References of "Haubruge, Eric"
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See detailInsects, the next European foodie craze?
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

in Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems (in press)

Edible insects are systematically targeted as a major future food for European consumers but success in introducing entomophagy in Western society depends on factors governing consumers’ attitudes towards ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are systematically targeted as a major future food for European consumers but success in introducing entomophagy in Western society depends on factors governing consumers’ attitudes towards insect-based products. Effectively, as for sushi in the 2000s, edible insects are considered as new food products in Europe and are deeply related to a fear or a reject feeling by consumers called “food neophobia“. Consequently, several studies have been achieved to face the actual aversion of European consumers for insects. These studies principally tried to understand the insect-related neophobia, to highlight positive arguments for entomophagy development and also to test possible ways of integration of insects as food. The purpose of this chapter is to get an overview of the actual literature on edible insect acceptability in Europe to propose conceivable solutions for product development and new approaches for further studies. [less ▲]

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See detailInsect fatty acids: A comparison of lipids from three Orthopterans and Tenebrio molitor L. larvae
Paul, Aman ULiege; Frederich, Michel ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2017), 20(2), 337-340

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and ... [more ▼]

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and compared with those of Tenebrio molitor larvae. A. domesticus, Co. discolor, Ch. parallelus and T. molitor larvae were found to contain approximately 15%, 13%, 10% and 32% lipids on dry weight, respectively. The lipids from three Orthopterans contain much higher amounts of essential fatty acids than those of T. molitor larvae. The two Orthopterans of the suborder Ensifera i.e., A. domesticus and Co. discolor contain linoleic acid in major quantities, while Ch. parallelus of the suborder Caelifera, contain α-linolenic acid in major quantities. The consumption of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acid is linked with numerous health promoting effects. The factors that contribute to differences in fatty acid profiles of these insects are being discussed. At last the nutritional parameters including polyunsaturated to saturated and omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acid ratios of these insect lipids are also being discussed to understand the potential role of these lipids in human nutrition. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobiological load of edible insects found in Belgium
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe ULiege et al

in Insects (2017)

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailElevated carbon dioxide concentration reduces alarm signaling in aphids
Boullis, Antoine ULiege; Fassotte, Bérénice ULiege; Sarles, Landry ULiege et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2017), 43

Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with surrounding conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in ... [more ▼]

Insects often rely on olfaction to communicate with surrounding conspecifics. While the chemical language of insects has been deciphered in recent decades, few studies have assessed how changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will impact pheromonal communication by insects. Here, we hypothesize that changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affect the whole dynamics of alarm signaling in aphids, including: (1) the production of the active compound (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf), (2) emission behavior when under attack, (3) perception by the olfactory apparatus, and (4) the escape response. We reared two strains of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for several generations. We found that an increase in CO2 concentration reduced the production (i.e., individual content) and emission of Eβf (released under predation events). While no difference in Eβf neuronal perception was observed, we found that an increase in CO2 strongly reduces the escape behavior expressed by an aphid colony following exposure to natural doses of the alarm pheromone. In conclusion, our results confirm that changes to greenhouse gases do impact chemical communication in insects, and could potentially have a cascade effect on interactions with higher trophic levels. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-scale production of crickets and impact on rural livelihoods
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

in Insects as food and feed: From production to consumption (2017)

Small-scale production of edible insects could be a sustainable, cost-effective, and nutritious alternative to traditional livestock in poor rural areas. Among the diversity of edible insect species ... [more ▼]

Small-scale production of edible insects could be a sustainable, cost-effective, and nutritious alternative to traditional livestock in poor rural areas. Among the diversity of edible insect species, crickets are valuable candidates as they reproduce quickly in high numbers, require a reduced-size rearing space and could easily recycle agricultural or industrial by-products, while keeping high feed conversion ratio. This chapter will present an overview of four cricket species, Acheta domesticus, Gryllus bimaculatus, Teleogryllus testaceus, and Brachytrupes membranaceus reared at a small-scale level and will describe their corresponding rearing system. Strategies to promote and develop small-scale cricket farming in different countries will be presented throughout a state of play of the past and current projects. [less ▲]

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See detailCould new information influence attitudes to foods supplemented with edible insects?
Barsics, Fanny; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in British Food Journal (2017)

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a broad-based information session would affect consumers’ perceptions and attitudes about an edible insect product. Design: During a taste testing session, preceded or followed by an information session about entomophagy, participants rated the organoleptic characteristics of two bread samples on 9-point hedonic scales. The two bread samples were identical, though one was faux-labelled as containing an insect product. Findings: General Linear Model (GLM) analysis showed effects of gender, information session exposure, entomophagy familiarity, and entomophagy experience on participants’ ratings of the samples. Wilcoxon‑Mann-Whitney ranked sum tests showed that appearance, flavour, and overall liking were significantly better rated for the bread sample labelled as insect-free by participants who attended the presentation a priori. Potential ways to improve information content and delivery in favour of encouraging dietary shifts are discussed. Practical applications: This study shows that information about insect-based products could change consumers’ perceptions of such products. The results provide clues regarding how the food industry can adapt communication for target audiences. Originality: Actual edible insect products were not used in this study. Paradoxically, it is the first to show the impact of an information session on the acceptability of edible insect products, by revealing participants’ perceptual expectations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Odor of Death: An Overview of Current Knowledge on Characterization and Applications
Verheggen, François ULiege; Perrault, Katelynn ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege et al

in Bioscience (2017)

After death, the human body undergoes various processes that result in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The interest in these VOCs has increased substantially in recent years because ... [more ▼]

After death, the human body undergoes various processes that result in the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The interest in these VOCs has increased substantially in recent years because they are key attractants for necrophagous insects and vertebrate scavengers. Identifying cadaveric VOCs has required the effective development of analytical tools for collecting, separating, identifying, and quantifying the suite of VOCs released throughout decomposition. Analytical developments for studying cadaveric VOCs in vertebrates, ecological interactions of cadaveric VOCs with the abiotic and biotic environment, and the necessity for convergence of these two areas for the progression of future knowledge are discussed herein. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovative instructional and methodological support for the Jobs@Skills - SCES - Liège-Luxembourg incubator: Guidelines for developing blended learning
Parlascino, Emmanuelle ULiege; Jérôme, Françoise ULiege; Verpoorten, Dominique ULiege et al

Report (2017)

Pedagogical factors that make a blended learning course a success are numerous. But the most critical one is, for blended courses owners, to rely on a safe development methodology. This is why this ... [more ▼]

Pedagogical factors that make a blended learning course a success are numerous. But the most critical one is, for blended courses owners, to rely on a safe development methodology. This is why this document presents as a handbook usable as a ready reference for guiding teachers through the different steps and attention points to be considered in the making of their blended set up. [less ▲]

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See detailParasitisme d’Apis mellifera adansonii (Latreille 1804) et de Meliponula bocandei (Spinola 1853) par Aethina tumida (Murray 1867): premier recensement au Gabon et impact sur la domestication
Fabre Anguilet, Edgard ULiege; Alabi, Taofic ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2017), 70

The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Murray 1867), has been reported in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This parasite is considered as a minor threat to strong Apis mellifera (Linnaeus 1758 ... [more ▼]

The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Murray 1867), has been reported in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This parasite is considered as a minor threat to strong Apis mellifera (Linnaeus 1758) colonies in Africa and as a major threat during the transfer of wild colonies of Meliponula bocandei (Spinola 1853) in hives. There is no data for Gabon and the state of wild colonies is still poorly known. Then, this study aims (1) to make a first prevalence assessment of A. tumida in wild colonies of A. mellifera and M. bocandei in Gabon; (2) to verify the effectiveness of quarantine implementation during the transfer of M. bocandei in hives against A. tumida. For that, 59 nests of A. mellifera and 25 nests of M. bocandei were inspected in two locations. Twelve nests of M. bocandei were transferred in hives with a quarantine for 4 days while 12 nests were transferred without quarantine. Aethina tumida was observed in more than 70 % of A. mellifera nests and in a single nest of M. bocandei. No damage was observed in nests of A. mellifera. More than 60 % of brood sections in quarantine or not were destroyed by A. tumida in hives. This study provided first evidence of the presence of A. tumida in Gabon and the need to develop a more effective method to domesticate M. bocandei in hives. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional Composition and Rearing Potential of the Meadow Grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus Zetterstedt)
Paul, Aman ULiege; Frederich, Michel ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2016), 19(4), 1111-1116

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are ... [more ▼]

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are abundantly found throughout Europe. However, these insects were not consumed by Europeans till now, but could possibly be used as human food, which is why we investigated their chemical composition. We found that they contain high level of proteins (69%), with an excellent amino acid profile and protein digestibility (97%). Furthermore, specimens of C. parallelus have an interesting fatty acids profile and minerals composition. Preliminary toxicity assessment indicates that these insects do not exhibit toxicity towards neutrophil cells (white blood cells). These data suggest that C. parallelus could be considered for human consumption. Rearing trials done during the study show that commercial rearing could be developed to produce sufficient biomass for sustaining human consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailExtraction of honey polyphenols: Method development and evidence of cis isomerization
Istasse, Thibaut ULiege; Jacquet, Nicolas ULiege; Berchem, Thomas ULiege et al

in Analytical Chemistry Insights (2016), 11

Honey polyphenols have been studied with the objective of relating honeys to their floral sources. Initially synthesized by plant, these polyphenols can be found in the plant’s nectar, where they are ... [more ▼]

Honey polyphenols have been studied with the objective of relating honeys to their floral sources. Initially synthesized by plant, these polyphenols can be found in the plant’s nectar, where they are collected by bees which convert the nectar into honey. Consequently, polyphenols constitute minor honey components. The development of a solid phase extraction method for honey polyphenols is presented herein. The technique employs Amberlite XAD-2 adsorbent and was tested on monofloral honeys from six different plants: acacia, chestnut, eucalyptus, thyme, sunflower and wild carrot. Analyses were performed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry. Several phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified: caffeic and p-coumaric acids, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, chrysin and pinocembrin. Generally, the quantity of a given polyphenol in the honey was around 0.2 mg/100g of honey, except for chestnut honey which contained around 3.0 mg of p-coumaric acid/100g of honey. Analyses highlighted significant formation of cis isomers for phenolic acids during the extraction despite protection from light. [less ▲]

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See detailLa biodiversité entomologique comme source d’aliments à Kinshasa (République démocratique du Congo)
Nsevolo, Papy; Alabi, Taofic ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2016)

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du ... [more ▼]

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du bassin du Congo. Bien que la consommation d’insectes en République Démocratique du Congo soit une pratique ancienne, l’inventaire et l’identification taxonomique des espèces consommées ainsi que la caractérisation de la filière « entomophagie » sont encore mal maitrisés. Toutefois, nos études axées sur la ville de Kinshasa ont permis d’inventorier 14 espèces comestibles régulièrement consommées. Elles appartiennent à l’ordre des Lépidoptères (46,7%), des Isoptères (18,6%), des Orthoptères (17,6%), des Coléoptères (9,7%) et des Hyménoptères (3,7%). De façon générale, 80% de la population de Kinshasa consomment au minimum une espèce d’insecte 5 jours par mois avec des quantités variant de 66,4 à 154 g d’insectes par personne par jour en fonction des différents ordres. Les acteurs de la filière sont majoritairement des femmes. Les revenus générés par l’activité concourent au bien-être des ménages, à la réduction de la pauvreté et de l’insécurité alimentaire dans de la capitale Kinshasa. [less ▲]

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See detailPRODUCTION OF BIOFUELS AND BIOBASED COMPOUNDS IN URBAN BIOREFINERIES: A STRATEGY TO MANAGE WASTE IN WALLONIA?
Richel, Aurore ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Jacquet, Nicolas ULiege

Conference (2016, May)

“Urban biorefining” is an original concept aiming at using urban wastes (household wastes, municipal wastes, industrial liquid and/or solid residues and side-products, etc.), mainly of vegetal origin, for ... [more ▼]

“Urban biorefining” is an original concept aiming at using urban wastes (household wastes, municipal wastes, industrial liquid and/or solid residues and side-products, etc.), mainly of vegetal origin, for the production of an array of biofuels and bioproducts. This “urban biorefining” concept fits particularly with the economic, geographic and politic contexts and constraints of the Walloon Region (south part of Belgium). Indeed, Walloon Region is a very small territory (area of about 6,504 sq mi) with a temperate climate. Supply feedstock, mainly arising form forestry and agriculture, are thus rather restricted, submitted to importation, and subjected to non-standardized quality. Several examples of our regional strategy, still available on an industrial scale, are herein proposed and detailed. [less ▲]

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See detailForaging wireworms are attracted to root-produced volatile aldehydes
Barsics, Fanny ULiege; Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2016)

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host ... [more ▼]

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host plant remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we aimed at identifying chemical cues released by barley roots that attract Agriotes sordidus. In a first behavioral experiment, we assessed the ability of wireworms to orient towards live barley roots, using dual-choice olfactometers suitable for belowground insects. Then, we collected the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by barley roots using a dynamic head-space sampling approach. VOC were quantified and identified using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The odorant blend is composed of four aldehydes, namely hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-non-2-enal, and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. In a second set of dual-choice bioassays, wireworms were attracted towards a synthetic blend of these four major compounds. However, the synthetic blend was not as attractive as live roots, which is partially explained by the absence of CO2, commonly known as a strong attractant for soil-dwelling insects. While CO2 indicates the presence of living material in the vicinity, we hypothesize that additional VOC inform about the plant suitability. A better understanding of these belowground signals would contribute to the development of new integrated control strategies against wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectiveness of nest survey method of Honey bees and Stingless bees to study their diversity according to habitat
Fabre Anguilet, Edgard ULiege; Alabi, Taofic ULiege; Bengone Ndong, Toussaint et al

Poster (2016, February 02)

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See detailDiversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses
Boukraa, Slimane ULiege; de la Grandière, Maria Ana ULiege; Bawin, Thomas ULiege et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2016), 124

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne ... [more ▼]

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011–2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. [less ▲]

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See detailLa législation REACH: une opportunité d’innovation pour l’économie biobasée
Schmetz, Quentin ULiege; Richel, Aurore ULiege; Jacquet, Nicolas ULiege et al

Conference (2016, January 20)

REACH is the acronym given to the integrated legislative system for the recording, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals introduced by the European Union. The aim of REACH is to improve ... [more ▼]

REACH is the acronym given to the integrated legislative system for the recording, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals introduced by the European Union. The aim of REACH is to improve and ensure health and environmental protection while boosting competitiveness and innovation in the European chemicals industry. This system thus strongly encourages the transition to a biobased economy by encouraging the development and the operation of production patterns and new substitutes greener for the environment and health. Biotechnological production pathways, including the use of renewable raw materials have thus been developed over the past decade in the industry, and this trend is confirmed for the coming years. This presentation provides an update on current trends in this sector through various concrete cases such as flame retardant, plasticizer and surfactant substituted by alternatives from the vegetal. It also discusses the various research programs carried out in the Laboratory of Biological and Industrial Chemistry of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech that allowed the development of new biobased substances consistent with a more sustainable chemistry and meeting REACH requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst survey on prevalence and infestation rates of Varrroa mite in Gabon
Fabre Anguilet, Edgard ULiege; Alabi, Taofic ULiege; Bengone Ndong, Toussaint et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2016), 81(3), 299-305

Varroa mites cause considerable damage to Apis mellifera Linnaeus colonies in North America, Europe and Asia. To control this parasite, beekeepers in these parts of world have to use chemical acaricides ... [more ▼]

Varroa mites cause considerable damage to Apis mellifera Linnaeus colonies in North America, Europe and Asia. To control this parasite, beekeepers in these parts of world have to use chemical acaricides. In Africa, this pest has been identified, and survey of Varroa infestation rates showed a lot of variation across honey bee sub-species. Generally, African colonies seemed to be resistant or tolerant to the presence of Varroa mite. The objective of our study is to explore the presence, prevalence and infestation rates of Varroa mite in Gabon. The presence and quantitative assessment of Varroa mites were performed in 55 wild colonies of Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille in two locations. Our results showed that: (1) 70% and 48% of the wild colonies studied were infested with Varroa destructor according to locations, (2) Varroa infestation rate was lower than 0.5 mite per 100 bees regardless location. The infestation rates obtained were still very low compared to those observed in various other regions in Africa. In perspective, it would be interesting to explore the reasons that could explain the low infestation rates which were observed. [less ▲]

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See detailGrasshoppers as a food source? A review
Paul, Aman ULiege; Frederich, Michel ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20(AgricultureIsLife), 337-352

Description of the subject. Current trends suggest an increasing future demand for conventional meats, which indicates a strong need to shift this dependency to other alternative protein sources such as ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. Current trends suggest an increasing future demand for conventional meats, which indicates a strong need to shift this dependency to other alternative protein sources such as insects. Literature. From a nutritional point of view, of all the insects consumed globally, grasshoppers are particularly important as a human food. Data from the literature regarding the nutrient composition, amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, mineral composition and vitamin content of grasshoppers as reviewed in this paper, suggest that a number of grasshopper species are a good source of nutrients. It also highlights some of the health related aspects that might arise from the consumption of grasshoppers, mostly linked to agricultural practices and the allergic response of sensitive individuals. The paper also summarizes some religious, social and economic factors that are associated with grasshopper consumption. Conclusions. The success of introducing grasshoppers as a novel food in western countries depends on changes in consumer attitudes. It would be interesting to develop food products derived from grasshoppers in a form acceptable to consumers. Furthermore, it is important to explore the food potential of some grasshopper species native to western countries and to develop their rearing methodologies to enhance availability. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards sustainable food systems: the concept of agroecology and how it questions current research practices. A review
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Brédart, David ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20(Special issue 1), 215-224

Introduction. Multiple environmental and socio-economic indicators show that our current agriculture and the organization of the food system need to be revised. Agroecology has been proposed as a ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Multiple environmental and socio-economic indicators show that our current agriculture and the organization of the food system need to be revised. Agroecology has been proposed as a promising concept for achieving greater sustainability. This paper offers an overview and discussion of the concept based on existing literature and case studies, and explores the way it questions our current research approaches and education paradigms. Literature. In order to improve the sustainability of agriculture, the use of external and chemical inputs needs to be minimized. Agroecological farming practices seek to optimize ecological processes, thus minimizing the need for external inputs by providing an array of ecosystem services. Implementing such practices challenges the current structure of the food system, which has been criticized for its lack of social relevance and economic viability. An agroecological approach includes all stakeholders, from field to fork, in the discussion, design and development of future food systems. This inclusion of various disciplines and stakeholders raises issues about scientists and their research practices, as well as about the education of the next generation of scientists. Conclusions. Agroecology is based on the concept that agricultural practices and food systems cannot be dissociated because they belong to the same natural and socio-economic context. Clearly, agroecology is not a silver-bullet, but its principles can serve as avenues for rethinking the current approaches towards achieving greater sustainability. Adapting research approaches in line with indicators that promote inter- and transdisciplinary research is essential if progress is to be made. [less ▲]

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