References of "Muller, Christian"
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See detailExceptional genetic variability of hepatitis B virus indicates that Rwanda is east of an emerging African genotype E/A1 divide
Hubschen, J M; Mugabo, J; Peltier, C A et al

in Journal of Medical Virology (2009), 81(3), 435-40

In Western Africa, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype E predominates throughout a vast crescent spanning from Senegal to Namibia and at least to the Central African Republic to the East. Although from most ... [more ▼]

In Western Africa, hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype E predominates throughout a vast crescent spanning from Senegal to Namibia and at least to the Central African Republic to the East. Although from most of the eastern parts of sub-Saharan Africa only limited sets of strains have been characterized, these belong predominantly to genotype A. To study how far the genotype E crescent extends to the East, a larger number of HBV strains from Rwanda were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of 45 S fragment sequences revealed strains of genotypes A (n = 30), D (n = 10), C (n = 4), and B (n = 1). Twelve genotype A sequences formed a new cluster clearly separated from the reference strains of the known sub-genotypes. Thus, with four genotypes and at least six sub-genotypes and a new cluster of genotype A strains, HBV shows an exceptional genetic variability in this small country, unprecedented in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this exceptional genetic variability, not a single genotype E virus was found indicating that this country does not belong to the genotype E crescent, but is east of an emerging African genotype E/A1 divide. [less ▲]

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See detailA warm layer in Venus' cryosphere and high-altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H[SUB]2[/SUB]O and HDO
Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Vandaele, Ann-Carine; Korablev, Oleg et al

in Nature (2007), 450

Venus has thick clouds of H[SUB]2[/SUB]SO[SUB]4[/SUB] aerosol particles extending from altitudes of 40 to 60km. The 60-100km region (the mesosphere) is a transition region between the 4day retrograde ... [more ▼]

Venus has thick clouds of H[SUB]2[/SUB]SO[SUB]4[/SUB] aerosol particles extending from altitudes of 40 to 60km. The 60-100km region (the mesosphere) is a transition region between the 4day retrograde superrotation at the top of the thick clouds and the solar-antisolar circulation in the thermosphere (above 100km), which has upwelling over the subsolar point and transport to the nightside. The mesosphere has a light haze of variable optical thickness, with CO, SO[SUB]2[/SUB], HCl, HF, H[SUB]2[/SUB]O and HDO as the most important minor gaseous constituents, but the vertical distribution of the haze and molecules is poorly known because previous descent probes began their measurements at or below 60km. Here we report the detection of an extensive layer of warm air at altitudes 90-120km on the night side that we interpret as the result of adiabatic heating during air subsidence. Such a strong temperature inversion was not expected, because the night side of Venus was otherwise so cold that it was named the `cryosphere' above 100km. We also measured the mesospheric distributions of HF, HCl, H[SUB]2[/SUB]O and HDO. HCl is less abundant than reported 40years ago. HDO/H[SUB]2[/SUB]O is enhanced by a factor of ~2.5 with respect to the lower atmosphere, and there is a general depletion of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O around 80-90km for which we have no explanation. [less ▲]

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