References of "Grégoire, Marilaure"
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See detailThe variability of primary production in the ocean: from the synoptic to the global scale: The 45th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics, Liege, Belgium, May 13-17, 2013
Grégoire, Marilaure ULg; Levy, Marina; Marra, John et al

Book published by Elsevier Science (in press)

The 45th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics (http://modb.oce.ulg.ac.be/colloquium/) gathered two hundreds scientists from around the world to discuss new insights related to the evaluation ... [more ▼]

The 45th International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics (http://modb.oce.ulg.ac.be/colloquium/) gathered two hundreds scientists from around the world to discuss new insights related to the evaluation of primary production at various spatial and temporal scales and in different regions of the world ocean (e.g. the polar and sea-ice region, the coastal and the deep ocean). Over the past two decades, substantial efforts were deployed to evaluate oceanic primary production. These efforts include in situ measurements of uptake rates using isotopic techniques, remote sensing, autonomous instrumentation for bio-optics, carbon or oxygen measurements, and the development of semi-empirical to complex biogeochemical models. The colloquium presented the opportunity to review the current knowledge in the estimation of primary production, and to assess the impact of physical processes on ocean productivity. Particular attention focused on the importance of physical processes at different spatial and temporal scales for controlling the level and variability of primary production and on the development of adequate methodologies to tackle this variability in order to derive large-scale, climate-driven budgets. Refined biogeochemical models considering for instance phytoplankton physiology, the representation of variable elemental stoichiometric ratios, the role of mixotrophy as well as satellite algorithms that are now able to simulate the plankton functional types are good candidates for scaling up. Contributions dealing with the difficult issue of interoperability of in-situ, satellite and modelling estimates of primary production were presented. Details on the terms of reference as well as the thematic session that were organized can be found at http://modb.oce.ulg.ac.be/?page=colloquium&year=2013. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical forcing and physical/biochemical variability of the Mediterranean Sea: A review of unresolved issues and directions for future research
Malanotte-Rizzoli et al, Paula; Artale, V; Borzelli-Eusebi, G et al

in Ocean Science (2014), 10(3),

This paper is the outcome of a workshop held in Rome in November 2011 on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the POEM (Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean) program. In the workshop ... [more ▼]

This paper is the outcome of a workshop held in Rome in November 2011 on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the POEM (Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean) program. In the workshop discussions, a number of unresolved issues were identified for the physical and biogeochemical properties of the Mediterranean Sea as a whole, i.e., comprising the Western and Eastern sub-basins. Over the successive two years, the related ideas were discussed among the group of scientists who participated in the workshop and who have contributed to the writing of this paper. Three major topics were identified, each of them being the object of a section divided into a number of different sub-sections, each addressing a specific physical, chemical or biological issue: 1. Assessment of basin-wide physical/biochemical properties, of their variability and interactions. 2. Relative importance of external forcing functions (wind stress, heat/moisture fluxes, forcing through straits) vs. internal variability. 3. Shelf/deep sea interactions and exchanges of physical/biogeochemical properties and how they affect the sub-basin circulation and property distribution. Furthermore, a number of unresolved scientific/methodological issues were also identified and are reported in each sub-section after a short discussion of the present knowledge. They represent the collegial consensus of the scientists contributing to the paper. Naturally, the unresolved issues presented here constitute the choice of the authors and therefore they may not be exhaustive and/or complete. The overall goal is to stimulate a broader interdisciplinary discussion among the scientists of the Mediterranean oceanographic community, leading to enhanced collaborative efforts and exciting future discoveries [less ▲]

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See detailUntangling spatial and temporal trends in the variability of the Black Sea Cold Intermediate Layer and mixed Layer Depth using the DIVA detrending procedure
Capet, Arthur ULg; Troupin, Charles ULg; Cartensen, Jacob et al

in Ocean Dynamics (2014), 64(3), 315-324

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method ... [more ▼]

Current spatial interpolation products may be biased by uneven distribution of measurements in time. This manuscript presents a detrending method that recognizes and eliminates this bias. The method estimates temporal trend components in addition to the spatial structure and has been implemented within the Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) analysis tool. The assets of this new detrending method are illustrated by producing monthly and annual climatologies of two vertical properties of the Black Sea while recognizing their seasonal and interannual variabilities : the mixed layer depth, and the cold content of its Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL). The temporal trends, given as by-products of the method, are used to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of these variables over the past decades (1955-2011). In particular, the CIL interannual variability is related to the cumulated winter air temperature anomalies, explaining 88\% of its variation. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing and modelling ecosystem changes in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea pelagic ecosystem - SESAME
Grégoire, Marilaure ULg; Ruiz, Javier; Ozsoy, Emin et al

Book published by Elsevier Science (2014)

SESAME was an Integrated Project under the European Union's 6th Framework Programme. The project involved almost four hundred scientists from 59 research institutes in 24 countries, which included almost ... [more ▼]

SESAME was an Integrated Project under the European Union's 6th Framework Programme. The project involved almost four hundred scientists from 59 research institutes in 24 countries, which included almost all countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea Basins. This level of cooperation and coordination allowed data collection on different aspects of the Mediterranean and Black Sea ecosystems on a scale never before attempted. The project was designed to study the past, present and future environmental changes in the Southern European Seas (SES) ecosystems, as well as the effect of these changes on fundamental goods (tourism, fisheries) and services (mitigation of climate through carbon sequestration and ecosystem stability through conservation of biodiversity) provided by the ecosystems. The project's innovative character was reflected in the close merging of economic and natural sciences to study changes that occurred in the past 50 years and those that may occur in the next 50 years, through connecting ecological models with climatic and socio-economic scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailHypoxia in the Black Sea northwestern shelf: From eutrophication to climatic stressors.
Capet, Arthur ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg

in 40th CIESM congress proceedings (2013, October)

Abstract The dynamics of seasonal hypoxia, which affects the Black Sea north-western shelf since the mid 1970's until present days, is investigated by means of a 3D biogeochemical model. Comparison of the ... [more ▼]

Abstract The dynamics of seasonal hypoxia, which affects the Black Sea north-western shelf since the mid 1970's until present days, is investigated by means of a 3D biogeochemical model. Comparison of the model results with in -situ data reveals that the phenomenon may have been underestimated after the mid 1990's due to the distribution of observations. We investigate the mechanism of hypoxia at seasonal scale, and identify the main drivers of its interannual variability. While high nutrients discharge caused severe hypoxia in the 1980's, it was sustained in the 1990's by the pool of organic matter accumulated during the previous years in the sediments layer. With an increasing intensity, climatic stressors intensifies the response of hypoxia to nutrient discharge, and affect the seasonal dynamics of hypoxia by extending its temporal scale. [less ▲]

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See detailTraces and Tracers: Selected papers from the Joint Liège Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics - Bonus- GoodHope - Geotraces meeting
Grégoire, Marilaure ULg; Anderson, Bob; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Book published by Elsevier Science (2013)

The 43rd International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics (http://modb.oce.ulg.ac.be/colloquium/) gathered a hundred scientists from around the world to discuss new developments and insights related to ... [more ▼]

The 43rd International Liege Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics (http://modb.oce.ulg.ac.be/colloquium/) gathered a hundred scientists from around the world to discuss new developments and insights related to tracers and proxies (from temperature and salinity to gases and isotopes) with a particular attention on the use of Trace Elements and Isotopes (TEI) as tracers. The colloquium was organized in connection with the Geotraces program (an ongoing international study of the global marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes, http://www.geotraces.org/) and was the occasion to present the wealth of data collected during large oceanographic expeditions that occurred in connection with the International Polar year. In this framework, particular emphasis was given to the BONUS-GoodHope project, a multi-disciplinary oceanographic cruise that coupled full-depth ocean and atmosphere physical and biogeochemical observations, including trace metals and isotopes (Speich et al. 2013; Speich et al. 2008). [less ▲]

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See detailIntroducing dynamic benthic fluxes in 3D biogeochemical model : an application on the Black Sea North-Western shelf
Capet, Arthur ULg; Meysman, Filip; Soetaert, Karline et al

Conference (2013, April 15)

While benthic and sediment processes are now recognized as major components of the shelf iogeochemical budget, their representation in 3D biogeochemical model has for long been oversimplified [Soetaert et ... [more ▼]

While benthic and sediment processes are now recognized as major components of the shelf iogeochemical budget, their representation in 3D biogeochemical model has for long been oversimplified [Soetaert et al., 2000]. These oversimplified formulations of the bottom boundary onditions prevent to account for the response of diagenetic processes to the environment. The onsequent absence of spatial and temporal variability of benthic/pelagic fluxes may lead to mis- valuation of important terms in the biogeochemical budgets (e.g. Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, hosphate). More importantly, feedbacks mechanisms within the ecosystem response to utrophication may be overlooked, such as, for instance, the sensitivity of benthic denitrification o the oxygen content in the bottom waters. The GHER-ECO 3D biogeochemical model is xtended ith a refined benthic component explicitly accounting for the effect of organic matter transport, eposition and resuspension and for the influence of the environmental conditions on the iagenetic pathways. A semi-empirical approach allows to reproduce the variability and feedbacks riven by benthic diagenesis without the computational burden of a vertically resolved sediment ayer. This simplification allows to use the coupled model for the long term runs (several ecades) required to appreciate the slow dynamics introduced by the accumulation of organic atter in the sediment layer during the years of high riverine discharge. The extended model has een implemented for the Black Sea North western shelf [Capet et al., 2012]. After a presentation f the main assumptions used to construct the benthic module, re- sults are analyzed with a focus n (1) spatial and seasonal variability of benthic diagenesis and con- sequent benthic/pelagic xchanges, (2) comparison to in-situ estimates of benthic/pelagic dissolved fluxes, (3) implication n biogeochemical budgets and eutrophication issue. Inherent limitations of the semi-empirical pproach are discussed in the perspective of the current challenges addressed to biogeochemical odels. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal hypoxia in the Black Sea north-western shelf. Is there any recovery after eutrophication ?
Capet, Arthur ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg

in 9th EGU General Assembly (2013, April 11)

The Black Sea North-western shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which seasonal tratification of the water column isolates bottom waters from the atmosphere and prevents entilation to compensate for ... [more ▼]

The Black Sea North-western shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which seasonal tratification of the water column isolates bottom waters from the atmosphere and prevents entilation to compensate for the large consumption of oxygen, due to respiration in the bottom aters and in the sediments. A 3D coupled physical biogeochemical model is used to investigate he dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS at different temporal scales from seasonal o interannual (1981-2009) and to differentiate the driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication) f hypoxic conditions in bottom waters. Model skills are evaluated by comparison with 14500 in- itu oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean Database and the Black Sea ommission data. The choice of skill metrics and data subselections orientate the validation rocedure towards specific aspects of the oxygen dynamics, and prove the model’s ability to esolve the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of oxygen concentration as well as the patial location of the oxygen depleted waters and the specific threshold of hypoxia. During the eriod 1981-2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This henomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS, receiving large inputs of nutrients rom the Danube, Dniestr and Dniepr rivers, and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, owards the Romanian Bay of Constanta. In order to explain the interannual variability of bottom ypoxia and to disentangle its drivers, a statistical model (multiple linear regression) is proposed sing the long time series of model results as input variables. This statis- tical model gives a eneral relationships that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate related variables. The use of four predictors allows to reproduce 78% of hypoxia interannual variability: he annual nitrate discharge (N ), the sea surface temperature in the month preceding tratification (T ), the amount of semi-labile organic matter in the sediments (C) and the duration f the stratification (D). Eutrophication (N ,C) and climate (T ,D) predictors explain a similar mount of variability (∼ 35%) when considered separately. A typical timescale of 9.3 years is found to describe the inertia of sediments in the recovering process after eutrophication. From his analysis, we find that under standard conditions (i.e. average atmospheric conditions, ediments in equi- librium with river discharges), the intensity of hypoxia can be linked to the evel of nitrate discharge through a non-linear equation (power law). Bottom hypoxia does not ffect the whole Black Sea NWS but rather exhibits an important spatial variability. This heterogeneous distribution, in addition to the seasonal fluctuations, complicates the monitoring f ottom hypoxia leading to contradictory conclusions when the interpretation is done from different ets of data. We find that it was the case after 1995 when the recovery process was verestimated due to the use of observations concentrated in areas and months not typically ffected by hypoxia. This stresses out the urging need of a dedicated monitoring effort in the WS f the Black Sea focused on the areas and the period of the year concerned by recurrent hypoxic events. [less ▲]

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See detailWP4: Developing integrated tools for environmental assessment, Region : Black Sea
Capet, Arthur ULg; daskalov, georgi; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg et al

Conference (2013, January 22)

Status of the PERSEUS Work Package 4 in the Black Sea

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See detailDrivers, mechanisms and long-term variability of seasonal hypoxia on the Black Sea northwestern shelf – is there any recovery after eutrophication?
Capet, Arthur ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg

in Biogeosciences (2013), 10

The Black Sea northwestern shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which the seasonal stratification of the water column isolates the bottom waters from the atmosphere. This prevents ventilation from ... [more ▼]

The Black Sea northwestern shelf (NWS) is a shallow eutrophic area in which the seasonal stratification of the water column isolates the bottom waters from the atmosphere. This prevents ventilation from counterbalancing the large consumption of oxygen due to respiration in the bottom waters and in the sediments, and sets the stage for the development of seasonal hypoxia. A three-dimensional (3-D) coupled physical–biogeochemical model is used to investigate the dynamics of bottom hypoxia in the Black Sea NWS, first at seasonal and then at interannual scales (1981–2009), and to differentiate its driving factors (climatic versus eutrophication). Model skills are evaluated by a quantitative comparison of the model results to 14 123 in situ oxygen measurements available in the NOAA World Ocean and the Black Sea Commission databases, using different error metrics. This validation exercise shows that the model is able to represent the seasonal and interannual variability of the oxygen concentration and of the occurrence of hypoxia, as well as the spatial distribution of oxygen-depleted waters. During the period 1981–2009, each year exhibits seasonal bottom hypoxia at the end of summer. This phenomenon essentially covers the northern part of the NWS – which receives large inputs of nutrients from the Danube, Dniester and Dnieper rivers – and extends, during the years of severe hypoxia, towards the Romanian bay of Constanta. An index H which merges the aspects of the spatial and temporal extension of the hypoxic event is proposed to quantify, for each year, the intensity of hypoxia as an environmental stressor. In order to explain the interannual variability of H and to disentangle its drivers, we analyze the long time series of model results by means of a stepwise multiple linear regression. This statistical model gives a general relationship that links the intensity of hypoxia to eutrophication and climate-related variables. A total of 82% of the interannual variability of H is explained by the combination of four predictors: the annual riverine nitrate load (N), the sea surface temperature in the month preceding stratification (Ts), the amount of semi-labile organic matter accumulated in the sediments (C) and the sea surface temperature during late summer (Tf). Partial regression indicates that the climatic impact on hypoxia is almost as important as that of eutrophication. Accumulation of organic matter in the sediments introduces an important inertia in the recovery process after eutrophication, with a typical timescale of 9.3 yr. Seasonal fluctuations and the heterogeneous spatial distribution complicate the monitoring of bottom hypoxia, leading to contradictory conclusions when the interpretation is done from different sets of data. In particular, it appears that the recovery reported in the literature after 1995 was overestimated due to the use of observations concentrated in areas and months not typically affected by hypoxia. This stresses the urgent need for a dedicated monitoring effort in the Black Sea NWS focused on the areas and months concerned by recurrent hypoxic events. [less ▲]

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See detailInterannual variability of Black Sea’s hydrodynamics and connection to atmospheric patterns
Capet, Arthur ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg et al

Conference (2012, May 09)

The long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea physical processes (e.g. temperature, main circulation, cold intermediate layer, sea level) and its relation to atmospheric conditions and large ... [more ▼]

The long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea physical processes (e.g. temperature, main circulation, cold intermediate layer, sea level) and its relation to atmospheric conditions and large scale climate patterns are investigated using an eddy-resolving tridimensional model in combination with statistical tools (e.g. Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Self Organizing Maps). First, the ability of the model to represent the interannual dynamics of the system is assessed by comparing the modeled and satellite sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level anomaly (SLA) decomposed into their dominant Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The correlation between the spatial and temporal EOFs modes derived from model and satellite data is usually satisfactory and this gives some confidence in using the model as a tool to investigate not only the SST and SLA dynamics but also the dynamics of connected variables. Then, the long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea hydrodynamics is assessed by decomposing into their dominant EOFs modeled SST, SLA and selected key hydrodynamical variables associated to the main circulation and vertical structure of the water column. Significant correlations between the EOFs associated to these variables are investigated in order to link the variability of surface fields and the internal dynamics of the system. In particular, the intensity of the general cyclonic circulation (the Rim Current) is shown to impact strongly (1) the mean sea level, (2) the SST response to air temperature (AT), (3) the formation of the cold intermediate layer, (4) the meridional repartition of the SST anomaly and (5) the exchanges of heat between the north-western shelf and the open basin. In order to appraise the variability of atmospheric conditions over the Black Sea during 1962–2000 and their role in driving the hydrodynamics, a self-organizing maps technique is used to identify spatial recurrent patterns of atmospheric fields (i.e., AT, wind stress and curl). The impact on these patterns of large scale climatic variability over the north Atlantic and Eurasia (estimated by respectively the north Atlantic oscillation (NAO) and the east Atlantic/west Russia oscillation (EA/WR) indexes) is assessed. Distinct time scales of influence of the large scale teleconnection patterns on the AT are identified: EA/WR drives the short scale (1–5 years) variations of SST, while the long term (4-5 years) trends of the NAO drive the long term SST trends. The drastic changes that have occurred in the Black Sea deep sea ecosystem at the end of the 80s are connected to an intensification of the general circulation that has promoted an export of riverine materials from the eutrophicated north-western shelf to the deep sea. Finally, in the last two decades, we find an increased duration of persistent atmospheric anomalies regime that has the potential to drive the system away from its average state as occurred in the late 80s. If persistent in the future, such long lasting atmospheric anomalies may have a significant impact on the ecosystem functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of the Oxygen Dynamics in the Black Sea North Western Shelf to physical and biogeochemical processes : 3D model approach
Capet, Arthur ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg

Conference (2012, March 13)

The presentation evidences the role of benthic oxygen consumption in the seasonal hypoxia afecting the Norht western shelf of the Black Sea. Spatial variability of related processes is evidenced and ... [more ▼]

The presentation evidences the role of benthic oxygen consumption in the seasonal hypoxia afecting the Norht western shelf of the Black Sea. Spatial variability of related processes is evidenced and finally interanual variability of hypoxia severity is quantified and related to nitrogen riverine inputs. [less ▲]

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See detailInterannual variability of Black Sea’s hydrodynamics and connection to atmospheric patterns
Capet, Arthur ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Deep-Sea Research Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography (2012)

The long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea physical processes (e.g. temperature, main circulation, cold intermediate layer, sea level) and its relation to atmospheric conditions and large ... [more ▼]

The long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea physical processes (e.g. temperature, main circulation, cold intermediate layer, sea level) and its relation to atmospheric conditions and large scale climate patterns are investigated using an eddy-resolving tridimensional model in ombination with statistical tools (e.g. Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Self Organizing Maps). First, the ability of the model to represent the interannual dynamics of the system is assessed by comparing the modeled and satellite sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level anomaly (SLA) decomposed into their dominant Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The correlation between the spatial and temporal EOFs modes derived from model and satellite data is usually satisfactory and this gives some confidence in using the model as a tool to investigate not only the SST and SLA dynamics but also the dynamics of connected variables. Then, the long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea hydrodynamics is assessed by decomposing into their dominant EOFs modeled SST, SLA and selected key hydrodynamical variables associated to the main circulation and vertical structure of the water column. Significant correlations between the EOFs associated to these variables are investigated in order to link the variability of surface fields and the internal dynamics of the system. In particular, the intensity of the general cyclonic circulation (the Rim Current) is shown to impact strongly (1) the mean sea level, (2) the SST response to air temperature (AT), (3) the formation of the cold intermediate layer, (4) the meridional repartition of the SST anomaly and (5) the exchanges of heat between the north-western shelf and the open basin. In order to appraise the variability of atmospheric conditions over the Black Sea during 1962–2000 and their role in driving the hydrodynamics, a self-organizing maps technique is used to identify spatial recurrent patterns of atmospheric fields (i.e., AT, wind stress and curl). The impact on these patterns of large scale climatic variability over the north Atlantic, Eurasia and the Pacific Ocean (estimated by respectively the north Atlantic oscillation (NAO), the east Atlantic/west ̃Russia oscillation (EA/WR) and the El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) indexes) is assessed. Distinct time scales of influence of the large scale teleconnection patterns on the AT are identified: EA/WR drives the short scale (1–5 years) variations of SST, while the long term (4-5 years) trends of the NAO drive the long term SST trends. The drastic changes that have occurred in the Black Sea deep sea ecosystem at the end of the 80s are connected to an intensification of the general circulation that has promoted an export of riverine materials from the eutrophicated north-western shelf to the deep sea. Finally, in the last two decades, we find an increased duration of persistent atmospheric anomalies regime that has the potential to drive the system away from its average state as occurred in the late 80s. If persistent in the future, such long lasting atmospheric anomalies may have a significant impact on the ecosystem functioning. [less ▲]

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See detail3D Modelling of the Black Sea Ecosystem
Capet, Arthur ULg; Grégoire, Marilaure ULg

Conference (2011, April)

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See detailAssessment of the long term changes of the SES ecosystem
Grégoire, Marilaure ULg

Conference (2011, April)

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