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See detailDEVELOPPEMENT D’UN MODELE DE SYSTEME DE CLIMATISATION AUTOMOBILE MULTI-EVAPORATEURS
Gillet, Thomas ULg; Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg et al

Conference (2017, May 22)

La modélisation numérique d’un climatiseur d’automobile multi-évaporateurs, composé de deux évaporateurs et d’un refroidisseur d’eau, a été réalisée à l’aide du logiciel LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim® 1D avec le ... [more ▼]

La modélisation numérique d’un climatiseur d’automobile multi-évaporateurs, composé de deux évaporateurs et d’un refroidisseur d’eau, a été réalisée à l’aide du logiciel LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim® 1D avec le fluide frigorigène R-134a. Un banc d’essai capable de reproduire les conditions extérieures d’un climatiseur automobile a été conçu afin de tester l’architecture de cette machine multi-évaporateurs avec le fluide frigorigène R-1234yf. Les bilans thermiques des premiers résultats expérimentaux sont analysés et présentés. Afin d’illustrer la complexité du contrôle d’une telle architecture en régime dynamique, l’activation d’une vanne électromagnétique dans la boucle batterie du banc d’essais est présentée. Enfin, une perturbation de type échelon a été générée dans le modèle numérique afin de vérifier si les phénomènes transitoires observés expérimentalement sont reproduits. [less ▲]

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See detailProjets de Récupération de chaleur fatale suivis par l’ULg
Lemort, Vincent ULg; Le, Van Long; Gendebien, Samuel ULg et al

Conference (2017)

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See detailDescription of a Modelica-based thermal building model integrating multi-zone airflows calculation
Ransy, Frédéric ULg; Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016, May 23)

Nowadays, in newly built housings, energy losses due to the ventilation can represent up to 50 % of the total building energy consumption. As a result, heat recovery ventilation units are widely used in ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, in newly built housings, energy losses due to the ventilation can represent up to 50 % of the total building energy consumption. As a result, heat recovery ventilation units are widely used in order to save primary energy and different control strategies for ventilation systems are investigated. For instance, demand control ventilation sounds like a promising solution to decrease the energy impact of the ventilation system in the residential sector. An accurate building model integrating the influence of ventilation (so called thermo-aeraulic building model) is necessary in order to investigate the control and the impact of the ventilation system on a yearly basis. The aim of the present paper consists in a description of a combined multi-zone airflow network model and thermal building model implemented in the Modelica language. The thermal model is a simplified dynamic model using equivalent thermal resistance and capacity. The airflow network is based on the traditional electrical circuit analogy. The model can be used for ventilation systems design, infiltration rate calculation, inside air quality calculation, energy consumption calculation, etc. The first part of the paper details the multi-zone thermal building model. The results obtained from the model are compared to experimental in situ results collected in the typical single family house test facilities. Those experimental results have been obtained in the frame of the IEA-EBC Annex 58. The second part of the paper introduces the multi-zone airflow network building model. Obtained model results are compared with the results provided by a typical multizone airflow analysis software, for a simple three zones test case. The third part of the paper describes the coupling between both thermal and airflow models. The different numerical problems encountered are described and solutions are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction aux échangeurs de chaleur
Declaye, Sébastien ULg; Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016, April 14)

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See detailA, B, C, D ventilation systems: comparison
Gendebien, Samuel ULg

Conference (2015, November 19)

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See detailPerformances of a simple exhaust mechanical ventilation coupled to a mini heat pump: modeling and experimental investigations
Ransy, Frédéric ULg; Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

Conference (2015, September 24)

According to the European directive 2012/27/EU of October 2012 on energy efficiency, buildings represented 40 % of the EU’s final energy consumption in 2011. The major part of this energy consumption is ... [more ▼]

According to the European directive 2012/27/EU of October 2012 on energy efficiency, buildings represented 40 % of the EU’s final energy consumption in 2011. The major part of this energy consumption is due to the residential sector for space heating and domestic hot water production. Moreover, buildings are crucial to achieve the EU objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. In order to reduce these greenhouse gas emissions, retrofit measures regarding insulation and air-tightness have to be taken. However, such improvements of the building envelope lead to a relative increase in consumption related to ventilation. Indeed, according to Orme (2001), Roulet et al. (2001) and Fouih et al. (2012), the heating demand due to ventilation can reach more than 50 % of the total building heating demand for new and retrofitted buildings. To reduce the energy consumption due to ventilation, exhaust air heat pumps (EAHPs) can be used instead of the traditional heat recovery with an air-to-air heat exchanger. EAHPs recover heat from the exhaust air of the ventilation system to produce domestic hot water and space heating. According to Fehrm et al. (2002), this technology is already widely used in the northern countries such as Germany and Sweden. In fact, according to Fracastoro et al. (2010), efficiencies of EAHPs are higher than those obtained with outside air or geothermal heat pumps in certain conditions, whatever the climate location. Berg et al. (2010) have monitored three houses in Sweden equiped with exhaust air heat pumps. The seasonal performance factor (SPF) values were all within the range 1.4-1.7. This factor takes into account the energy consumption of the heat pumps and the auxiliary heating systems. A 17 kW exhaust air heat pump has also been tested by Mikola et al. (2014). The measured SPF for the heat pump only (without taking into account the auxiliary heating system) was about 2.9-3.4 in winter and 3 in the summer. Exhaust air heat pumps coupled with simple exhaust mechanical ventilation systems have many advantages compared to traditional balanced systems with heat recovery: • Only one fan is necessary and the duct system is simpler. Consequently, EAHPs are suitable for retrofitted buildings. • The heat pump can provide the whole part of the heating demand related to domestic hot water and 50 % of the heating demand related to space heating, according to Fracastoro et al. (2010). • The heat pump can also provide active cooling by inversing the refrigerating cycle. • The heat pump performance is high and remains constant with outdoor temperature changes since the temperature of the heat sink is constant (20°C). As a result, the system is cost-effective. • The system is compact, quiet and requires little maintenance. In the present paper, the energetic performances of an exhaust air heat pump are assessed through numerical and experimental studies. The thermal capacity of the machine is 1.5 kW when the inside air temperature is 20°C and the outside water temperature is 35°C. The heat pump is therefore ideally suited for new or retrofitted buildings. The system including a mechanical exhaust ventilation system and an exhaust air heat pump is first presented. Secondly, the heat pump model used afterwards to determine the heat pump seasonal performance factor is described. Thirdly, the model is calibrated to fit the measurement data. Finally, the heat pump model is coupled to a building model to determine the annual performance of the system. The system is compared to a traditional balanced ventilation system with heat recovery in terms of primary energy consumption, for different heating and DHW production systems (electric heater, heat pump, gas condensing boiler). [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a compact single room ventilation unit with heat recovery dedicated to tertiary buildings
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Martens, Jonathan; Prieels, Luc et al

Conference (2015)

In the frame of the European project called Bricker, a new prototype of single room ventilation with heat recovery has been developed. This new unit is supposed to be installed in class rooms of an ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the European project called Bricker, a new prototype of single room ventilation with heat recovery has been developed. This new unit is supposed to be installed in class rooms of an educational institution. This paper deals with the development of the first prototype of this unit. An empirical model of such device is also proposed in order to be coupled with a building model. This aims at determining the seasonal performance of the device and thus the potential energy saving (compared to other technologies) resulting from its use. The first part of the paper presents the specifications and the final characteristics of the developed device. In this context, a by-pass for free cooling in summer conditions as well as the strategies under frosting conditions are described. Secondly, the coefficient of performance (COP) of such device is recalled. In the early stage of the development process, the COP is determined based on the manufacturer data of the heat recovery exchanger and the fans. The coupling between fan curve and the predicted hydraulic performance of the unit allows for determining a first approximation of the fans electrical consumption for several delivered flow rates. The third part of the paper focuses on the experimental investigations carried out in order to determine the flow rate really delivered by the unit. Electrical consumptions of several flow rates are also measured in order to characterize the COP of the unit in those conditions. Finally, a comparison between the measured and the predicted performance based on manufacturer data has been realized in terms of COP. A performance map based on experimental results is proposed in order to be coupled with a building model. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodology to characterize a residential building stock using a bottom-up approach: a case study applied to Belgium
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Georges, Emeline ULg; Bertagnolio, Stéphane et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management (2014)

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See detailDesigning and testing an air-PCM heat exchanger for building ventilation application coupled to energy storage
Dechesne, Bertrand ULg; Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Martens, Jonathan et al

in 2014 Purdue Conferences Proceedings (2014)

This paper studies a PCM heat exchanger coupled to a building ventilation system. This PCM module can either store heat during the day (e.g. by cooling solar PV panels) and restore it to the building ... [more ▼]

This paper studies a PCM heat exchanger coupled to a building ventilation system. This PCM module can either store heat during the day (e.g. by cooling solar PV panels) and restore it to the building during the night for space heating purposes or store coolness during the night and give it back during the day and thus act as a free cooling system. This project aims to develop a performing air-PCM heat exchanger providing latent energy storage of 0.5 kWh, this energy is delivered between 15 and 30°C. This heat exchanger is based on corrugated cells that can be easily filled, lined up and then locked in a box, letting the air pass between the cells. The PCM used for the prototype is c omposed of fatty acids. In order to develop an efficient PCM ventilation module, two different ways of investigation were followed and used in parallel. The first one used CFD simulations and the second one, a semi-empirical model based on correlations. The CFD simulations were able to predict the convection coefficient on the air side and also show the flow repartition between the different channels whereas the semi-empirical model allowed a parametrical study in order to identify the best geometry possible. Once the heat exchanger geometry was optimized, a test bench was built and a prototype of air-PCM heat exchanger was manufactured in order to measure its thermal and hydraulic performances. The tests consist in either a complete solidification or liquefaction of the PCM starting from respectively liquid PCM at 30°C or solid PCM at 15°C. The airflow rate was set to 45m³/h, which corresponds barely to the ventilation rate of a traditional room in a residential building. A comparison between the models and the measurements was carried out in order to calibrate the semi-empirical model. It will be shown that a simple semi-empirical model satisfactorily predicts the evolution of heat transfer rate for different operating conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental performance characterization of a new single room ventilation device with heat recovery
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Georges, Emeline ULg; Prieels, Luc et al

in Proceedings of the 34th AIVC conference (2013, September)

Nowadays, important efforts are made to reduce the residential building energy consumption. In this context, a growing interest for heat recovery ventilation has been observed during the last decades. The ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, important efforts are made to reduce the residential building energy consumption. In this context, a growing interest for heat recovery ventilation has been observed during the last decades. The present paper focuses on a new single room ventilation with heat recovery. Double flow ventilation is achieved through the integration of the unit into windows ledges. The developed device is particularly suitable compared to traditional centralized heat recovery ventilation units for retrofitted houses due to the absence of air extracting and air pulsing ducts through the house. The first part of the paper consists in describing the characteristics and properties of the developed device (volume, components, flow configuration, advantages and drawbacks). In the second part of the paper, an experimental approach is presented to characterize the unit. The criteria of performance are based on: - Thermal effectiveness of the unit (testing of a recovery heat exchanger), - Hydraulic aspects (flows delivered by the unit vs energy supplied to the unit), - Acoustic aspects. The overall performance of the unit can be established based on the experimental results described here above. Cartography of performance (ratio between the recovered heat and the supply electrical power) can be drawn, depending on the flow rates delivered by the unit and the indoor/outdoor temperature difference. The last part of the paper compares the new system with natural, simple exhaust ventilation and traditional centralized systems in terms of primary energy, consumer price and carbon dioxide emissions. Results show that the presented device seems more competitive than natural and simple exhaust ventilation for the Belgian climate. The single room ventilation investigated in this paper also shows better performance than most of the centralized ventilation systems tested on site. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation on a ventilation heat recovery exchanger: Modeling and experimental validation in dry and partially wet conditions
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

in Energy & Buildings (2013), 62

The present paper focuses on the development and experimental validation of a model of air-to-air heat exchanger dedicated to domestic mechanical heat recovery ventilation. The proposed model describes ... [more ▼]

The present paper focuses on the development and experimental validation of a model of air-to-air heat exchanger dedicated to domestic mechanical heat recovery ventilation. The proposed model describes dry and partially wet regimes. The first part of the paper presents a semi-empirical model based on the physical characteristics of the heat recovery device and relying on empirical correlations available in the literature for the convective heat transfer coefficients. In the case of partially wet regime, a moving boundary model is applied in order to predict sensible and latent heat transfer rates. A model developed with friction factor coefficients estimated by correlations from the literature is also presented in order to predict the hydraulic performance in dry conditions. The second part of the paper describes the experimental investigation conducted on an off-the-shelf heat exchanger. Experimental data are used to tune correlations for the determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient and validate the proposed simulation model of the ventilation heat recovery exchanger in partially wet conditions. The model developed to determine the hydraulic performance with existing correlations for the friction factor coefficient does not require a calibration. Finally, examples of use of the developed model are presented, which includes coupling the model with a building simulation model, a study of the influence of the humidity on the evolution of the latent and sensible heat transfer rates and strategies to avoid freezing in the heat exchanger. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling and simulation of the domestic energy use in Belgium following a bottom-up approach
Georges, Emeline ULg; Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULg et al

in Proceedings of the CLIMA 2013 11th REHVA World Congress & 8th International Conference on IAQVEC (2013, June)

The present paper presents a “bottom-up” approach dedicated to the modeling and simulation of the domestic energy use. This methodology focuses first on a microanalysis (i.e. modeling and simulation of a ... [more ▼]

The present paper presents a “bottom-up” approach dedicated to the modeling and simulation of the domestic energy use. This methodology focuses first on a microanalysis (i.e. modeling and simulation of a set of representative households). Results from this micro-analysis are then used and extended to allow drawing conclusions at a macro-scale. The methodology can be validated by comparing simulation results to annual national energy consumption indexes or synthetic load profiles (energy consumption profiles generated from values of predefined past periods). Once the method is validated, it can be used to study the impact of different retrofit scenarios on the annual energy use and on the energy demand profiles. This paper describes the methodology developed for Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation on a decentralized air handling terminal: procedure of aeraulic and thermal performance determination of the entire unit under several operating conditions
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Prieels, Luc; Lemort, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the 6th European Thermal Sciences Conference (2012, September)

A new local ventilation device is actually developed in such a way to procure ventilation “on demand” in each room, with a maximal effectiveness. It consists in a wall or window frame mounted plane ... [more ▼]

A new local ventilation device is actually developed in such a way to procure ventilation “on demand” in each room, with a maximal effectiveness. It consists in a wall or window frame mounted plane-parallel box, containing two (injection and extraction) fans, an electronic control, and a heat recovery exchanger. The present paper describes the experimental investigations carried out on some single components and on the entire unit in order to characterize the aeraulic and thermal performance of the device. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling and experimental validation in partially wet conditions of an air-to-air heat recovery exchanger
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the 12th Conference of The International Building Performance Simulation Association (2011, November)

Nowadays, important efforts are deployed to reduce our current residential building consumption. The most common retrofit option concerns the air tightness and the thermal insulation improvement. However ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, important efforts are deployed to reduce our current residential building consumption. The most common retrofit option concerns the air tightness and the thermal insulation improvement. However, this latter retrofit option could decrease the air indoor quality because of a reduction of air infiltration flow rate. Installation of an air-to-air heat recovery system allows for an efficient combination between consumption reduction due to the air tightness improvement and acceptable air indoor quality. The study presented in this paper has been realized in the frame of the „Green +‟ project, which aims at developing decentralized heat recovery ventilation systems. The present paper focuses on modeling and experimental validation of an air-to-air heat recovery exchanger in partially wet conditions (i.e. where condensation might occur in one of the two air streams). The knowledge of the thermal performance in dry and wet regimes is essential since it highly impacts on the heat recovered from the vitiated air flow rate (extracted from the building) to the fresh air flow rate (coming from the outdoor). The first part of the paper briefly describes a solving procedure able to determine the regime (completely dry, completely wet and partially wet). A moving boundary model for the partially wet regime is applied in order to predict performance of such device. Secondly, the experimental apparatus (and its control) designed to characterize thermal performance in different operating conditions (dry and wet regime) is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailDecentralized mechanical ventilation with heat recovery
Aparecida Silva, Cleide; Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Hannay, Jules et al

in Proceedings of the 32nd AIVC Conference (2011, October)

A new local ventilation device is designed in such a way to procure ventilation “on demand” in each room, with a maximum of effectiveness and a minimum of energy waste. It consists in a parapipedic box to ... [more ▼]

A new local ventilation device is designed in such a way to procure ventilation “on demand” in each room, with a maximum of effectiveness and a minimum of energy waste. It consists in a parapipedic box to be located in one external wall (for example, just above a window) and containing two (injection and extraction) fans and a recovery heat exchanger. The design of the heat exchanger is associated to the selection of the two fans in view of the best compromise between heat recovery effectiveness and “auxiliary” consumptions. Great attention is paid to supply and exhaust air openings on both indoor and outdoor sides of the device, in order to get the highest ventilation effectiveness. A fair compromise is looked for between air flow control “authority” and “auxiliary” consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformances of DAHT connected to building airthightness and indoor hygrothermal climate
Masy, Gabrielle; Lebrun, Jean; Gendebien, Samuel ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 32nd AIVC Conference (2011, October)

As building insulation level increases, the coupling of ventilation systems with building enveloppe airtightness becomes an important issue in order to improve buildings energy performances. A building ... [more ▼]

As building insulation level increases, the coupling of ventilation systems with building enveloppe airtightness becomes an important issue in order to improve buildings energy performances. A building ventilation model can be built on a set of resistances and generators in order to handle infiltration, natural ventilation as well as fan driven air flows. The model is able to assess the indoor air humidity level and the building energy balance. Double flow ventilation can be handled through decentralized air handling terminals (DAHT), integrated in window ledges. A model of DAHT can be combined with the model of a whole building envelope, including infiltrations as well as dynamic behaviour, allowing comparisons with classical ventilation systems, such as natural or hybrid systems, or with centralized double flow systems. Results regarding energy consumptions, air humidity levels and superficial condensation risks can be analysed. Fresh air flow can be calibrated in order to meet air quality standards related to indoor humidity level and CO2 concentration. The modelization of buiding indoor hygro-thermal climate allows a complete assessment of the seasonal heat exchanger efficiency, including heat recovery through the condensation of indoor air humidity when it flows through the exchanger. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation on an air-to-air heat recovery exchanger: modeling and experimental validation in dry conditions
Gendebien, Samuel ULg; Bertagnolio, Stéphane ULg; Georges, Bernard ULg et al

in Proceedings of the RoomVent 2011 Conference (2011, June 21)

This paper deals with the development and the experimental validation of an air-to-air recovery heat exchanger model dedicated to ventilation of residential buildings. The first part of the paper presents ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the development and the experimental validation of an air-to-air recovery heat exchanger model dedicated to ventilation of residential buildings. The first part of the paper presents a semi-empirical model based on physical characteristics of the heat exchanger. The aim of this model is to predict the behavior of the device in dry conditions. The second part of the paper describes the experimental facility designed to determine the hydraulic and thermal performance of the device and offers a comparison between simulation and experimental results. Finally, the model is calibrated in order to predict the thermal and hydraulic performance of the heat exchanger within respectively, less than 5% and less than 2% of accuracy. [less ▲]

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