References of "Stassart, Pierre M"
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See detailThe transition to conservation agriculture : an insularization process towards sustainability
Vankeerberghen, Audrey ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg; Dannevoye, Bastien ULg

in International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability (in press)

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See detailNiche-innovations between breaks and continuities with the regime? A case study into the dairy sector in Belgium
Feyereisen, Marlène ULg; Melard, François ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

Conference (2015, August)

Today, the absolute dichotomy between alternative food networks (AFNs) and the conventional agrofood system tends to be obsolete. Indeed, many AFNs are far from being radical and are more likely to ... [more ▼]

Today, the absolute dichotomy between alternative food networks (AFNs) and the conventional agrofood system tends to be obsolete. Indeed, many AFNs are far from being radical and are more likely to maintain relations with the current socio-technical regime between breaks and continuities. This contribution is a complement to the Transition Theory and the Multi-Level Perspective by underlying the fragile borders between the two levels of the niche-innovations and the socio-technical regime: some imperfect projects, full of contradictions, are participating to the transition of the system. And this is particularly true in the case of highly locked in systems. The dairy sector in Western European countries is one of those highly locked in systems. Our case study, the Belgian fair-trade milk “Fairebel”, is a project built by dairy farmers to react to the 2009 dairy crisis and to the increasingly neoliberal dairy sector; and to get a better price (or fair price) for their activity. However, the concretization of this project brought its share of contradictions regarding the common definition of fair trade milk. As a result, the “Fairebel” project maintains relations between breaks and continuities with the regime. This contribution suggests modes of governance for the stakeholders of these non-radical niches which are precious to engage change in highly locked in system without being picked up by the dominant regime and thus, keep this regime under pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailAgroecology: Unity into diversity
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Artru, Sidonie ULg; Boeraeve, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 21)

What does agroecology suggest ? Next to the theoretical agroecological principles, we present illustrative examples from farming practices, through the food system, up to the way of carrying agricultural ... [more ▼]

What does agroecology suggest ? Next to the theoretical agroecological principles, we present illustrative examples from farming practices, through the food system, up to the way of carrying agricultural research and education. [less ▲]

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See detailIncorporate agroecology within research : The on-going story of four young researchers
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Artru, Sidonie ULg; Boeraeve, Fanny ULg et al

in Broadening Scopes on Food, Squeezing Urban Hinterlands (2014, November 04)

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See detailInvolved PhD research – a case study between agronomy and social sciences
Klaedtke, Stephanie ULg; Chable, Véronique; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

Conference (2014, April 02)

In research projects based on questions which emerge from practice and from interactions with different stakeholders, researchers engage with research partners in a cooperative and interdisciplinary ... [more ▼]

In research projects based on questions which emerge from practice and from interactions with different stakeholders, researchers engage with research partners in a cooperative and interdisciplinary approach. In PhD projects, including a diverse network of partners and interdisciplinarity may be challenged by the short duration of the projects and by the positivist and reductionist approaches in which students are initially trained. Based on a concrete PhD research project on small-scale organic seed production, the objective of this work is to elucidate how interdisciplinarity and an action-base can nevertheless gradually be integrated by PhD students into an approach best termed as involved research. Reflection on the roles of partners, their involvement, motivation and points of view and on the evolution of questions posed during interactions between students and stakeholders contributes to recognizing the role of each partner, situating research postures, and identifying the types of knowledge and transformations produced. While PhD students and their research projects can evolve towards more holistic and constructivist approaches, it is crucial to maintain opportunities for reflection during their research in order to realize the potentials of involving all those involved in the projects and produce effective social learning processes. [less ▲]

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See detailThree aspects, One concept: Agroecology. Agroecological practices and human interactions for a new approach for science. An example at the Univeristy of Liege.
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Artru, Sidonie ULg; Boeraeve, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

Critics are raising about conventional farming and its consequences on biodiversity, human health and society. As alternatives, novel models for agriculture are proposed, and among them Agroecology. Quite ... [more ▼]

Critics are raising about conventional farming and its consequences on biodiversity, human health and society. As alternatives, novel models for agriculture are proposed, and among them Agroecology. Quite often, Agroecology is seen as the application of ecological knowledge to the agricultural production. Indeed, this helps to develop more ecological farming practices favoring biodiversity to provide ecosystem services at multiple scales. Agroecology goes further in considering that the agricultural production is integrated in a food system guided by human interactions. This latter one takes into account socio-economic and political dimensions to develop new production systems. Doing so, it assures food security worldwide while preserving resources for future generations. Facing these ambitious objectives, academics are invited to elaborate a new approach for science in developing participatory and action-oriented approaches as well as multidisciplinarity. AgricultureIsLife is a research platform built up at the University of Liège (ULg). In 2013, 40 researchers (including 18 young researchers) from 16 research units of ULg were working in a multidisciplinary approach. About twenty research topics have been divided in four research axes of which objectives are to develop a more sustainable agriculture. The platform has the ambition to discuss its results to a large comity gathering the actors of the agricultural development. The aim of our work is firstly to present Agrocology as a concept made of three interrelated aspects. To illustrate it, the organization and objectives of the research platform AgricultureIsLife will be discussed in a second part. [less ▲]

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See detailClarifier les dimensions socio-économiques et politiques de l'agroécologie : au delà des principes, des compromis
Dumont, Antoinette; Stassart, Pierre M ULg; Vanloqueren, Gaetan et al

Conference (2014)

Le concept d’agroécologie est de plus en plus mobilisé en Europe. Toutefois, les dimensions socio-économiques et politiques de cette alternative au modèle productiviste restent encore peu qualifiées dans ... [more ▼]

Le concept d’agroécologie est de plus en plus mobilisé en Europe. Toutefois, les dimensions socio-économiques et politiques de cette alternative au modèle productiviste restent encore peu qualifiées dans le monde académique. La présente étude contribue à clarifier les principes socio-économiques et politiques de l’agroécologie, en mettant les principes identifiés dans la littérature grise et scientifique à l’épreuve de l’étude qualitative de deux systèmes alimentaires belges : Agribio, une coopérative céréalière ; les Grosses Légumes un réseau de ménages, producteurs et citoyens membres qui organisent la production et la distribution de paniers de légumes. Des entretiens semi-directifs ont été effectués auprès des différents acteurs de ces systèmes alimentaires. Ils ont été analysés à la lumière de la théorie de la justification de Boltanski et Thévenot afin de mettre en évidence les principes que les acteurs rencontrés se donnent et tentent de mettre en application dans les différents projets qu’ils réalisent. Les principaux résultats obtenus sont explicités par l’analyse de quatre compromis (qui concernent les systèmes de commercialisation des deux systèmes alimentaires, un Système de Garantie Participative mis en place par les Grosses Légumes et la meunerie d’Agribio), plus spécifiquement étudiés via les objets qui matérialisent ces compromis et les controverses qui les remettent en question. Les deux études de cas illustrent l’écart qui existe entre les principes qui décrivent un horizon vers lequel l’agroécologie tend et les principes mis concrètement en oeuvre par les acteurs de terrain au travers des différentes trajectoires de transition. [less ▲]

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See detailAN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO PLANT HEALTH: THE PROCEDURAL CONCEPT APPLIED TO COMMON BEAN SEED SYSTEMS
Klaedtke, Stéphanie ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg; Chable, Véronique

in Rahman, G; AKSOY, U (Eds.) Building organic Bridges (2014)

Pathogen-free seed is one strategy to protect plants and prevent the introduction and spread of dangerous pests. While this strategy reduces damage to crops and delays the global spread of pathogens, it ... [more ▼]

Pathogen-free seed is one strategy to protect plants and prevent the introduction and spread of dangerous pests. While this strategy reduces damage to crops and delays the global spread of pathogens, it may also be regarded as an overly reductionist approach to plant health disfavoring the resilience of cropping systems. Rather than defining plant health as an objective entity, a procedural concept consisting of a set of rules for debate in order to incorporate different viewpoints on the continua between naturalist and normativist approaches, negative and positive definitions, reductionism and holism and functionality and resilience has been proposed. In the ongoing research project presented here, the questions suggested are applied to the case of common bean seed produced by small-scale organic seed producers in Western Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the Conference.in Teaching complexity and uncertainty on Environmental Issues: Practices, Theories and Products
Melard, François ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

Book published by Orbi ULg (2014)

THE CONFERENCE RATIONALE Environmental studies and management are singular in that they entail the development of holistic thinking and action for which a transversal approach is a must. We are testing ... [more ▼]

THE CONFERENCE RATIONALE Environmental studies and management are singular in that they entail the development of holistic thinking and action for which a transversal approach is a must. We are testing this singularity in a range of themes as diverse as biodiversity management, agro-ecology, community participation, and the study of environmental science and technology. Unlike the “pure” natural sciences, environment and sustainability studies entail an “ecological” approach for which the various types of knowledge (biological, chemical, physical, etc., but also legal, economic, sociological, and so on) have to be tamed in order to be able to link them up. It is more a matter of grasping the many social and technical dimensions of the issues that are studied and taught than of making forays into a so-called interdisciplinarity in which the tensions between (scientific) fields replace the tensions among the tangle of practices and practical knowledge that are manifested by the stakeholders themselves. The boundaries of environmental issues are by nature moving, changing, and closely related to the technical development and needs of society. They often put themselves forward at the outset in the form of controversies, scientific and technological uncertainties, and the complex network of interdependencies that they reveal. As such, they challenge the separations between scientific disciplines. Far from the usual practices of university education and training, such controversy, uncertainty, and complexity can be seen as genuine resources for quality education that is open to the realities of today’s world. From this standpoint, they also raise new challenges of collaboration among the staff in charge of the education and training. If we take a pragmatic approach (Dewey 1938), such subjects lend themselves excellently to the mobilization of ‘situated’ approaches, that is to say, learning approaches that focus more on active experience (Masciotra and Morel 2010). This entails either having students experience real-life situations that are shared by the practitioners themselves or putting them directly in a situation. Their learning will come then from what they make of the situation and how they experience it. What kind of university graduate do we need? Alongside top specialists who focus on mastering specialized techniques and knowledge, more and more importance is being given to the training of environmental ‘general practitioners’ who are able to circumscribe issues and challenges that often lead them away from the territories of their original disciplines. In that respect, acquiring the skills needed to explore unstable and non-stabilized environmental situations is a must. When they hold managerial or leadership positions they will have to cope with a range of stakeholders, each of whom often has very different types of knowledge, ways of acting, world views, and responsibilities that must be brought together. Linking up these different elements is as much a necessity as a challenge. How can we prepare our students for such trials? How can we equip them with the theoretical, methodological, and human resources required to cope with such situations? Given that one of the particularities of environmental education and training is to avoid cutting the subjects’ scientific and technical dimensions off from their political and social dimensions, it is important to explain very clearly and to develop a genuinely critical mind in such programs. This means not only the critical mind that prompts one to develop or use such and such technical analytical protocol strictly, but, more basically, the critical mind that evaluates the societal consequences of a given piece of knowledge, theory, organizational choice, management scheme, and so on. The demands that employers make of their young university graduates have more to do with their abilities to take stock of existing technologies and policies, and even alternatives thereto, reliably; deal with specific problems in the field; and understand their implications for society, much more so than the ability to provide optimal hypothetical solutions. Aims of the seminar The purpose of the seminar is threefold: 1. The starting point of this seminar is to exchange experiences on courses or seminars that are aimed at recognizing and taking account of the controversial, complex, and uncertain nature of environmental issues and their management. 2. Once these empirical foundations have been laid, we shall then share theories or conceptual propositions that make it possible to equip these teaching approaches and to give them theoretical and methodological foundations. 3. Finally, we shall focus on the transition from practices to teaching methods/instruments as pedagogical innovation, that is to say, we shall ask about the value, use, and transferability of these initiatives outside the contexts of their creation: How can a course or seminar be turned into a teaching instrument for other curricula (as for natural sciences or applied sciences), even in other areas of education? The purpose of all this being to enable a broader, heterogeneous student body to benefit from an approach that invites them to experience this environmental complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailL'insularisation comme mode de transition, le cas de l'agriculture de conservation en Région Wallonne
Vankeerberghen, Audrey ULg; Dannevoye, Bastien ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in de Raymond, Antoine; Goulet, Frédéric (Eds.) Sociologie des grandes cultures, au coeur du modèle industriel agricole (2014)

Bien que peu connue du grand public, l'agriculture de conservation est un modèle qui se développe aujourd'hui dans les systèmes de grandes cultures de nombreux pays et qui gagne peu à peu la ... [more ▼]

Bien que peu connue du grand public, l'agriculture de conservation est un modèle qui se développe aujourd'hui dans les systèmes de grandes cultures de nombreux pays et qui gagne peu à peu la reconnaissance d'institutions publiques . L'agriculture de conservation vise à un meilleur respect de la vie du sol à travers trois principes : la réduction du travail du sol (techniques sans labour), la couverture permanente des sols et des rotations de cultures adaptées. En Europe, l’agriculture de conservation a connu un intérêt croissant à partir du milieu des années 1990. En Région wallonne (Belgique) les surfaces en non-labour représenteraient 15-20% de l’assolement en céréales d’hiver et moins de 10% pour les autres cultures (Greenotec 2012). Ce chapitre adresse la question des modalités de transition des agriculteurs wallons vers ce mode de production. Pour traiter cette problématique, nous nous appuyons sur les acquis des « Sustainability Transition Studies » (Markard 2012) afin d'analyser les modalités d'articulation entre l'agriculture de conservation et le système agricole dominant. L'articulation de la théorie multi-niveaux développée par Geels (2002) avec le concept d'innovation par retrait (Goulet et Vinck 2012) nous amènera à développer l'hypothèse de l'insularisation pour caractériser le processus de transition vers l'agriculture de conservation. La particularité de ce processus d'insularisation est que celui-ci s'effectue à travers une dynamique à la fois de détachement et de continuité avec l'agriculture dite conventionnelle. L'analyse de trajectoires d'agriculteurs présentée ici permettra d'identifier ces modalités de détachement et de continuité. Elle nous mènera également à questionner le cadre théorique proposé par Geels (2002) ainsi que la notion d'agriculture conventionnelle en elle-même. [less ▲]

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See detailCan systems using hyper specialized breeds be considered as localized agrifood systems? The example of the Belgian Texel breed
Lauvie, Anne; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

Conference (2014)

The Belgian Texel sheep breed is a meat purpose breed, the Belgian form of the Dutch Texel breed, with muscular hypertrophy. Comparing the situation of this breed to others hyper specialized breeds in ... [more ▼]

The Belgian Texel sheep breed is a meat purpose breed, the Belgian form of the Dutch Texel breed, with muscular hypertrophy. Comparing the situation of this breed to others hyper specialized breeds in Belgium raise the question of the existence of a Belgian breeding model. We interviewed 11 stakeholders concerned by the Texel breed (breeders, scientists, veterinary, extension service technician, and butcher). Those interviews have allowed us to discuss three dimensions of the Texel breed management: ‐ The breed is actually a breeding animals propose breed. Sheep meat is few consumed in Belgium and butchers seem to prefer crossbreed meat than pure Texel meat. As a consequence the main aim for breeding Texel is breeding animals selling. The breeders consider the selection activity as their activity, and underline that it is more interesting for them from an economical point of view to sell breeding animals abroad (United Kingdom). ‐ The breed management follows a Belgian model and is as a consequence localized! The Blanc Bleu Belge cattle breed is clearly a model for the Texel breeders and several of them mention the “Belgian eye of the breeder”. Producing meat in quantity is the core motivation in this breeding model (a breeding model that echoes an engineering culture where performance is a core motivation). Among the organization of breeding in Belgium, the breeding shows contests are important places where this model is shared by breeders, even among deferent species. ‐ The breed is very well adapted to its breeding situation but what about it adaptive capacities? The breed is mentioned as adapted to grazing (good quality grassland) and it is as well adapted to socio-territorial conditions of belgium (small area). The breed is easy to breed (except during the lambing period very time consuming which means that flocks are often small flocks). It’s considered as well adapted to breeding animal production for crossbreeding. However, most of the interviewed persons have mentioned failures in adaptation to changes in breeding conditions (bigger flocks, breeding in hot climate area for instance). Thanks to this case study, we discuss the fact that qualifying an agrifood system as “localized” is not enough and that it is crucial to understand and analyze the anchorages in local as dynamics and in their dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailAgroécologie, urgence ou utopie?
Stassart, Pierre M ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2014)

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See detailLes implications et les enjeux de la recherche participative
Stassart, Pierre M ULg

Speech/Talk (2013)

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See detailL’innovation "autonome" en agriculture de conservation : Du désintérêt vis-à-vis des acteurs historiques du développement agricole à la quête d’une alliance renouvelée avec la recherche scientifique
Dannevoye, Bastien ULg; Vankeerberghen, Audrey ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in Actes du colloque "Nouvelles formes d’agriculture : pratiques ordinaires, débats publics et critique sociale", INRA Dijon (2013, November 21)

Cette communication présente plusieurs raisons de l’organisation autonome de l’expérimentation et de l’innovation agronomiques, en matière de durabilité et de gestion des sols, au sein de groupes ... [more ▼]

Cette communication présente plusieurs raisons de l’organisation autonome de l’expérimentation et de l’innovation agronomiques, en matière de durabilité et de gestion des sols, au sein de groupes d’agriculteurs et de techniciens se revendiquant d’une agriculture "sans labour" et/ou "de conservation", en France et en Belgique (Région Wallonne). Après un rappel du développement historique des "techniques sans labour" dans les régions enquêtées, la communication rentre dans le détail des motivations des agriculteurs. Celles-ci ont été rassemblées en deux grandes catégories de "critiques" : les critiques envers la recherche agronomique publique, et les critiques envers les acteurs privés de l’agrofourniture. En nous référant à la théorie de l’acteur-réseau (Callon, 1986), nous comprenons ces critiques comme des éléments essentiels d’une dynamique de désintéressement vis-à-vis des traductions historiques de ces acteurs institutionnels ou économiques, cherchant par-là à montrer comment ce désintéressement peut constituer une justification suffisante à la (re)prise en charge de l’innovation par les praticiens. Ces derniers rejettent ainsi le schéma de développement agronomique dit "diffusionniste" hérité de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, selon lequel les missions de recherche et d’innovation avaient été confiées respectivement à des instituts publics de recherche agronomique et aux firmes. En conclusion, nous montrons que ces critiques sont loin d’être des attitudes "anti-scientifiques" ou "anti-marché" mais expriment au contraire des volontés de rencontres et de travail collaboratif renouvelé entre ces acteurs ou ces "rôles prescrits". Les acteurs "désintéressés" de traductions anciennes deviennent ainsi les promoteurs d’une nouvelle problématisation [less ▲]

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