no matter what occupation or background people have. He conceived life as a sequence of eras, each of them with a specific biopsychosocial character and each of them contributing to the whole life cycle. Major changes of life characteristics occur in the cross-era transition, but also within a life stage. According to this approach, every life stage has tasks to be accomplished (Levinson et al., 1978). From an entrepreneurship perspective, it is especially interesting to introduce this model by taking a closer look at stages of “Early adulthood” (age c. 20-40). “Early adult transition” (age c. 17-22) for instance is characterised by reflections about one’s own place in the world independent from the institutions of youth (parents, school…). It is also about testing one’s initial choices about preferences for the adult life. This is in line with the “impressionable years” hypothesis, which is based on the notion that key attitudes, beliefs, and values are of great plasticity during the early adult years (Sears, 1975; Visser et al., 1998), while suggesting that susceptibility to change in attitude falls sharply after early adult years and stays on a low level for the rest of the life cycle. These attitudes, beliefs and values build an essential pillar of intentions, and are thus relevant for the study of entrepreneurial intentions. A vast quantity of policies trying to foster entrepreneurship usually target the “Early adult transition” cluster, arguing that entrepreneurial intention is created at this stage, even though, it is rather the entrepreneurial attitude that comes into existence at this point. Another remarkable and relevant milestone of Levinson’s life stage development model is linked to the age of c. 29 to 33, called “Thirties transition”, and which is dealing with the evaluation of the accomplishments of the twenties and the adjustments to the adopted life structure. It is a time characterised by instability and change, in which it is to be expected that commitment and satisfaction will remain low: for instance, individuals at this era will express greater intentions to leave their company (Ornstein et al., 1989), and possibly, to create one. This may provide another explanation to why it is observed that the age for new venture creation is around 35 years. Given that entrepreneurial activity does not only depend on the desirability and feasibility of entrepreneurship, but also upon the desirability and feasibility of employment (Kolvereid, 1996b), this could help to explain the increased levels of early-stage entrepreneurship in this age-cluster, and is leading to the following questions: (i) If potential entrepreneurs in their thirties are much more susceptible to change, and considering the aging population and the expected increase of retirement age in the western world the economic importance of “older” entrepreneur’s is likely to increase (Weber, 2004), why then not stimulate them more? (ii) If attitude gets more rigid with age, is applying the same policy strategies to “younger” and “older” potential entrepreneurs really the most efficient approach, or are, this way, policy-makers failing to stimulate a part of the population? (iii) If policy-making is about trying to sell an idea and make the population buy it, why are we then ignoring basic marketing segmentation strategies? In order to provide to our knowledge the first more holistic picture of possible adult development related impacts on entrepreneurial intention, we will proceed in a rather systematic way by choosing different perspectives of aging such as chronological, psychological and organisational, focusing on and around the “midlife” age cluster. Methodology This paper is conceptual in nature, transferring important ideas from adult-development studies to the domain of entrepreneurship. Through our argumentation we will show that an in-depth analysis, in form of comparative studies, of aging-related changes of the factors determining intention is timely. Results To date, there has been only sporadic, short argumentation for aging-related changes of intentional antecedents, such as “organisational age” impacting perceived behavioural control or life-span age impacting how to bear the uncertainty of income from self-employment activity (Shane, 2003). We will provide a more rigorous review of this problematic, and by that hope to contribute to a better understanding of sometimes ambiguous details of study outcomes. Bibliography Aution, E., Keeley, R. H. (2001), ”Entreprenerial intent among students in Scandinavia and in the USA”, Entreprise and Innovation Management Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.145-160 Davidsson, P. (1995), ”Determinants of entrepreneurial intentions”, Paper prepared for RENT IX Workshop, Piacenza, Italy Douglas, E. J., Dean, A. S. (2002), ”Self-employment as a Career Choice: Attitudes, Entrepreneurial Intentions, and Utility Maximization”, Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, Vol. 26, Issue 3, pp. 81-90 Kolvereid, L. (1996), ”Organizational employment versus self-employment: reasons for career choice intentions”, Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 23-31 Kolvereid, L. (1996b), ”Prediction of Employment Status Choice Intentions”, Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 47-57 Kristiansen, S., Indarti, N. (2004), ”Entrepreneurial intention among Indonesian and Norwegian students”, Journal of Entreprising Culture, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 55-78 Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., Carsrud, A. L. (2000), ”Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 15, Issue 5/6, pp. 411-432 Levinson, D. J., Darrow, C. N., Klein, E. B., Levinson, M. H. and McKee; B. (1978), ”The seasons of a Man’s Life”, Alfred A. Knopf, New York Levinson, D. J. (1986), ”A Conception of Adult Development”, American Psychologist, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 3-13 Ornstein, S., Cron, W. L., Slocum, J. W. Jr. (1989), ”Life stage versus career stage: A comparative test of theories of Levinson and Super”, Journal of organizational behaviour, Vol. 10, pp. 117-133 Sears, D. O. (1975), ”Political socialization”, In F.I. Greenstein and N. W. Polsby (Eds.), Handbook of political science, MA: Addison-Wesley Shane, S. (2003), ”A General Theory of Entrepreneurship – The Individual-Opportunity Nexus”, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham Visser, P. S., Krosnick, J. A. (1998), ”Development of Attitude Strength Over the Life Cycle: Surge and Decline”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 1389-1410 Weber, P., Schaper, M. (2004), ”Understanding the grey entrepreneur”, Journal of Entreprising Culture, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 147-164 [less ▲]

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See detailVenture Creation Intentions and the Seasons of Adult Development
Heuer, Annamaria ULg; Surlemont, Bernard ULg

Conference (2008, November 06)

Objectives: The objective of the paper is to identify the potential impact of different forms of aging (e.g. biological, psychological and psychosocial aging) on entrepreneurial intention. Thus, the key ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The objective of the paper is to identify the potential impact of different forms of aging (e.g. biological, psychological and psychosocial aging) on entrepreneurial intention. Thus, the key focus will be on aging-related changes of attitudes, subjective norms and feasibility perceptions and their influence on intention. Prior work: Numerous studies have applied cognition research-based models to understand the factors that impact entrepreneurial intentions (e.g. Davidsson, 1995; Kolvereid, 1996; Krueger, Reilly and Carsrud, 2000; Autio et al., 2001; Douglas and Shepherd, 2002; Kristiansen and Indarti, 2004). Most scholars, however, have conducted their studies on university students (e.g. Van Gelderen et al., 2006). This choice is mostly motivated by an easier access to data. As a consequence, this may have introduced a bias that underestimates the potential influence of life-stage-related differences on entrepreneurial intention. Approach: The paper will present a literature review of the theories that look at the impact of aging on career intentions (for instance, Lévesque and Minniti, 2006; Ornstein et al., 1989). The approach is to start on the structure of the intentions model (Ajzens’ Theory of Planned Behaviour) as a framework to integrate these pieces of research. Results: This paper is conceptual in nature, transferring important ideas of adult-development to the domain of entrepreneurship. The argumentation will show the differences in perceived desirability and feasibility are related to aging, such as high plasticity of attitude in early adulthood (e.g. Visser et al., 1998), higher change susceptibility in mid-age (Levinson, 1986; Lévesque and Minniti, 2006), and dominant self-limiting roles and decreasing willingness to bear uncertainty in the later eras (Greller, 1995; Shane, 2003). Ultimately, the paper will contribute to formulate hypotheses relating aging stages and possible drivers of entrepreneurial intention. Implications: If the drivers of entrepreneurial intention change according to age, then programmes to stimulate entrepreneurship may have to be adapted according to the target audience. If potential entrepreneurs at later stages such as the “thirties transition” are more susceptible to change, and considering that due to population aging and increasing retirement age in the western world the economic importance of “older” entrepreneur’s is likely to increase, why not stimulate them more? Value: To date, there have only been sporadic, short argumentations for aging-related changes of intentional antecedents. We fill this gap and provide a more rigorous review of this problematic. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (5 ULg)
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See detailLa criminalité contre le PME: étude exploratoire de victimisation et de prévention en Belgique francophone
Surlemont, Bernard ULg; Lemaître, André ULg; Wacquier, Hélène

in Revue Internationale P.M.E. (2004), 16(N°2), 11-34

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (7 ULg)