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See detailAge-related decline in cognitive control: the role of fluid intelligence and processing speed
Manard, Marine ULg; Carabin, Delphine; Jaspar, Mathieu ULg et al

in BMC Neuroscience (2014), 15(7),

Background Research on cognitive control suggests an age-related decline in proactive control abilities whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. However, the reason of the differential age effect ... [more ▼]

Background Research on cognitive control suggests an age-related decline in proactive control abilities whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. However, the reason of the differential age effect on cognitive control efficiency is still unclear. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence and processing speed on the selective age-related decline in proactive control. Eighty young and 80 healthy older adults were included in this study. The participants were submitted to a working memory recognition paradigm, assessing proactive and reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs and hierarchical linear regressions indicated that the ability to appropriately use cognitive control processes during aging seems to be at least partially affected by the amount of available cognitive resources (assessed by fluid intelligence and processing speed abilities). Conclusions This study highlights the potential role of cognitive resources on the selective age-related decline in proactive control, suggesting the importance of a more exhaustive approach considering the confounding variables during cognitive control assessment. [less ▲]

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See detailModulating effect of COMT genotype on the brain regions underlying proactive control process during inhibition
Jaspar, Mathieu ULg; Genon, Sarah ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (2014), 50

Introduction. Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met polymorphism) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of cognitive control functions ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val158Met polymorphism) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of cognitive control functions. Methods. In an event-related fMRI study, a modified version of the Stroop task was administered to three groups of 15 young adults according to their COMT Val158Met genotype [Val/Val (VV), Val/Met (VM) and Met/Met (MM)]. Based on the theory of dual mechanisms of control (Braver, et al., 2007), the Stroop task has been built to induce proactive or reactive control processes according to the task context. Results. Behavioral results did not show any significant group differences for reaction times but Val allele carriers individuals are less accurate in the processing of incongruent items. fMRI results revealed that proactive control is specifically associated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in carriers of the Met allele, while increased activity is observed in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in carriers of the Val allele. Conclusion. These observations, in keeping with a higher cortical dopamine level in MM individuals, support the hypothesis of a COMT Val158Met genotype modulation of the brain regions underlying proactive control, especially in frontal areas as suggested by Braver et al. [less ▲]

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See detailDo fluid intelligence and executive functioning protect from age-related decline in cognitive control?
Manard, Marine ULg; Lorant, Caroline ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2013, July)

Age-related studies on cognitive control suggest a decline in proactive control whereas reactive control remains intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007). This study was designed to investigate the ... [more ▼]

Age-related studies on cognitive control suggest a decline in proactive control whereas reactive control remains intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007). This study was designed to investigate the potential influence of fluid intelligence (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices) and general executive functioning (Executive composite score from executive assessment) on cognitive control abilities during normal aging. Cognitive control was assessed using a computerized version of the Stroop paradigm in which proactive and reactive control processes were pseudo randomly engaged by varying the amount of interference across the task. Thirteen young and 27 older adults were included in this study. In the whole sample, results confirmed a significant age-related decline in proactive control. However, when older adults were divided in high- and low fluid intelligence subgroups, only older adults with low fluid intelligence showed a significant decline in proactive control compared to younger adults and this difference disappeared for older adults with high fluid intelligence level. When older adults were distinguished according to high and low executive capacities, the analysis revealed that, compared to the young ones, older adults with low executive functioning showed a general cognitive control decline (proactive and reactive processes). However, differences disappeared when young adults were compared to older adults with a high executive functioning. Accuracy results suggested that older adults have a slower but spared access to goal-representations that are necessary to correctly manage interference. So, this study confirmed the previous results obtained by Braver et al. (2007), but also suggest an influence of fluid intelligence and executive resources that seems important to take into account to investigate age-related decline in reactive and proactive cognitive control processes. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes processing speed protect from age-related decline in cognitive control ?
Manard, Marine ULg; Carabin, Delphine; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2012, October 27)

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007; Braver, 2012). This study investigated the potential ... [more ▼]

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007; Braver, 2012). This study investigated the potential influence of speed of processing abilities on the age-related decline in proactive control. We used a working memory recognition paradigm involving proactive or reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. 80 young adults (18-29 years old) and 80 healthy older adults (60-89 years old) were included. The main results revealed significant effects of age on sensitivity to interference. As expected, reactive control performance remained intact with aging (similar interference effect in the two groups). In contrast, we observed a larger interference effect in the proactive condition in aging. Finally, when the groups are matched according to their processing speed (assessed by the Code task of the WAIS III, with both younger and older adults having a score comprised between 60 and 93), the effect of age on sensitivity to interference disappeared. In other words, when younger and older adults had similar speed of processing abilities, no age-related proactive control decline was observed. In conclusion, beyond the fact that this study confirms the selective age-related decline in proactive control, it also indicates that speed of processing, a measure considered as reflecting the integrity of cognitive functioning during aging (Salthouse, 1996), influences the efficiency of proactive control in that population. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes processing speed protect from age-related decline in cognitive control?
Manard, Marine ULg; Carabin, Delphine; Collette, Fabienne ULg

in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2012, October 27)

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007; Braver, 2012). This study investigated the potential ... [more ▼]

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact (Braver, Gray, & Burgess, 2007; Braver, 2012). This study investigated the potential influence of speed of processing abilities on the age-related decline in proactive control. We used a working memory recognition paradigm involving proactive or reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. 80 young adults (18-29 years old) and 80 healthy older adults (60-89 years old) were included. The main results revealed significant effects of age on sensitivity to interference. As expected, reactive control performance remained intact with aging (similar interference effect in the two groups). In contrast, we observed a larger interference effect in the proactive condition in aging. Finally, when the groups are matched according to their processing speed (assessed by the Code task of the WAIS III, with both younger and older adults having a score comprised between 60 and 93), the effect of age on sensitivity to interference disappeared. In other words, when younger and older adults had similar speed of processing abilities, no age-related proactive control decline was observed. In conclusion, beyond the fact that this study confirms the selective age-related decline in proactive control, it also indicates that speed of processing, a measure considered as reflecting the integrity of cognitive functioning during aging (Salthouse, 1996), influences the efficiency of proactive control in that population. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (15 ULg)
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See detailDoes processing speed protect from age-related decline in cognitive control?
Manard, Marine ULg; Carabin, Delphine; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2012, August 30)

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of speed of processing abilities on the ... [more ▼]

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of speed of processing abilities on the age-related decline in proactive control. We used a working memory recognition paradigm involving proactive or reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. 80 young adults (18-29 years old) and 80 healthy older adults (60-89 years old) were included. Main results revealed significant effects of age on interference sensitivity. As expected, reactive control performance remained intact with aging (similar interference effect in the two groups). In contrast, we observed a larger interference effect in the proactive condition in aging. Finally, when the groups are matched according to their processing speed (assessed by the Code task of the WAIS III, with both younger and older adults having a score comprised between 60 and 93), the effect of age on sensitivity to interference disappeared. In other words, when younger and older adults had similar speed of processing abilities, no age-related proactive control decline was observed. In conclusion, beyond the fact that this study confirms the selective age-related decline in proactive control, it also indicates that speed of processing, a measure considered as reflecting the integrity of cognitive functioning during aging, influences the efficiency of proactive control in that population. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes fluid intelligence protect from age-related decline in cognitive control ?
Manard, Marine ULg; Carabin, Delphine; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2012, June 25)

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence capacity on the age ... [more ▼]

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence capacity on the age-related decline in proactive control. We used a working memory recognition paradigm involving proactive or reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. 80 young adults (18-29 years old) and 80 healthy older adults (60-89 years old) were included. The main results revealed significant effects of age and fluid intelligence capacity on sensitivity to interference. As expected, reactive control performance remained intact with aging (similar interference effect in the two groups). In contrast, we observed a larger interference effect in the proactive condition in aging. Finally, older participants with similar level of fluid intelligence to young adults showed no proactive control age-related decrement. Beyond the fact that this study confirms the selective age-related decline in proactive control, it also indicates that the level of fluid intelligence influences the efficiency of proactive control in aging. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes fluid intelligence protect from age-related decline in cognitive control ?
Manard, Marine ULg; Carabin, Delphine; Collette, Fabienne ULg

in Proceedings of the BAPS - SEPEX meeting (2012, May 11)

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence capacity on the age ... [more ▼]

Age-related difficulties have been reported on proactive control whereas reactive control seems to remain intact. This study investigated the potential influence of fluid intelligence capacity on the age-related decline in proactive control. We used a working memory recognition paradigm involving proactive or reactive cognitive control by manipulating the interference level across items. 80 young adults (18-29 years old) and 80 healthy older adults (60-89 years old) were included. The main results revealed significant effects of age and fluid intelligence capacity on sensitivity to interference. As expected, reactive control performance remained intact with aging (similar interference effect in the two groups). In contrast, we observed a larger interference effect in the proactive condition in aging. Finally, older participants with similar level of fluid intelligence to young adults showed no proactive control age-related decrement. Beyond the fact that this study confirms the selective age-related decline in proactive control, it also indicates that the level of fluid intelligence influences the efficiency of proactive control in aging. [less ▲]

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See detailThe "other-age" effect in age estimation of faces
Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Manard, Marine ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg

Poster (2011, May 27)

In this study the occurrence of an “other-age” effect on age estimation was assessed. This effect consists in a more accurate estimation of own-age faces than other-age faces. Here, the age of ... [more ▼]

In this study the occurrence of an “other-age” effect on age estimation was assessed. This effect consists in a more accurate estimation of own-age faces than other-age faces. Here, the age of participants (10 to 14 year old children and 20 to 30 year old adults) and the age of stimuli (faces of 10 to 14 year old children and faces of 20 to 30 year old adults) were crossed. Although we did not observe a crossed interaction where each age group would have been more accurate for in-group estimation than for out-group estimation, present results revealed the occurrence of an own-age bias in age estimation. Although both groups did not differ when estimating child faces, adults were more accurate than children when estimating the age of adult faces. Therefore, the present results showed an asymmetrical "other-age" effect. Several hypotheses explaining the present pattern of results are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (14 ULg)