References of "Germain, Albert"
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See detailComparing technologies for municipal solid waste management using life cycle assessment methodology: a Belgian case study
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Digneffe, Jean-Marc; Renzoni, Roberto ULg et al

in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (2013), 18(8), 1513-1523

Purpose The present study aims at identifying the best practice in residual municipal solid waste management using specific data from Liège, a highly industrialized and densely populated region of Belgium ... [more ▼]

Purpose The present study aims at identifying the best practice in residual municipal solid waste management using specific data from Liège, a highly industrialized and densely populated region of Belgium. We also illustrate the importance of assumptions relative to energy through sensitivity analyses and checking uncertainties regarding the results using a Monte Carlo analysis. Methods We consider four distinct household waste management scenarios. A life cycle assessment is made for each of them using the ReCiPe method. The first scenario is sanitary landfill, which is considered as the base case. In the second scenario, the refuse-derived fuel fraction is incinerated and a sanitary landfill is used for the remaining shredded organic and inert waste only. The third scenario consists in incinerating the whole fraction of municipal solid waste. In the fourth scenario, the biodegradable fraction is collected and the remaining waste is incinerated. The extracted biodegradable fraction is then treated in an anaerobic digestion plant. Results and discussion The present study shows that various scenarios have significantly different environmental impact. Compared to sanitary landfill, scenario 4 has a highly reduced environmental impact in terms of climate change and particulate matter formation. An environmental gain, equal to 10, 37, or 1.3 times the impact of scenario 1 is obtained for, respectively, human toxicity, mineral depletion, and fossil fuel depletion categories. These environmental gains are due to energetic valorization via the incineration and anaerobic digestion. Considering specific categories, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 17 % in scenario 2 and by 46 % in scenarios 3 and 4. For the particulate matter formation category, a 71 % reduction is achieved by scenario 3. The figures are slightly modified by the Monte Carlo analysis but the ranking of the scenarios is left unchanged. Conclusions The present study shows that replacing a sanitary landfill by efficient incineration significantly reduces both emissions of pollutants and energy depletion, thanks to electricity recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailA life cycle assessment of injectable drug primary packaging: comparing the traditional process in glass vials with the closed vial technology (polymer vials)
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Renzoni, Roberto ULg; Verjans, Benoît et al

in International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (2011), 16(2), 159-167

This study compares environmental impacts of two primary packaging alternatives used for injectable drugs: the traditional method based on glass vials and the method developed by Aseptic Technologies ... [more ▼]

This study compares environmental impacts of two primary packaging alternatives used for injectable drugs: the traditional method based on glass vials and the method developed by Aseptic Technologies based on polymer vials. A critical review by an external LCA expert was made. [less ▲]

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See detailA life-cycle assessment of injectable drug primary packaging : comparing the traditional process in glass vials with the new Closed Vial technology (polymer vials)
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Renzoni, Roberto ULg; Verjans, Benoît et al

Poster (2010, February 01)

This study based on the life cycle assessment methodology compares environmental impacts of two packaging alternatives used for injectable drugs: the traditional method based on glass vials and the new ... [more ▼]

This study based on the life cycle assessment methodology compares environmental impacts of two packaging alternatives used for injectable drugs: the traditional method based on glass vials and the new method developed by Aseptic Technologies based on polymer vials. [less ▲]

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See detailLife cycle environmental performance of using substitution fuels in cement production
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Halleux, Hubert; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

Poster (2010, February 01)

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See detailA life-cycle assessment of injectable drug primary packaging : comparing the traditional process in glass vials with the new Closed Vial technology (polymer vials)
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Renzoni, Roberto ULg; Verjans, Benoît et al

in Programme book : SETAC EUrope 16th LCA Case Studies Symposium : From simplified LCA to advanced LCA (2010, February)

This study based on the life cycle assessment methodology compares environmental impacts of two packaging alternatives used for injectable drugs: the traditional method based on glass vials and the new ... [more ▼]

This study based on the life cycle assessment methodology compares environmental impacts of two packaging alternatives used for injectable drugs: the traditional method based on glass vials and the new method developed by Aseptic Technologies based on polymer vials. [less ▲]

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See detailLife cycle environmental performance of using substitution fuels in cement production
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Halleux, Hubert; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Programme book : SETAC EUrope 16th LCA Case Studies Symposium : From simplified LCA to advanced LCA (2010, February)

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See detailMorphology and properties of SAN-clay nanocomposites prepared principally by water-assisted extrusion
Mainil, Michaël; Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULg; Calberg, Cédric ULg et al

in Polymer Engineering & Science (2010), 50(1), 10-21

An efficient extrusion process involving the injection of water while processing was used to prepare poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) / clay nanocomposites with a high degree of nanoclay delamination ... [more ▼]

An efficient extrusion process involving the injection of water while processing was used to prepare poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) / clay nanocomposites with a high degree of nanoclay delamination. The usefulness of water-assisted extrusion is highlighted here, in comparison with classical extrusion and roll mill processes. Cloisite® 30B (C30B), a montmorillonite clay organomodified with alkylammonium cations bearing 2-hydroxyethyl chains, and pristine montmorillonite were melt blended with SAN (25wt% AN) in a semi-industrial scale extruder specially designed to allow water injection. XRD analysis, visual and TEM observations were used to evaluate the quality of clay dispersion. The relationship between the nanocomposite morphology and its mechanical and thermal properties was then investigated. The superiority of the SAN/C30B nanocomposite extruded with water has been evidenced by cone calorimetry tests and thermogravimetric measurements (TGA). These analyses showed a substantial improvement of the fire behavior and the thermal properties, while a 20% increase of the Young modulus was recorded. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the porous structure of biodegradable scaffolds obtained with supercritical CO2 as foaming agent
Léonard, Angélique ULg; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Kerckhofs, Greet ULg et al

in Journal of Porous Materials (2008), 15(4), 397-403

Poly(ε-caprolactone) foams were prepared, via a batch process, by using supercritical CO2 as foaming agent. Their porous structure was characterized through mercury porosimetry, helium and mercury ... [more ▼]

Poly(ε-caprolactone) foams were prepared, via a batch process, by using supercritical CO2 as foaming agent. Their porous structure was characterized through mercury porosimetry, helium and mercury pycnometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microtomography observations coupled with image analysis. The pore size distributions obtained by these two latter techniques show that the pore structure is more homogeneous when the foaming process is performed under a high CO2 saturation pressure (higher than 250 bars). [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(caprolactone)/clay masterbatches prepared in supercritical CO2 as efficient clay delamination promoters in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)
Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULg; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Benali, Samira et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry (2008), 18(39), 4623-4630

Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN)/clay nanocomposites with a high degree of clay exfoliation were prepared upon melt blending of pre-exfoliated poly(-caprolactone) (PCL)/organoclay masterbatches in a ... [more ▼]

Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN)/clay nanocomposites with a high degree of clay exfoliation were prepared upon melt blending of pre-exfoliated poly(-caprolactone) (PCL)/organoclay masterbatches in a Brabender-type internal mixer. These highly filled masterbatches were synthesized by a one-pot process using supercritical carbon dioxide as a polymerization medium. During their dispersion into SAN, PCL is expected to act as a compatibilizer at the polymer–clay interface as it is miscible with the host matrix under these conditions. Reference nanocomposites based on direct melt mixing of the commercial organoclay were also prepared for the sake of comparison. The superiority of the masterbatch route in term of clay delamination efficiency has been evidenced by XRD analysis, visual and TEM observations. The effect of the nanocomposite morphology on the polymer properties was then investigated. A substantial improvement of the fire behaviour and a decrease in gas permeability have been observed for the nanocomposite containing the highest level of clay exfoliation, accompanied with a higher brittleness as evidenced by traction and impact tests. [less ▲]

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See detailBeneficial effect of carbon nanotubes on the performances of Nafion membranes in fuel cell applications
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Kollar, Jozef; Caldarella, Giuseppe ULg et al

in Journal of Membrane Science (2007), 303(1-2), 252-257

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed by melt-extrusion within Nafion(R) membranes in order to decrease the methanol permeability without deleterious effect on the ionic conductivity. The ... [more ▼]

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed by melt-extrusion within Nafion(R) membranes in order to decrease the methanol permeability without deleterious effect on the ionic conductivity. The risk of short-circuits was minimized by keeping the carbon nanotubes content lower than the percolation threshold. Two series of carbon nanotubes grafted by carboxylic acid groups were used, i.e., commercially available carbon nanotubes and MWCNTs home-grafted by carboxylic acid containing alkyl radicals. The second series of nanotubes were more resistant to break-up during melt-processing. Methanol permeability was decreased by approximately 60% without any decrease in the ionic conductivity. In parallel, the Young's modulus was increased by 140% and 160% as compared to pure Nafion(R) at MWCNT contents of 1 and 2 wt%, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymer/carbon nanotubes nanocomposites
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Caldarella, Giuseppe ULg; Germain, Albert ULg et al

Poster (2007, August 31)

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See detailFoams of polycaprolactone/MWNT nanocomposites for efficient EMI shielding
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Kollar, J.; Caldarella, Giuseppe ULg et al

Conference (2007, August 27)

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See detailImprovement of the barrier properties of Nafion® by fluoro-modified montmorillonite
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Bizzari, Didier et al

in Solid State Ionics (2006), 177(13-14), 1137-1144

Montmorillonite (MMT) was modified by two types of cationic fluorosurfactants in order to improve compatibility with and dispersion within Nafion® membranes. Perfluoropolyether-containing cationic ... [more ▼]

Montmorillonite (MMT) was modified by two types of cationic fluorosurfactants in order to improve compatibility with and dispersion within Nafion® membranes. Perfluoropolyether-containing cationic surfactant improved efficiency, by improving the barrier properties of Nafion® towards methanol. Moreover, the fluoro-modified MMT had no deleterious impact on the ionic conductivity of the membranes in contrast to conventional organo-modified MMT. The performances of a small size fuel cell were accordingly improved. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of nanoclays to the barrier properties of a model proton exchange membrane for fuel cell application
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Caldarella, Giuseppe ULg et al

in Journal of Membrane Science (2006), 270(1-2), 50-56

Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) that use a proton exchange membrane (PEM) as electrolyte, is a promising alternative source of energy for the future. However, methanol crossover from the anodic side to ... [more ▼]

Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) that use a proton exchange membrane (PEM) as electrolyte, is a promising alternative source of energy for the future. However, methanol crossover from the anodic side to the cathodic one is a major problem in DMFC. Proper dispersion of layered silicates within the fuel cell membrane has been proposed as a strategy for improving the barrier properties of the membrane. The validity of this approach has been tested in case of a model membrane consisting of phosphotungstic acid doped poly(vinyl alcohol). A solvent casting technique has been used, which allows the nanofiller to be delaminated by an ultrasonic pre-treatment, as confirmed by TEM and XRD analysis. The layered silicates have a favourable impact on the methanol permeability, whose the decrease overcompensates some loss in ionic conductivity. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of acid containing montmorillonite on the properties of Nafion® membranes
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Caldarella, Giuseppe ULg et al

in Polymer (2005), 46(25), 11389-11395

The counter-ions of montmorillonite have been exchanged for ammonium cations containing either a sulfonic acid or a carboxylic acid in order to improve the performances of sulfonated membranes in direct ... [more ▼]

The counter-ions of montmorillonite have been exchanged for ammonium cations containing either a sulfonic acid or a carboxylic acid in order to improve the performances of sulfonated membranes in direct methanol fuel cell. These layered silicates have been dispersed within Nafion® by solution mixing. Comparison with conventional organo-modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B) shows that the incorporation of carboxylic acid in the clay galleries improves the filler dispersion and, consequently, the methanol barrier properties. Moreover, the negative impact of Cloisite 30B on the ionic conductivity is restricted. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of acid containing montmorillonite on the properties of sulfonated fuel cell membranes
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Calderalla, G. et al

Poster (2005, May 11)

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See detailX-ray microtomography coupled with image analysis: a useful tool for 3D characterization of polymer foams
Blacher, Silvia ULg; Kerckhofs, Greet ULg; Caliberg, Cédric et al

in Proceedings of Imageries et polymères 2005 (2005)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)