References of "Quoilin, Sylvain"
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See detailOrganic Rankine Cycles including fluid selection
Lemort, Vincent ULg; Declaye, Sébastien ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg

in Handbook of Clean Energy Systems (in press)

An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is similar to a steam Rankine cycle, except that the working fluid is not water but an organic compound, such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon, characterized by a lower ... [more ▼]

An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is similar to a steam Rankine cycle, except that the working fluid is not water but an organic compound, such as a refrigerant or a hydrocarbon, characterized by a lower ebullition temperature than that of water. Hence lower temperature heat sources can be exploited such as solar energy, geothermal energy and waste heat recovery from many different processes. During the design phase of an ORC system, the selection of the working fluid must be conducted in parallel with the selection and the sizing of the components (mainly the expansion machine, the pump and the heat exchangers) and with the definition of the cycle architecture. This approach allows taking into consideration all technical constraints. Relevant properties of working fluids that should be considered during their selection are listed. Major characteristics of available displacement and turbo-expander technologies are described. The impact of the pump performance on the overall performance is discussed and strategies to increase the available NPSH are proposed. Finally, improved cycle architectures are introduced. Major applications of ORC systems are described: geothermal power plants, biomass CHP plants, waste heat recovery in industry, waste heat recovery on internal combustion engines and solar power plants. All these applications differ by the nature of the heat source and heat sink, the integration of the ORC with these sources and sinks, and the range of installed capacities. These differences yield specific designs, which are described. Performance achieved by systems in operation or prototypes are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation and optimization of a CHP biomass plant and district heating network
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Applied Energy (2014), 130

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems ... [more ▼]

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. However, as CHP plants are not optimized for electricity production, their operation is profitable only if a sufficient heat demand is available throughout the year. Most of the time, pre-feasibility studies are based on peak power demand and business plans only assume monthly or yearly consumption data. This approach usually turns out to overestimate the number of operating hours or oversize the plant capacity. This contribution presents a methodology intended to be simple and effective that provides accurate estimations of economical, environmental and energetic performances of CHP plants connected to district heating networks. A quasi-steady state simulation model of a CHP plant combined with a simulation model of the district heating network installed on the Campus of the University in Liège (Belgium) is used as an application framework to demonstrate the effectiveness of the selected approach. Based on the developed model and actual consumption data, several scenarios for energy savings are considered and ranked. The potential energy savings and resulting energy costs are estimated enabling more general conclusions to be drawn on the opportunity of using district heating networks in urban districts for Western Europe countries. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing the efficiency of Organic Rankine Cycle Technology by means of Multivariable Predictive Control
Hernandez Naranjo, Jairo Andrés ULg; Desideri, Adriano ULg; Ionescu, Clara et al

Conference (2014, August 25)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology has become very popular, as it is extremely suitable for waste heat recovery from low-grade heat sources. As the ORC system is a strongly coupled nonlinear ... [more ▼]

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology has become very popular, as it is extremely suitable for waste heat recovery from low-grade heat sources. As the ORC system is a strongly coupled nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) process, conventional control strategies (e.g. PID) may not achieve satisfactory results. In this contribution our focus is on the accurate regulation of the superheating, in order to increase the e fficiency of the cycle and to avoid the formation of liquid droplets that could damage the expander. To this end, a multivariable Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy is proposed, its performance is compared to the one of PI controllers for the case of variable waste-heat source profi les. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of Biomass-Fuelled Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems Integrated with Subcritical or Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)
Maraver, Daniel; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Royo, Javier

in Entropy (2014), 16(5), 2433-2453

This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from ... [more ▼]

This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling demands in the tertiary sector. The thermodynamic approach was complemented, to avoid its possible limitations, by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the pump of the ORC. The working fluids considered are: n-pentane, n-heptane, octamethyltrisiloxane, toluene and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane. In addition, the energy and environmental performance of the different optimal CCHP plants was investigated. The optimal plant from the energy and environmental point of view is the one integrated by a toluene recuperative ORC, although it is limited to a development with a turbine type expander. Also, the trigeneration plant could be developed in an energy and environmental efficient way with an n-pentane recuperative ORC and a volumetric type expander. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic optimization of subcritical and transcritical organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) constrained by technical parameters in multiple applications
Maraver, Daniel; Royo, Javier; Lemort, Vincent ULg et al

in Applied Energy (2014), 117

The present work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power generation and CHP from different average heat source profiles (waste heat recovery, thermal oil ... [more ▼]

The present work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power generation and CHP from different average heat source profiles (waste heat recovery, thermal oil for cogeneration and geothermal). The general goal is to provide optimization guidelines for a wide range of operating conditions, for subcritical and transcritical, regenerative and non-regenerative cycles. A parameter assessment of the main equipment in the cycle (expander, heat exchangers and feed pump) was also carried out. An optimization model of the ORC (available as an electronic annex) is proposed to predict the best cycle performance (subcritical or transcritical), in terms of its exergy efficiency, with different working fluids. The working fluids considered are those most commonly used in commercial ORC units (R134a, R245fa, Solkatherm, n-Pentane, Octamethyltrisiloxane and Toluene). The optimal working fluid and operating conditions from a purely thermodynamic approach are limited by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the feed pump. Hence, a complementary assessment of both approaches is more adequate to obtain some preliminary design guidelines for ORC units. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Study and Statistical Modeling of an Injection Scroll Compressor Operating with R407c.
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg

E-print/Working paper (2014)

This working paper describes an experimental study carried out on a refrigeration scroll compressor with and without vapour injection. The test rig designed for that purposed allows evaluating the ... [more ▼]

This working paper describes an experimental study carried out on a refrigeration scroll compressor with and without vapour injection. The test rig designed for that purposed allows evaluating the performance over a wide range of operating conditions, by varying the supply pressure, the injection pressure, the exhaust pressure, the supply superheating and the injection superheating. 97 Steady-state points are measured, with a maximum isentropic efficiency of 64.1% and a maximum consumed electrical power of 13.1 kW. A critical analysis of the experimental results is then carried out to evaluate the quality of the data using a machine learning method. This method based on Gaussian Processes regression, is used to build a statistical operating map of the compressor as a function of the different inputs. This statistical operating map can then be compared to the experimental data points to evaluate their accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the quality of Experimental Data with Gaussian Processes: Example with an Injection Scroll Compressor
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Schrouff, Jessica ULg

in Proceedings of the 2014 Purdue Conferences (2014)

This paper describes an experimental study carried out on a refrigeration scroll compressor with and without vapour injection. The test rig designed for that purposed allows evaluating the performance ... [more ▼]

This paper describes an experimental study carried out on a refrigeration scroll compressor with and without vapour injection. The test rig designed for that purposed allows evaluating the performance over a wide range of operating conditions, by varying the supply pressure, the injection pressure, the discharge pressure, the supply superheating and the injection superheating. 97 Steady-state points are measured, with a maximum isentropic efficiency of 64.1% and a maximum consumed electrical power of 13.1 kW. A critical analysis of the experimental results is then carried out to evaluate the quality of the data using a machine learning method. This method based on Gaussian Processes regression, is used to build a statistical operating map of the compressor as a function of the different inputs. This statistical operating map can then be compared to the experimental data points to evaluate their accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation of an ORC system for a micro-solar power plant
Dickes, Rémi ULg; Dumont, Olivier ULg; Declaye, Sébastien ULg et al

Conference (2014)

Because of the depletion of fossil fuels and global warming issues, the world energy sector is undergoing various changes towards increased sustainability. Among the different technologies being developed ... [more ▼]

Because of the depletion of fossil fuels and global warming issues, the world energy sector is undergoing various changes towards increased sustainability. Among the different technologies being developed, solar energy, and more specifically CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) systems are expected to play a key role to supply centralized loads and off-grid areas in the medium-term. Major performance improvements can be achieved by implementing advanced control strategies accounting for the transient and random nature of the solar heat source. In this context, a lab-scale solar power plant has been designed and is under construction for experimental purposes and dynamic analysis. The test rig includes an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) unit, a field of parabolic trough collectors and a thermal energy storage system. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign conducted on the ORC module alone. This power unit, designed for a 2.8 kW net electrical output, consists of two scroll expanders in series, an air-cooled condenser, a recuperator, a volumetric pump and an oil-heated evaporator. The ORC engine is constructed using standard mass manufactured components from the HVAC industry, this practice reducing considerably the system cost. The overall unit performance and components effectiveness are presented in different operating conditions and relevant empirical correlations are derived to be implemented in a steady state model of the ORC unit. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Modeling andControl System Definition for a Micro-CSP Plant Coupled with Thermal Storage Unit
Ireland, Melissa; Orosz, Matthew; Brisson, John et al

in Proceedings of TurboExpo 2014 (2014)

Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems are gaining ground as a means of effectively providing sustainable energy. Coupling small-scale ORCs powered by scroll expander-generators with solar thermal collectors ... [more ▼]

Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems are gaining ground as a means of effectively providing sustainable energy. Coupling small-scale ORCs powered by scroll expander-generators with solar thermal collectors and storage can provide combined heat and power to underserved rural communities. Simulation of such systems is instrumental in optimizing their control strategy. However, most models developed so far operate at steady-state or focus either on ORC or on storage dynamics. In this work, a model for the dynamics of the solar ORC system is developed to evaluate the impact of variable heat sources and sinks, thermal storage, and the variable loads associated with distributed generation. This model is then used to assess control schemes that adjust operating conditions for daily environmental variation. [less ▲]

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See detailDIMENSIONNEMENT ET EXPÉRIMENTATION D’UNE UNITÉ POMPE À CHALEUR / ORC RÉVERSIBLE
Dumont, Olivier ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

Conference (2014)

L’union européenne doit réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre de 80% par rapport au niveau des années 90 d’ici 2020. Les ménages représentent 27% de la consommation finale. Dans ce cadre, les ... [more ▼]

L’union européenne doit réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre de 80% par rapport au niveau des années 90 d’ici 2020. Les ménages représentent 27% de la consommation finale. Dans ce cadre, les bâtiments dont la consommation d’énergie est quasi nulle (NZEB – Nearly Zero Energy Building) sont d’une importance considérable. A partir de 2019, tous les nouveaux bâtiments devront présenter une production d’énergie renouvelable supérieure à la consommation d’énergie primaire. C’est dans ce cadre que le concept de PAC/ORC prend tout son sens. Ce système innovant comprend une pompe à chaleur eau/eau (PAC) reliée à un toit solaire et à un échangeur de chaleur géothermique. Cette pompe à chaleur est également capable d'inverser son cycle et de fonctionner comme un Cycle Organique de Rankine (ORC). En utilisant le toit solaire comme source de chaleur, une grande quantité de chaleur est générée tout au long de l'année. Cette chaleur est utilisée en priorité pour couvrir les besoins de chauffage annuels et le surplus de chaleur généré au cours de l'été est utilisée pour produire de l'électricité dans l’unité PAC / ORC. L’article s’articule en 4 parties. Tout d’abord, l’introduction présente les trois modes de fonctionnement. Ensuite, les modèles des composants et l’évaluation des performances au point nominal de conception sont décrits. Par après, le dimensionnement et le choix des composants sont réalisés sur bases de simulations annuelles avec un pas de temps d’une heure. Enfin, les premiers résultats expérimentaux sont présentés. Un rendement de 5,7% est atteint en mode ORC (avec une température de condensation de 25°C et une température d’évaporation de 88°C) alors qu’un COP de 4,2 est obtenu en mode pompe à chaleur (avec une température de condensation de 61°C et une température d’évaporation de 21°C). [less ▲]

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See detailDESIGN, MODELING AND EXPERIMANTATION OF A REVERSIBLE HP-ORC PROTOTYPE
Dumont, Olivier ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

Conference (2014)

This paper presents an innovative system comprising a heat pump connected to a solar roof and a geothermal heat exchanger. This heat pump is also able to invert its cycle and operate as an ORC. By using ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an innovative system comprising a heat pump connected to a solar roof and a geothermal heat exchanger. This heat pump is also able to invert its cycle and operate as an ORC. By using the whole rooftop (hereunder called “absorber”) as a heat source, a large amount of heat is generated throughout the year. This heat is used in priority to cover the building annual heating needs and the surplus heat generated during the summer is utilized to generate electricity in a so-called HP/ORC module. This paper will thus focus on these two main points: designing of the prototype and results from experimentation. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of such a prototype with encouraging performance in ORC and HP modes. Experimentally, a COP of 4.2 is reached in heat pump mode and a global efficiency of 5.6 is obtained in ORC mode. Possible means of improvement and perspectives are finally described. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign, modelling, performance optimization and experimentation of a reversible HP/ORC prototype.
Dumont, Olivier ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

Conference (2014)

This paper presents an innovative system comprising a water/water heat pump connected to a solar roof and a geothermal heat exchanger. This unit is able to invert its cycle and operate as an Organic ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an innovative system comprising a water/water heat pump connected to a solar roof and a geothermal heat exchanger. This unit is able to invert its cycle and operate as an Organic Rankine Cycle. The solar roof is producing a large amount of heat throughout the year. This allows covering the building annual heating needs and furthermore, electricity is produced thanks to the surplus of heat in a so-called HP/ORC reversible unit. This paper is focusing on these three main points: modeling, design and experimentation of the prototype. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of such a prototype with encouraging performance in ORC and HP modes. First simulations of the HP/ORC system, with components optimally sized, indicate that, in ORC mode, for the weather conditions of Copenhagen, the electrical energy produced over one year reaches 4030 kWh and the nominal efficiency of the cycle is 7.6%. The nominal COP of the heat pump is 4.2 (condenser exhaust temperature of 60°C and evaporator supply temperature of 15°C). Experimentally, a COP of 4.21 (condensation temperature of 61°C and evaporation temperature of 21°C). is achieved in heat pump mode and a global ORC efficiency of 5.7% is obtained in ORC mode (condenser exhaust temperature of 25°C and evaporator supply temperature of 88°C). [less ▲]

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See detailMethods to Increase the Robustness of Finite-Volume Flow Models in Thermodynamic Systems
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Bell, Ian ULg; Desideri, Adriano ULg et al

in Energies (2014), 7(3), 1621-1640

This paper addresses the issues linked to simulation failures during integration in finite-volume flow models, especially those involving a two-phase state. This kind of model is particularly useful when ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the issues linked to simulation failures during integration in finite-volume flow models, especially those involving a two-phase state. This kind of model is particularly useful when modeling 1D heat exchangers or piping, e.g., in thermodynamic cycles involving a phase change. Issues, such as chattering or stiff systems, can lead to low simulation speed, instabilities and simulation failures. In the particular case of two-phase flow models, they are usually linked to a discontinuity in the density derivative between the liquid and two-phase zones. In this work, several methods to tackle numerical problems are developed, described, implemented and compared. In addition, methods available in the literature are also implemented and compared to the proposed approaches. Results suggest that the robustness of the models can be significantly increased with these different methods, at the price of a small increase of the error in the mass and energy balances. [less ▲]

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See detailPure and Pseudo-pure Fluid Thermophysical Property Evaluation and the Open-Source Thermophysical Property Library CoolProp
Bell, Ian ULg; Wronski, Jorrit; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg et al

in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2014), 53

Article Pure and Pseudo-pure Fluid Thermophysical Property Evaluation and the Open-Source Thermophysical Property Library CoolProp ACS ActiveView PDFHi-Res Print, Annotate, Reference QuickView PDF [2027 ... [more ▼]

Article Pure and Pseudo-pure Fluid Thermophysical Property Evaluation and the Open-Source Thermophysical Property Library CoolProp ACS ActiveView PDFHi-Res Print, Annotate, Reference QuickView PDF [2027 KB] PDF w/ Links[457 KB] Full Text HTML Abstract Supporting Info -> Figures Reference QuickView Add to ACS ChemWorx Ian H. Bell *†, Jorrit Wronski *‡, Sylvain Quoilin *†, and Vincent Lemort *† † Energy Systems Research Unit, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium ‡ Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2014, 53 (6), pp 2498–2508 DOI: 10.1021/ie4033999 Publication Date (Web): January 13, 2014 Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society OpenURL UNIV DE LIEGE *E-mail: ian.bell@ulg.ac.be., *E-mail: jowr@mek.dtu.dk., *E-mail: squoilin@ulg.ac.be., *E-mail: vincent.lemort@ulg.ac.be. ACS AuthorChoice Abstract Over the last few decades, researchers have developed a number of empirical and theoretical models for the correlation and prediction of the thermophysical properties of pure fluids and mixtures treated as pseudo-pure fluids. In this paper, a survey of all the state-of-the-art formulations of thermophysical properties is presented. The most-accurate thermodynamic properties are obtained from multiparameter Helmholtz-energy-explicit-type formulations. For the transport properties, a wider range of methods has been employed, including the extended corresponding states method. All of the thermophysical property correlations described here have been implemented into CoolProp, an open-source thermophysical property library. This library is written in C++, with wrappers available for the majority of programming languages and platforms of technical interest. As of publication, 110 pure and pseudo-pure fluids are included in the library, as well as properties of 40 incompressible fluids and humid air. The source code for the CoolProp library is included as an electronic annex. [less ▲]

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See detailThermoCycle: A Modelica library for the simulation of thermodynamic systems
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Desideri, Adriano ULg; Wronski, Jorrit et al

in Proceedings of the 10th International Modelica Conference 2014 (2014)

This paper presents the results of an on-going project to develop ThermoCycle, an open Modelica library for the simulation of low-capacity thermodynamic cycles and thermal systems. Special attention is ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of an on-going project to develop ThermoCycle, an open Modelica library for the simulation of low-capacity thermodynamic cycles and thermal systems. Special attention is paid to robustness and simulation speed since dynamic simulations are often limited by numerical constraints and failures, either during initialization or during integration. Furthermore, the use of complex equations of state (EOS) to compute thermodynamic properties significantly decreases the simulation speed. In this paper, the approach adopted in the library to overcome these challenges is presented and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailUnveiling the mystery of Combined Heat & Power (cogeneration)
Verbruggen, Aviel; Dewallef, Pierre ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg et al

in Energy (2013), 61

The article unveils the mystery of cogeneration. Cogeneration is an add-on or embedded activity in thermal power plants, with as merit the use of part or whole of their point source heat exhausts. EU's ... [more ▼]

The article unveils the mystery of cogeneration. Cogeneration is an add-on or embedded activity in thermal power plants, with as merit the use of part or whole of their point source heat exhausts. EU's talk of “high-efficiency cogeneration” is an unfounded transfer of responsibility from the hosting thermal power generation plant onto CHP (Combined Heat & Power) activity. The quality of a CHP activity is univocally defined by its design power-to-heat ratio σ, a tombstone parameter derived from the design characteristics of the power plant. A thermal power plant may house more than one cogeneration activity. Identifying σ requires positioning the bliss point in the electricity–heat production possibility set of the cogeneration activity. The bliss point is where after electric output is maximized, the sum of that output and the maximum recoverable quantity of heat occurs. Once CHP's mystery of virtual bliss points is unveiled, the proper σ are found. With known σ by CHP activity, the quantity of cogenerated electricity is reliably assessed as best indicator of cogeneration performance. Our analysis is applicable on all relevant thermal power cycles that host CHP activities, and illustrated with a numerical example. Our lean method is necessary and sufficient for proper CHP regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign, Modeling and Performance Optimisation of a Reversible HP-ORC Prototype
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Dumont, Olivier ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

Conference (2013, October 08)

Building is one of the economical sectors where solutions are available to significantly reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions. Among other, heat pumps offer promising perspectives to ... [more ▼]

Building is one of the economical sectors where solutions are available to significantly reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions. Among other, heat pumps offer promising perspectives to provide energy-efficient space and sanitary hot water heating in many applications. This paper presents an innovative system comprising a heat pump connected to a solar roof and a geothermal heat exchanger. This heat pump is also able to invert its cycle and operate as an ORC. By using the whole rooftop (hereunder called “absorber”) as a heat source, a large amount of heat is generated throughout the year. This heat is used in priority to cover the building annual heating needs and the surplus heat generated during the summer is utilized to generate electricity in the so-called HP/ORC module. The same module can be used during winter as an efficient heat pump which radically reduces the complexity of the total system. The main advantage of the proposed technology is due to the reversibility of scroll machines, which have proven to operate efficiently both as compressor and as an expander in lab testing. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental study and dynamic modeling of a WHR ORC power system with screw expander
Desideri, Adriano ULg; Van Den Broek, Martijn; Gusev, Sergei et al

Conference (2013, October 07)

In recent years, due to the increasing concern over energy shortage and global warming, the interest in low grade heat recovery from industrial processes has grown dramatically. Several studies have ... [more ▼]

In recent years, due to the increasing concern over energy shortage and global warming, the interest in low grade heat recovery from industrial processes has grown dramatically. Several studies have underlined the potential of small-capacity ORC power plants for waste heat recovery (WHR) applications. For such systems accurate dynamic modeling represents an important tool in particular when control issues are considered. This paper presents a dynamic model of an ORC system, validated both in steady-state and transient conditions via experimental data from a 10 kWe waste heat recovery ORC system with a screw expander. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust and Computationally Efficient Dynamic Simulation of ORC Systems: The ThermoCycle Modelica Library
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Desideri, Adriano ULg; Bell, Ian ULg et al

Conference (2013, October 07)

The ThermoCycle library, an open-source library for dynamic modeling of ORC systems, has been recently developed in the Modelica language and is presented in this paper. Special attention has been paid to ... [more ▼]

The ThermoCycle library, an open-source library for dynamic modeling of ORC systems, has been recently developed in the Modelica language and is presented in this paper. Special attention has been paid to robustness and to simulation speed. Dynamic simulations are indeed often limited by numerical constraints and failures, either during initialization or during integration. Furthermore, the use of complex equations of state (EOS) to compute thermodynamic properties dramatically decreases the simulation speed. In this paper, the different numerical methods developed to overcome these limitations are presented and discussed and the proposed models are then benchmarked against alternative simulation tools. [less ▲]

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