References of "Scipioni, Alexandra"
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See detailA Review of Known and Hypothetical Transmission Routes for Noroviruses
Mathijs, E.; Stals, A.; Baert, L. et al

in Food and Environmental Virology (2012), 4(4), 131-152

Human noroviruses (NoVs) are considered a worldwide leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Due to a combination of prolonged shedding of high virus levels in feces, virus particle shedding ... [more ▼]

Human noroviruses (NoVs) are considered a worldwide leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Due to a combination of prolonged shedding of high virus levels in feces, virus particle shedding during asymptomatic infections, and a high environmental persistence, NoVs are easily transmitted pathogens. Norovirus (NoV) outbreaks have often been reported and tend to affect a lot of people. NoV is spread via feces and vomit, but this NoV spread can occur through several transmission routes. While person-to-person transmission is without a doubt the dominant transmission route, human infective NoV outbreaks are often initiated by contaminated food or water. Zoonotic transmission of NoV has been investigated, but has thus far not been demonstrated. The presented review aims to give an overview of these NoV transmission routes. Regarding NoV person-to-person transmission, the NoV GII. 4 genotype is discussed in the current review as it has been very successful for several decades but reasons for its success have only recently been suggested. Both pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of food products can lead to NoV food borne illness. Pre-harvest contamination of food products mainly occurs via contact with polluted irrigation water in case of fresh produce or with contaminated harvesting water in case of bivalve molluscan shellfish. On the other hand, an infected food handler is considered as a major cause of post-harvest contamination of food products. Both transmission routes are reviewed by a summary of described NoV food borne outbreaks between 2000 and 2010. A third NoV transmission route occurs via water and the spread of NoV via river water, ground water, and surface water is reviewed. Finally, although zoonotic transmission remains hypothetical, a summary on the bovine and porcine NoV presence observed in animals is given and the presence of human infective NoV in animals is discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel norovirus recombinants and GII.4 sub-lineages associated with outbreaks between 2006 and 2010 in Belgium
Mathijs, Elisabeth ULg; Denayer, Sarah; Palmeira, Leonor et al

in Virology Journal (2011)

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See detailNoroviruses and sapoviruses in pigs in Belgium.
Mauroy, Axel ULg; Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Mathijs, Elisabeth ULg et al

in Archives of Virology (2008), 153(10), 1927-31

Porcine noroviruses and sapoviruses belong to the family Caliciviridae and are rarely reported in European countries. In this study, swine stools from a region representative of northern Europe were ... [more ▼]

Porcine noroviruses and sapoviruses belong to the family Caliciviridae and are rarely reported in European countries. In this study, swine stools from a region representative of northern Europe were screened for these viruses by RT-PCR. Both porcine noroviruses and sapoviruses were detected, showing their circulation in this region. The porcine norovirus strains were genetically related to genotype 19 strains in the genogroup II of the genus Norovirus. The porcine sapovirus strains were genetically related to the porcine enteric calicivirus Cowden reference strain and to newly described porcine strains in the genus Sapovirus. [less ▲]

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See detailLes mécanismes et les conséquences sur l'organisme des infections virales chez les équidés
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana ULg; Mathijs, Elisabeth ULg et al

in Nouveau Praticien Vétérinaire Equine (2008), 5

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See detailA SYBR Green RT-PCR assay in single tube to detect human and bovine noroviruses and control for inhibition.
Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Mauroy, Axel ULg; Ziant, Dominique ULg et al

in Virology journal (2008), 5

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. They are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis in humans and clinical signs and lesions of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. They are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis in humans and clinical signs and lesions of gastroenteritis were reported in bovines. Due to their genetic proximity, potential zoonotic transmission or animal reservoir can be hypothesized for noroviruses. RT-PCR has become the "gold standard" for the detection of noroviruses in faecal and environmental samples. With such samples, the control for inhibition of the reaction during amplification and detection is crucial to avoid false negative results, which might otherwise not be detected. The aim of the reported method is to detect, with a SYBR Green technology, a broad range of noroviruses with a control for inhibition. RESULTS: A SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was developed making use of a foreign internal RNA control added in the same tube. This assay is able to detect human and bovine noroviruses belonging to genogroups I, II and III and to distinguish between norovirus and internal control amplicons using melting curve analysis. A 10-fold dilution of samples appears to be the method of choice to remove inhibition. This assay was validated with human and bovine stool samples previously tested for norovirus by conventional RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: This SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay allows the detection of the most important human and bovine noroviruses in the same assay, and avoids false negative results making use of an internal control. Melting curves allow the discrimination between the internal control and norovirus amplicons. It gives preliminary information about the species of origin. The sensitivity of the developed assay is higher than conventional RT-PCR and a 10-fold dilution of samples showed a better efficiency and reproducibility to remove RT-PCR inhibition than addition of bovine serum albumin. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection and quantification of human and bovine novoviruses by a TaqMan RT-PCR assay with a control for inhibition.
Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Bourgot, Isabelle; Mauroy, Axel ULg et al

in Molecular and Cellular Probes (2008), 22

Noroviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. They are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis in humans and calves. Reverse transcription-polymerase ... [more ▼]

Noroviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. They are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis in humans and calves. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has become the ‘‘gold standard’’ for detection of noroviruses in faecal and environmental samples. However, false negative results due to co-concentration of RT-PCR inhibitors are a continuous concern. A TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay making use of a foreign internal RNA control and a RNA standard was developed. Very interestingly, this method is capable of detecting human noroviruses belonging to genogroups I and II, and bovine noroviruses belonging to genogroup III. Inhibitors were removed efficiently by 1/10 dilution of the sample or addition of bovine serum albumin to the RT-PCR mix. This assay was validated with human and bovine stool samples previously tested for norovirus by conventional RT-PCR. The ability to detect norovirus in stool samples that were negative by conventional RT-PCR assay demonstrate the higher sensitivity of the TaqMan assay compared to the conventional RT-PCR assay. This real-time RT-PCR assay allows the detection of both human and bovine noroviruses, avoids false negative results and is able to quantify the level of norovirus contamination. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal noroviruses.
Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Mauroy, Axel ULg; Vinje, J. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2008), 178(1), 32-45

Among enteric caliciviruses, noroviruses belong to the genus Norovirus, one of the four accepted genera in the family Caliciviridae. These single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses are highly variable ... [more ▼]

Among enteric caliciviruses, noroviruses belong to the genus Norovirus, one of the four accepted genera in the family Caliciviridae. These single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses are highly variable both genetically and antigenically. Several animal enteric caliciviruses that are morphologically indistinguishable and genetically closely related to human noroviruses have been identified. The first bovine enteric noroviruses were described in Great Britain and are known as Newbury Agent 2. At least three genetic clusters of porcine noroviruses join together within genogroup II noroviruses. Human noroviruses are the most important cause of acute gastroenteritis illness in people of all ages. In the USA, they are associated with approximately 30-50% of all food-borne outbreaks. Until now, noroviruses have not been associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in immunocompetent animals. Neither bovine nor porcine noroviruses can replicate in cell culture, although human norovirus can grow in a complex 3D culture system. However, the recently discovered murine noroviruses can replicate in cell culture and are therefore used as model viruses to study human noroviruses. This review focusses on virus classification, virion structure, pathogenesis, epidemiology, immune response and diagnosis of animal noroviruses in comparison with human noroviruses. The classification of animal enteric caliciviruses within the Norovirus genus raises the question of whether transmission from an animal reservoir to humans could occur. Answering this question is important in determining the risk of cross-species infections affecting the epidemiology and evolution of these viruses and so complicating the control of human norovirus infections. [less ▲]

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See detailDiarrhée virale bovine et maladie des muqueuses : vaccination contre l'infection par le virus de la BVD-MD
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Gogev, Sacha; Meurens, François et al

in Point Vétérinaire (2004), 35

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See detailHospital outbreak of gastroenteritis due to norovirus in Belgium
Verbelen, V.; Bodeus, Monique; Garrino, M. G. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2004), 59(1, JAN-FEB),

We report an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Norovirus in a care unit in a Belgian hospital involving thirty-three people. The origin of the outbreak was traced to one nursing assistant. The virus ... [more ▼]

We report an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Norovirus in a care unit in a Belgian hospital involving thirty-three people. The origin of the outbreak was traced to one nursing assistant. The virus strain identified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy belonged to the genogroup II. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman viral infections derived from food
Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Daube, Georges ULg; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2001), 32(218, AUG-SEP),

Several viruses may be transmitted to humans via food including hepatitis A and E virus (VHA and VHE), Norwalk type calicivirus, rotavirus and astrovirus. Enterovirus and enteric adenovirus may also be ... [more ▼]

Several viruses may be transmitted to humans via food including hepatitis A and E virus (VHA and VHE), Norwalk type calicivirus, rotavirus and astrovirus. Enterovirus and enteric adenovirus may also be transmitted. Sick people or healthy carriers excrete these viruses in their stools. Shellfish and water are the most frequently contaminated foodstuffs. Another route of infection is during handling of food. Detection of these viruses in food is complex for several reasons: the interaction of virus and food makes viral concentration and purification difficult, in vitro culture of these viruses is difficult if not impossible, and the quantity of virus present in the sample is low. Molecular technology (PCR) is the most suitable method of detection. Another method is to choose an indicator of viral faecal contamination. [less ▲]

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See detailInfections virales humaines d'origine alimentaire
Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Daube, Georges ULg; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2001), 32

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See detailLa contamination de l'eau et des aliments par les virus pathogènes pour l'homme
Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Daube, Georges ULg; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2000), 144

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