References of "Rakic, Jean-Marie"
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See detailAge-related Macular Degeneration Study: A Metabolomics Approach
LAMBERT, Vincent ULg; Hansen, Sylvain ULg; Rousseau, Réjanne et al

Conference (2013, May 23)

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See detailLaser-induced choroidal neovascularization model to study age-related macular degeneration in mice.
LAMBERT, Vincent ULg; Lecomte, Julie ULg; Hansen, Sylvain ULg et al

in Nature Protocols (2013), 8(11), 2197-2211

The mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) has been used extensively in studies of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This experimental in vivo model ... [more ▼]

The mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) has been used extensively in studies of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This experimental in vivo model relies on laser injury to perforate Bruch's membrane, resulting in subretinal blood vessel recruitment from the choroid. By recapitulating the main features of the exudative form of human AMD, this assay has served as the backbone for testing antiangiogenic therapies. This standardized protocol can be applied to transgenic mice and can include treatments with drugs, recombinant proteins, antibodies, adenoviruses and pre-microRNAs to aid in the search for new molecular regulators and the identification of novel targets for innovative treatments. This robust assay requires 7-14 d to complete, depending on the treatment applied and whether immunostaining is performed. This protocol includes details of how to induce CNV, including laser induction, lesion excision, processing and different approaches to quantify neoformed vasculature. [less ▲]

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See detailSunitinib inhibits inflammatory corneal lymphangiogenesis.
Detry, Benoît ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Erpicum, Charlotte ULg et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2013), 54(5), 3082-93

PURPOSE: To evaluate the antilymphangiogenic potential of multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in corneal neovascularization (NV). METHODS: Inflammatory corneal NV was induced by thermal ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: To evaluate the antilymphangiogenic potential of multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in corneal neovascularization (NV). METHODS: Inflammatory corneal NV was induced by thermal cauterization applied in the central cornea of mice, to which sunitinib malate was daily administered by gavage or not. At days 6, 11, or 17 post cauterization, lymphatic and blood vessels, as well as inflammatory cells were immunostained and quantified in whole-mounted corneas. RT-PCRs were performed to evidence VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 and -2 (sVEGFR-1, sVEGFR-2) expressions. Macrophages were isolated from mice peritoneal cavity following thioglycollate injection to produce conditioned medium. The effects of sunitinib were evaluated in vitro in the aortic and lymphatic ring assays in the presence or not of macrophage conditioned medium. RESULTS: Sunitinib treatment drastically reduced pathologic corneal lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. Reduced F4/80+ cell infiltration was evidenced in sunitinib-treated mice and was associated to decreased VEGF-A (by 50%, P < 0.01) and VEGF-C (by 35%, P < 0.01) expressions, while VEGF-D and sVEGFR-2 expressions were not affected. In vitro, sunitinib dose-dependently inhibited aortic ring outgrowth, but failed to affect lymphangiogenesis in the lymphatic ring assay. However, macrophage conditioned medium-enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis were both strongly counteracted by sunitinib treatment. Mechanistically, sunitinib blocked VEGFR-2 phosphorylation induced by VEGF-A released by macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Sunitinib exerts antihemangiogenic and antilymphangiogenic effects in vivo by reducing F4/80+ cell recruitment and interacting with their released factors. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition of Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth by a Small-Molecule Multi-FGF Receptor Blocker with Allosteric Properties.
Bono, Francoise; De Smet, Frederik; Herbert, Corentin et al

in Cancer Cell (2013), 23(4), 477-88

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are targets for anticancer drug development. To date, only RTK inhibitors that block orthosteric binding of ligands and substrates have been developed. Here, we report the ... [more ▼]

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are targets for anticancer drug development. To date, only RTK inhibitors that block orthosteric binding of ligands and substrates have been developed. Here, we report the pharmacologic characterization of the chemical SSR128129E (SSR), which inhibits fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling by binding to the extracellular FGFR domain without affecting orthosteric FGF binding. SSR exhibits allosteric properties, including probe dependence, signaling bias, and ceiling effects. Inhibition by SSR is highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom. Oral delivery of SSR inhibits arthritis and tumors that are relatively refractory to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antibodies. Thus, orally-active extracellularly acting small-molecule modulators of RTKs with allosteric properties can be developed and may offer opportunities to improve anticancer treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailBone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells and MMP13 contribute to experimental choroidal neovascularization.
Lecomte, Julie ULg; Louis, Krystel; Detry, Benoît ULg et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2011), 68

In this study, we evaluate the potential involvement of collagenase-3 (MMP13), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family member, in the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration characterized by a ... [more ▼]

In this study, we evaluate the potential involvement of collagenase-3 (MMP13), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family member, in the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration characterized by a neovascularisation into the choroid. RT-PCR analysis revealed that human neovascular membranes issued from patients with AMD expressed high levels of Mmp13. The contribution of MMP13 in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) formation was explored by using a murine model of laser-induced CNV and applying it to wild-type mice (WT) and Mmp13-deficient mice (Mmp13 ( -/- ) mice). Angiogenic and inflammatory reactions were explored by immunohistochemistry. The implication of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells was determined by BM engraftment into irradiated mice and by injecting mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from WT BM. The deficiency of Mmp13 impaired CNV formation which was fully restored by WT BM engraftment and partially rescued by several injections of WT MSC. The present study sheds light on a novel function of MMP13 during BM-dependent choroidal vascularization and provides evidence for a role for MSC in the pathogenesis of CNV. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroRNA-21 Exhibits Antiangiogenic Function by Targeting RhoB Expression in Endothelial Cells.
Sabatel, Céline; Malvaux, Ludovic ULg; Bovy, Nicolas ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2011), 6(2), 16979

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The recent discovery of the involvement of these RNAs in the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The recent discovery of the involvement of these RNAs in the control of angiogenesis renders them very attractive in the development of new approaches for restoring the angiogenic balance. Whereas miRNA-21 has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in endothelial cells, the potential function of this miRNA in angiogenesis has never been investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first observed in endothelial cells a negative regulation of miR-21 expression by serum and bFGF, two pro-angiogenic factors. Then using in vitro angiogenic assays, we observed that miR-21 acts as a negative modulator of angiogenesis. miR-21 overexpression reduced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and the ability of these cells to form tubes whereas miR-21 inhibition using a LNA-anti-miR led to opposite effects. Expression of miR-21 in endothelial cells also led to a reduction in the organization of actin into stress fibers, which may explain the decrease in cell migration. Further mechanistic studies showed that miR-21 targets RhoB, as revealed by a decrease in RhoB expression and activity in miR-21 overexpressing cells. RhoB silencing impairs endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis, thus providing a possible mechanism for miR-21 to inhibit angiogenesis. Finally, the therapeutic potential of miR-21 as an angiogenesis inhibitor was demonstrated in vivo in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results identify miR-21 as a new angiogenesis inhibitor and suggest that inhibition of cell migration and tubulogenesis is mediated through repression of RhoB. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. A propos d'un cas de maladie de von Hippel-Lindau
Bourguignont, A.; Blaise, Pierre ULg; Janin, Nicolas ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(2), 62-6

von Hippel-Lindau disease is an inherited multisystemic familial cancer syndrome caused by mutations of the VHL gene. The spectrum of clinical manifestations is broad and includes central nervous system ... [more ▼]

von Hippel-Lindau disease is an inherited multisystemic familial cancer syndrome caused by mutations of the VHL gene. The spectrum of clinical manifestations is broad and includes central nervous system hemangioblastomas and visual benign and malignant tumors. The various manifestations can be demonstrated by means of different imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and fluorescein retinal hemangiography. A systematic approach must be followed for repeated screening in patients at risk, since many lesions in VHL disease are treatable. [less ▲]

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See detailADAMTS-2 functions as anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral molecule independently of its catalytic activity.
Dubail, Johanne ULg; Kesteloot, F.; Deroanne, Christophe ULg et al

in Cellular & Molecular Life Sciences (2010)

ADAMTS-2 is a metalloproteinase that plays a key role in the processing of fibrillar procollagen precursors into mature collagen molecules by excising the amino-propeptide. We demonstrate that recombinant ... [more ▼]

ADAMTS-2 is a metalloproteinase that plays a key role in the processing of fibrillar procollagen precursors into mature collagen molecules by excising the amino-propeptide. We demonstrate that recombinant ADAMTS-2 is also able to reduce proliferation of endothelial cells, and to induce their retraction and detachment from the substrate resulting in apoptosis. Dephosphorylation of Erk1/2 and MLC largely precedes the ADAMTS-2 induced morphological alterations. In 3-D culture models, ADAMTS-2 strongly reduced branching of capillary-like structures formed by endothelial cells and their long-term maintenance and inhibited vessels formation in embryoid bodies (EB). Growth and vascularization of tumors formed in nude mice by HEK 293-EBNA cells expressing ADAMTS-2 were drastically reduced. A similar anti-tumoral activity was observed when using cells expressing recombinant deleted forms of ADAMTS-2, including catalytically inactive enzyme. Nucleolin, a nuclear protein also found to be associated with the cell membrane, was identified as a potential receptor mediating the antiangiogenic properties of ADAMTS-2. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther pharmacological and genetic evidence for the efficacy of PlGF inhibition in cancer and eye disease.
Van de Veire, Sara; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Heindryckx, Femke et al

in Cell (2010), 141(1), 178-90

Our findings that PlGF is a cancer target and anti-PlGF is useful for anticancer treatment have been challenged by Bais et al. Here we take advantage of carcinogen-induced and transgenic tumor models as ... [more ▼]

Our findings that PlGF is a cancer target and anti-PlGF is useful for anticancer treatment have been challenged by Bais et al. Here we take advantage of carcinogen-induced and transgenic tumor models as well as ocular neovascularization to report further evidence in support of our original findings of PlGF as a promising target for anticancer therapies. We present evidence for the efficacy of additional anti-PlGF antibodies and their ability to phenocopy genetic deficiency or silencing of PlGF in cancer and ocular disease but also show that not all anti-PlGF antibodies are effective. We also provide additional evidence for the specificity of our anti-PlGF antibody and experiments to suggest that anti-PlGF treatment will not be effective for all tumors and why. Further, we show that PlGF blockage inhibits vessel abnormalization rather than density in certain tumors while enhancing VEGF-targeted inhibition in ocular disease. Our findings warrant further testing of anti-PlGF therapies. [less ▲]

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See detail1H NMR metabolomic approach of the laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Rousseau, Rousseau et al

Poster (2008, August)

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See detailAngiogenesis is not impaired in connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) knock-out mice
Kuiper, Esther J.; Roestenberg, Peggy; Ehlken, Christoph et al

in Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry (2007), 55(11), 1139-1147

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of growth factors. CTGF is important in scarring, wound healing, and fibrosis. It has also been implicated to play a role in ... [more ▼]

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family of growth factors. CTGF is important in scarring, wound healing, and fibrosis. It has also been implicated to play a role in angiogenesis, in addition to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the eye, angiogenesis and subsequent fibrosis are the main causes of blindness in conditions such as diabetic retinopathy. We have applied three different models of angiogenesis to homozygous CTGF(-/-) and heterozygous CTGF(+/-) mice to establish involvement of CTGF in neovascularization. CTGF(+/-) mice die around birth. Therefore, embryonic CTGF(-/-), CTGF(-/-), and CTGF(+/+) bone explants were used to study in vitro angiogenesis, and neonatal and mature CTGF(+/-) and CTGF(+/+) mice were used in models of oxygen-induced retinopathy and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Angiogenesis in vitro was independent of the CTGF genotype in both the presence and the absence of VEGF. Oxygen-induced vascular pathology in the retina, as determined semi-quantitatively, and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, as determined quantitatively, were also not affected by the CTGF genotype. Our data show that downregulation of CTGF levels does not affect neovascularization, indicating distinct roles of VEGF and CTGF in angiogenesis and fibrosis in eye conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-angiogenic therapy of exudative age-related macular degeneration: current progress and emerging concepts
Noël, Agnès ULg; Jost, Maud; Lambert, Vincent ULg et al

in Trends in Molecular Medicine (2007), 13(8), 345-352

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in elderly patients. The more aggressive exudative form is characterized by abnormal blood-vessel development that occurs beneath ... [more ▼]

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in elderly patients. The more aggressive exudative form is characterized by abnormal blood-vessel development that occurs beneath the retina as a result of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF) has emerged as the key mediator of CNV formation; this has led to intensive research on VEGF and the recent approval of anti-VEGF compounds by the US Food and Drug Administration. Despite this successful introduction of anti-angiogenic therapies into the clinical setting, there is still a lack of treatments that definitively reverse damaged vision. Here, we consider the importance of putative molecular targets other than VEGF that might have been underestimated. Emerging cellular mechanisms offer additional opportunities for innovative therapeutic approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailConnective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is not involved in angiogenesis in knock out mouse models
van Geest, R. J.; Kuiper, Esther J.; Ehlken, Christoph et al

in European Journal of Ophthalmology (2007), 17(3, MAY-JUN), 476

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See detailTumoral and choroidal vascularization: differential cellular mechanisms involving plasminogen activator inhibitor type I.
Jost, Maud; Maillard, Catherine ULg; Lecomte, Julie ULg et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2007), 171(4), 1369-80

An adequate balance between serine proteases and their plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is critical for pathological angiogenesis. PAI-1 deficiency in mice is associated with impaired choroidal ... [more ▼]

An adequate balance between serine proteases and their plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is critical for pathological angiogenesis. PAI-1 deficiency in mice is associated with impaired choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and tumoral angiogenesis. In the present work, we demonstrate unexpected differences in the contribution of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in these two processes regulated by PAI-1. PAI-1(-/-) mice grafted with BM-derived from wild-type mice were able to support laser-induced CNV formation but not skin carcinoma vascularization. Engraftment of irradiated wild-type mice with PAI-1(-/-) BM prevented CNV formation, demonstrating the crucial role of PAI-1 delivered by BM-derived cells. In contrast, the transient infiltration of tumor transplants by local PAI-1-producing host cells rather than by BM cells was sufficient to rescue tumor growth and angiogenesis in PAI-1-deficient mice. These data identify PAI-1 as a molecular determinant of a local permissive soil for tumor angiogenesis. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that different cellular mechanisms contribute to PAI-1-regulated tumoral and CNV. PAI-1 contributes to BM-dependent choroidal vascularization and to BM-independent tumor growth and angiogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasminogen activator inhibitor type I (PAI-1) controls bone marrow-dependent and independent vascularization
Jost, M.; Maillard, Catherine ULg; Lambert, Vincent ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2006), 61(2, MAR-APR), 87

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See detailADAMTS-2, a metalloproteinase containing a disintegrin domain and thrombospondin type I repeats, a new regulator of angiogenesis
Dubail, Johanne ULg; Kesteloot, Frédéric ULg; Motte, Patrick ULg et al

in Journal of Vascular Research (2005), 42(Suppl. 2), 76

Enzymes of the ADAMTS family are closely related to MMPs and ADAMs. They further contain specific domains, such as the “ThromboSpondin type I” (TSP1) repeats able to strongly repress angiogenesis. The ... [more ▼]

Enzymes of the ADAMTS family are closely related to MMPs and ADAMs. They further contain specific domains, such as the “ThromboSpondin type I” (TSP1) repeats able to strongly repress angiogenesis. The primary function of ADAMTS-2 is to process procollagen type I, II, III and V into mature molecules by excising the amino-propeptide. We further hypothesized that it could modulate angiogenesis through its TSP1 repeats. Recombinant ADAMTS-2 induced morphological changes in HUVEC and HMEC cultured on gelatin, collagen and fibronectin. It also significantly reduced their proliferation, attachment and spreading. Similar effects were observed when using inactive ADAMTS-2 mutated at the Zn++-binding catalytic site. ADAMTS-2 did not alter the initial steps of formation of capillary-like structures by HUVEC in vitro. However, these structures appeared more rapidly disrupted in presence of ADAMTS-2 than in control conditions. Immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies against ADAMTS-2 indicate that it is tightly immobilized at the endothelial cell surface by an heparin-sensitive binding. With the aim to identify mechanism(s)leading to the modulation of angiogenesis by ADAMTS-2, we investigated various signalling pathways critical for EC. Phosphorylation status of FAK was not altered by ADAMTS-2 while a downregulation of phosphorylation of p42/44 MAPK was observed. Our data suggest that ADAMTS-2 reduces angiogenesis by regulating endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation, and by alteration of the stability of the capillary-like structures. These effects do not seem to be mediated by an integrin-dependent signaling pathway. Choroidal neovascularization induced in TS2+/+ or TS2-/- mice by LASER burns was used as in vivo model. Several genes involved in the healing and angiogenesis processes (fibrillar collagens, VEGF, TGF, CTGF, …) were not differently regulated in TS2+/+ and TS2-/- mice 5 days after the LASER impact. Wound capillaries visualized by confocal microscopy after FITC-conjugated dextran injection, were significantly increased (p<0,05) in TS2-/- mice suggesting an increased angiogenic response in the KO animals. The results obtained in in vivo and in vitro models indicate that ADAMTS-2 is involved in the control of angiogenesis. Additional investigations are being performed to determine which domain(s) of the molecule is (are) antiangiogenic and to identify the mechanism(s) underlying this regulatory function. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of ADAMTS-2, a metalloproteinase containing a disintegrin domain and thrombospondin type I repeats, during angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo
Dubail, Johanne ULg; Kesteloot, Frédéric ULg; Motte, Patrick ULg et al

in Angiogenesis (2004), 7(2), 172

Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is a key step during the development of various pathologies, including cancer. Enzymes of the ADAMTS family are closely related to MMPs and ADAMs. They ... [more ▼]

Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is a key step during the development of various pathologies, including cancer. Enzymes of the ADAMTS family are closely related to MMPs and ADAMs. They further contain specific domains, such as the ‘‘Thrombospondin type I’’ (TSP1) repeats, that are able to strongly repress angiogenesis, as described for thrombospondin-1 and -2, and for ADAMTS-1 and -8. The primary function of ADAMTS-2 is to process collagen type I, II and III precursors into mature molecules by excising the aminopropeptide. We further hypothesized that it could modulate angiogenesis through its TSP1 repeats. This hypothesis was investigated using different in vitro experimental models of angiogenesis. Recombinant ADAMTS-2 induced morphological changes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human microvessel endothelial cells (HMEC), and significantly reduced their proliferation, attachment and spreading. Similar effects were observed when using inactive ADAMTS-2 mutated at the Zn2+-binding catalytic site. ADAMTS-2 did not alter the initial steps of formation of capillary-like structures by HUVEC in vitro. However, these structures appeared much less stable and were more rapidly disrupted in presence of ADAMTS-2 than in control conditions. ADAMTS-2 was also tested in an ex vivo angiogenesis model using aortic rings from rats and mice, wild type or KO for ADAMTS-2. Outgrowth of capillaries was slightly increased from aortas of ADAMTS-2 KO mice (TS2-/-) as compared to aortas from control animals (TS2+/+), while addition of full size recombinant ADAMTS-2 reduced the formation of capillary structures from rat aortas, suggesting its anti-angiogenic activity. Choroidal neovascularization induced in TS2+/+ or TS2-/- mice by LASER burns was used as in vivo model to confirm the in vitro and ex vivo results. Several genes involved in the healing and angiogenesis processes (fibrillar collagens, VEGF, TGF-beta and CTGF) were not differently regulated in TS2+/+ and TS2-/- mice at 5 days. [less ▲]

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See detailPlacental growth factor, a member of the VEGF family, contributes to the development of choroidal neovascularization
Rakic, Jean-Marie ULg; Lambert, Vincent ULg; Devy, Laetitia et al

in Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (2003), 44(7), 3186-3193

PURPOSE. VEGF has been shown to be necessary, but not sufficient alone, for the development of subretinal pathologic angiogenesis. In the current study, the influence of placental growth factor (PIGF), a ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE. VEGF has been shown to be necessary, but not sufficient alone, for the development of subretinal pathologic angiogenesis. In the current study, the influence of placental growth factor (PIGF), a member of the VEGF family, in human and experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was investigated. METHODS. The presence of VEGF family member mRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR in neovascular membranes extracted during surgery. The spatial and temporal pattern of VEGF isoforms and PIGF mRNA expression were explored by using the laser capture catapulting technique and RT-PCR in a murine laser-induced model and in vitro. PIGF expression was also studied in human donor eyes. The influence of endogenous PIGF was evaluated in deficient mice (PlGF(-/-)) and by antibody-mediated neutralization of the PIGF receptor. RESULTS. Human neovascular membranes consistently expressed VEGF-A, -B, and -C; PlGF; and VEGFR-1 and -2. The VEGF(120) isoform mRNA was primarily induced in early stages of angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. PIGF mRNA expression was present in the intact choroid and significantly upregulated during the course of experimental CNV. Both deficient PIGF expression in PIGF(-/-) mice and PIGF receptor neutralization in wild-type mice prevented the development of choroidal neovascularization induced by laser. CONCLUSIONS. These observations demonstrate the participation of PIGF in experimental CNV. They identify therefore PIGF as an additional promising target for ocular antiangiogenic strategies. [less ▲]

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