References of "Melard, François"
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See detailCrowdsourcing for agricultural applications: A review of uses and opportunities for a farmsourcing approach
Minet, Julien ULiege; Curnel, Yannick; Gobin, Anne et al

in Computers & Electronics in Agriculture (2017), 142, Part A

Abstract Crowdsourcing, understood as outsourcing tasks or data collection by a large group of non-professionals, is increasingly used in scientific research and operational applications. In this paper ... [more ▼]

Abstract Crowdsourcing, understood as outsourcing tasks or data collection by a large group of non-professionals, is increasingly used in scientific research and operational applications. In this paper, we reviewed crowdsourcing initiatives in agricultural science and farming activities and further discussed the particular characteristics of this approach in the field of agriculture. On-going crowdsourcing initiatives in agriculture were analysed and categorised according to their crowdsourcing component. We identified eight types of agricultural data and information that can be generated from crowdsourcing initiatives. Subsequently we described existing methods of quality control of the crowdsourced data. We analysed the profiles of potential contributors in crowdsourcing initiatives in agriculture, suggested ways for increasing farmers’ participation, and discussed the on-going initiatives in the light of their target beneficiaries. While crowdsourcing is reported to be an efficient way of collecting observations relevant to environmental monitoring and contributing to science in general, we pointed out that crowdsourcing applications in agriculture may be hampered by privacy issues and other barriers to participation. Close connections with the farming sector, including extension services and farm advisory companies, could leverage the potential of crowdsourcing for both agricultural research and farming applications. This paper coins the term of farmsourcing as a professional crowdsourcing strategy in farming activities and provides a source of recommendations and inspirations for future collaborative actions in agricultural crowdsourcing. [less ▲]

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See detailA la recherche du poisson diplomatique: connaître les pollutions du Golfe de Fos avec les congres (France)
Melard, François ULiege; Gramaglia, Christelle

Scientific conference (2017, May 16)

Présentation des premiers résultats de recherche sur l'usage d'espèce de poisson (le Congres) comme bioindicateur par un institut de recherche français (Institut écocitoyen pour la connaissances des ... [more ▼]

Présentation des premiers résultats de recherche sur l'usage d'espèce de poisson (le Congres) comme bioindicateur par un institut de recherche français (Institut écocitoyen pour la connaissances des pollutions dans le golf de Fos (sud de la France). Ce monitoring est faite en collaboration avec des citoyens dans la philosophie participative qui anime l'institut. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade Milk Initiative in Belgium: Bricolage as an Empowering Strategy for Change
Feyereisen, Marlène ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege; Melard, François ULiege

in Sociologia Ruralis (2017), 57(3), 297-315

In a context of multiple crises, dairy farmers struggle to receive a fair remuneration for their work. This situation led to the creation of fair milk projects in Europe. But fair trade projects often ... [more ▼]

In a context of multiple crises, dairy farmers struggle to receive a fair remuneration for their work. This situation led to the creation of fair milk projects in Europe. But fair trade projects often suffer from ambiguous interpretations that place them simultaneously in and against the market. This study focuses on a Belgian milk label in order to analyse how dairy farmers developed a particular strategy to create their own fair milk. Based on semi-structured interviews and using the multi-level perspective, we propose that articulating the concepts of lock-ins, bricolage and ambiguity enables us to analyse the potential of this innovation for the transition of the Belgian dairy system. The study shows that fairness is often a matter of divergent interpretations, and its final actualisation is the product of emergent and negotiated relations. By using bricolage practices, the stakeholders reinforced their capacity to gain market power and act within the system they want to change. [less ▲]

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See detailThe diplomacy of practitioners: for an ecology of practices about the problem of the coexistence of wind farms and red kites
Melard, François ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

in Environmental Education Research (2017)

Gathering information, comparing points of view, and designing actions in and about problematic situations are no longer purely academic activities. Learning about complex state of a airs is becoming an ... [more ▼]

Gathering information, comparing points of view, and designing actions in and about problematic situations are no longer purely academic activities. Learning about complex state of a airs is becoming an increasingly widely- distributed necessity and practice, including within civil society. We propose to give rst-hand information – as practitioners and members of a citizens’ wind energy co-operative in Belgium – about the problematic and highly controversial coexistence between wind farms and red kite (Milvus milvus). Will be reported the implementation of a community-based management scheme involving active, original practices of collaboration between citizens with local knowledge and skills and experts or scientists in order to produce research and intervention questions, methods, and results that are claimed to be more sustainable. The sustainability challenges are to design and set up in context a local space for collaboration and learning that departs from traditional public regulatory procedures (i.e. impact studies, public information meetings, etc.). However, the outcomes of this collaborative approach remain fragile. We shall argue in this regard that both the Transdisciplinary Environmental Research and the art of diplomacy may be central to the emergence of re exive governance within transition processes that strive to be sustainable. [less ▲]

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See detailComment crée-t-on l'innovation ? Regards croisés du sociologue et de l'entrepreneur
Melard, François ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2016)

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See detailVivre et faire vivre la transdisciplinarité. Retour d'expérience du cours "Approche intégrée d'une question d'environnement"
Denayer, Dorothée ULiege; Melard, François ULiege; Semal, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2016, May 13)

Cette communication présente la démarche pédagogique qui a mené un collectif d'enseignants, à la recherche d'une approche intégrée des questions d'environnement au développement d’une approche ... [more ▼]

Cette communication présente la démarche pédagogique qui a mené un collectif d'enseignants, à la recherche d'une approche intégrée des questions d'environnement au développement d’une approche d’apprentissage où l'entrée des publics concernés dans le dispositif d'apprentissage (Public-based-learning) permettent de faire vivre plutôt que d'enseigner aux étudiants la transdisciplinarité. Cette communication, centrée sur le collectif enseignant, developpe la dimension fondamentalement expérientielle et pratique de l’interdisciplinarité et son ancrage dans un certain type d’engagement du collectif.] [less ▲]

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See detail“Public-based-Learning”: The Place of Publics in Exploring Environmental Controversies for Pedagogical Purposes
Melard, François ULiege; Denayer, Dorothée ULiege; Semal, Nathalie ULiege

in International Journal of Environmental and Science Education (2015), 10(6), 905-920

This article examines a 15 year-old master level seminar dedicated to the exploration of local and complex environmental issues marked by scientific or technological uncertainties. Following a pragmatic ... [more ▼]

This article examines a 15 year-old master level seminar dedicated to the exploration of local and complex environmental issues marked by scientific or technological uncertainties. Following a pragmatic learning approach, we focus our discussion on a triadic relationship between supervisors, students and various concerned publics. A local flood management controversy in Belgium will help to illustrate our approach and point to some learning outcomes. On the basis of this pedagogical experience, we propose to shift from Problem-based-learning towards Public-based-learning that rests on the comparison of the various ways a problem is defined by publics. This comparative approach allows us to deduce a plurality of modes of involvement mobilized in the management of the environmental problems. [less ▲]

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See detailLa qualité de l’air entre perception et mesure : une approche socio-historique
Melard, François ULiege; Charvolin, Florian; Frioux, Stéphane et al

in Mermet, Laurent; Salles, Denis (Eds.) Environnement: la concertation apprivoisée, contestée, dépassée ? (2015)

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See detailNiche-innovations between breaks and continuities with the regime? A case study into the dairy sector in Belgium
Feyereisen, Marlène ULiege; Melard, François ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

Conference (2015, August)

Today, the absolute dichotomy between alternative food networks (AFNs) and the conventional agrofood system tends to be obsolete. Indeed, many AFNs are far from being radical and are more likely to ... [more ▼]

Today, the absolute dichotomy between alternative food networks (AFNs) and the conventional agrofood system tends to be obsolete. Indeed, many AFNs are far from being radical and are more likely to maintain relations with the current socio-technical regime between breaks and continuities. This contribution is a complement to the Transition Theory and the Multi-Level Perspective by underlying the fragile borders between the two levels of the niche-innovations and the socio-technical regime: some imperfect projects, full of contradictions, are participating to the transition of the system. And this is particularly true in the case of highly locked in systems. The dairy sector in Western European countries is one of those highly locked in systems. Our case study, the Belgian fair-trade milk “Fairebel”, is a project built by dairy farmers to react to the 2009 dairy crisis and to the increasingly neoliberal dairy sector; and to get a better price (or fair price) for their activity. However, the concretization of this project brought its share of contradictions regarding the common definition of fair trade milk. As a result, the “Fairebel” project maintains relations between breaks and continuities with the regime. This contribution suggests modes of governance for the stakeholders of these non-radical niches which are precious to engage change in highly locked in system without being picked up by the dominant regime and thus, keep this regime under pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailUn air familier ? Sociohistoire des pollutions atmosphériques
Charvolin, Florian; Frioux, Stéphane; Kamoun, Léa et al

Book published by Presses des MINES (2015)

Pollutions au mercaptan, particules de moteur diesel dans l’air, odeurs de raffineries, rejets d’anhydrides sulfureux… nous avons tous périodiquement l’impression de vivre dans un monde irrespirable. Cet ... [more ▼]

Pollutions au mercaptan, particules de moteur diesel dans l’air, odeurs de raffineries, rejets d’anhydrides sulfureux… nous avons tous périodiquement l’impression de vivre dans un monde irrespirable. Cet air, si familier qu’il passe aussi inaperçu que le fait de le respirer, est devenu avec le progrès scientifique et l’industrialisation une affaire d’expertise et de politiques publiques. L’ouvrage montre comment l’air se manifeste dans la vie de nos concitoyens depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle : affaire de perception d’abord, de revendication ensuite, et finalement, depuis les années 1950, d’appareillage technique. La population est acteur à plus d’un titre de la politique de l’air, publique comme privée : elle multiplie les plaintes, s’élève contre la pollution chronique, est la destinataire d’informations techniques comme l’indice atmo, mène des actions locales pour lutter contre les gênes, etc. C’est ce que montre cet ouvrage dans une enquête qui associe historien, sociologue, politiste et géographe. Et l’on pourra ainsi se demander si mesurer l’air est une façon d’exprimer sa foi dans la maîtrise « sur » les problèmes environnementaux par la modernisation technique, ou bien si c’est le début d’une exploration plus démocratique de l’homme « dans » son environnement, avec le retour en grâce de la participation des habitants, comme ce fut récemment le cas dans la cartographie des odeurs. [less ▲]

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See detailSéminaire de recherche
Guillaume, Jean-François ULiege; Nachi, Mohamed ULiege; Melard, François ULiege

Learning material (2015)

Dossier présentant la situation-problème abordée dans le cadre du séminaire de recherche en sociologie (année académique 2015-2016) : une controverse entourant l'implantation d'un parc d'éoliennes dans ... [more ▼]

Dossier présentant la situation-problème abordée dans le cadre du séminaire de recherche en sociologie (année académique 2015-2016) : une controverse entourant l'implantation d'un parc d'éoliennes dans une commune semi-rurale. La situation présentée a été anonymisée. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom fair milk to fair enterprise: the consequences of an unexpected "bricolage"
Feyereisen, Marlène ULiege; Melard, François ULiege

in Outlook on Agriculture (2014), 43(3), 207-211

In recent years, the European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy have made considerable changes in policy related to the dairy sector. After two successive dairy crises in 2009 and 2012, the dairy ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy have made considerable changes in policy related to the dairy sector. After two successive dairy crises in 2009 and 2012, the dairy sector in Belgium was weakened considerably. The Belgian fair-trade milk enterprise, Fairebel, was created by dairy farmers a few months after the 2009 European milk crisis, seeking to develop their alternative, supported, owned by and for traditional dairy farmers. This case study brings into question ‘fair trade’ as a concept and practice in terms of trade between enterprises in Europe, and the surprise effects of interaction when analysed at both European and regional scales. The study concludes that the best innovation processes are not necessarily radical, and that tinkering – or bricolage – is the path taken by many innovations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe exploration of environmental controversies for pedagogical purposes : How to learn again to slow down and hesitate ?
Melard, François ULiege; Semal, Nathalie ULiege; Denayer, Dorothée ULiege

Scientific conference (2014, May 20)

The purpose the conference is double : First, To share with you the interest to work on those complex situations with students : How to turn scientific and technical uncertainties, complexity and the ... [more ▼]

The purpose the conference is double : First, To share with you the interest to work on those complex situations with students : How to turn scientific and technical uncertainties, complexity and the confrontation of contradictory points of view, into pedagogical resources ? How to learn from those apparent messy, intricate, convoluted and sometimes confused situations in order to shed lights on typical or new environmental dynamics. Second, To share with you our – now - 15 years of experience in conducting a seminar called « Integrated Exercices » that take place in our 1st year of Master in Environmental Sciences and Management. The Case study of the recurring Tubize floodings (Belgium) is used through out the conference in order to illustrate both points. [less ▲]

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See detail“Fairebel” fair milk: a multi-level innovation
Feyereisen, Marlène ULiege; Melard, François ULiege

Conference (2014, April)

The research focuses on the case study of the Belgian fair-trade milk “Fairebel”, which was created by dairy farmers a few months after the 2009 European milk crisis. This innovation is overseen by the ... [more ▼]

The research focuses on the case study of the Belgian fair-trade milk “Fairebel”, which was created by dairy farmers a few months after the 2009 European milk crisis. This innovation is overseen by the “Fair Milk” programme set up by the European Milk Board (EMB), a European organization of dairy farmers, which has established five fair-trade milk labels in European countries (Austria, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France). At the Belgian level, the case study of the “Fairebel” project shows how the dairy system is institutionally, politically, and technically locked in. In such an irreversible system, the developers of “Fairebel” have had to use cunning and espouse some contradictions (even inconsistencies) in order to build their idea of fair-trade milk and to achieve its commercialization in the real world of commodities. Also, the “Fairebel” project is trying to increase the market power of dairy farmers and by-passes entirely the dairy industry in Belgium, which refused to support the project. For example, the developers of “Fairebel” stock up on the spot market and the Fairebel” milk cartons are produced and filled by the Luxembourg co-operative dairy Luxlait. On this level, the “Fairebel” project is more a “reorientation of trajectories” than a radical transition of the system: It uses internal resources of the main system to try to change some of its detrimental consequences, such as the prices paid to dairy farmers, without forcing through associated structural transitions. On the European level of the EMB, in which “Fairebel” participates, the transition of the system is radicalized by changing the character and the structure of the regime itself (e.g. CAP): reversal of the balance of power between dairy farmers and dairy processors, re-appropriation of the means of production by the farmers, and modification of the economic and trade rules of the dairy products (e.g., monitoring agency). Taken together, these two levels of this fair-milk innovation strengthen each other, so that the transition that “Fairebel” has inspired is more radical than it would seem when the Belgian level is considered alone. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the Conference.in Teaching complexity and uncertainty on Environmental Issues: Practices, Theories and Products
Melard, François ULiege; Stassart, Pierre M ULiege

Book published by Orbi ULg (2014)

THE CONFERENCE RATIONALE Environmental studies and management are singular in that they entail the development of holistic thinking and action for which a transversal approach is a must. We are testing ... [more ▼]

THE CONFERENCE RATIONALE Environmental studies and management are singular in that they entail the development of holistic thinking and action for which a transversal approach is a must. We are testing this singularity in a range of themes as diverse as biodiversity management, agro-ecology, community participation, and the study of environmental science and technology. Unlike the “pure” natural sciences, environment and sustainability studies entail an “ecological” approach for which the various types of knowledge (biological, chemical, physical, etc., but also legal, economic, sociological, and so on) have to be tamed in order to be able to link them up. It is more a matter of grasping the many social and technical dimensions of the issues that are studied and taught than of making forays into a so-called interdisciplinarity in which the tensions between (scientific) fields replace the tensions among the tangle of practices and practical knowledge that are manifested by the stakeholders themselves. The boundaries of environmental issues are by nature moving, changing, and closely related to the technical development and needs of society. They often put themselves forward at the outset in the form of controversies, scientific and technological uncertainties, and the complex network of interdependencies that they reveal. As such, they challenge the separations between scientific disciplines. Far from the usual practices of university education and training, such controversy, uncertainty, and complexity can be seen as genuine resources for quality education that is open to the realities of today’s world. From this standpoint, they also raise new challenges of collaboration among the staff in charge of the education and training. If we take a pragmatic approach (Dewey 1938), such subjects lend themselves excellently to the mobilization of ‘situated’ approaches, that is to say, learning approaches that focus more on active experience (Masciotra and Morel 2010). This entails either having students experience real-life situations that are shared by the practitioners themselves or putting them directly in a situation. Their learning will come then from what they make of the situation and how they experience it. What kind of university graduate do we need? Alongside top specialists who focus on mastering specialized techniques and knowledge, more and more importance is being given to the training of environmental ‘general practitioners’ who are able to circumscribe issues and challenges that often lead them away from the territories of their original disciplines. In that respect, acquiring the skills needed to explore unstable and non-stabilized environmental situations is a must. When they hold managerial or leadership positions they will have to cope with a range of stakeholders, each of whom often has very different types of knowledge, ways of acting, world views, and responsibilities that must be brought together. Linking up these different elements is as much a necessity as a challenge. How can we prepare our students for such trials? How can we equip them with the theoretical, methodological, and human resources required to cope with such situations? Given that one of the particularities of environmental education and training is to avoid cutting the subjects’ scientific and technical dimensions off from their political and social dimensions, it is important to explain very clearly and to develop a genuinely critical mind in such programs. This means not only the critical mind that prompts one to develop or use such and such technical analytical protocol strictly, but, more basically, the critical mind that evaluates the societal consequences of a given piece of knowledge, theory, organizational choice, management scheme, and so on. The demands that employers make of their young university graduates have more to do with their abilities to take stock of existing technologies and policies, and even alternatives thereto, reliably; deal with specific problems in the field; and understand their implications for society, much more so than the ability to provide optimal hypothetical solutions. Aims of the seminar The purpose of the seminar is threefold: 1. The starting point of this seminar is to exchange experiences on courses or seminars that are aimed at recognizing and taking account of the controversial, complex, and uncertain nature of environmental issues and their management. 2. Once these empirical foundations have been laid, we shall then share theories or conceptual propositions that make it possible to equip these teaching approaches and to give them theoretical and methodological foundations. 3. Finally, we shall focus on the transition from practices to teaching methods/instruments as pedagogical innovation, that is to say, we shall ask about the value, use, and transferability of these initiatives outside the contexts of their creation: How can a course or seminar be turned into a teaching instrument for other curricula (as for natural sciences or applied sciences), even in other areas of education? The purpose of all this being to enable a broader, heterogeneous student body to benefit from an approach that invites them to experience this environmental complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe "Pragmatic Collective Interest" as the Product of Civic Deliberation: The Case of Pesticide Management in Belgium
Melard, François ULiege; Mormont, Marc ULiege

in Sustainability (2013), 5(5), 2233-2251

Through the issue of pesticide management in Belgium, this article offers an empirical and conceptual grasp on what Ulrich Beck called the second-order reflexive modernity; that which is exercised among ... [more ▼]

Through the issue of pesticide management in Belgium, this article offers an empirical and conceptual grasp on what Ulrich Beck called the second-order reflexive modernity; that which is exercised among citizens when they are confronted with threatening and uncertain situations. To achieve this, we use two case studies of two public policy instruments, which we offer to the public for discussion: food product labelling, and the modelling of toxic effects linked to pesticide use. To this end, we organised two focus groups designed to encourage discussion, composed of citizens/practitioners. The results obtained plead in favour of a collective deconstruction-reconstruction of these tools and can lead to what we propose calling a “pragmatic collective interest.” This “pragmatic collective interest” can take the form of a new set-up or new associations that enable the coexistence of conflicting propositions and points of view, and a suspension of efforts to hierarchize causes and required solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailLes « Exercices Intégrés » : Comment réapprendre à ralentir et à hésiter ?
Melard, François ULiege

Scientific conference (2013, March 29)

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