References of "Gauthier, Jean-Marie"
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See detailLa sécurité affective chez l'enfant en milieu résidentiel : Des soins du corps au bien être émotionnel
Aprile, Pauline ULg; Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Evolution Psychiatrique (in press)

Objectives - This review studies the concept of affective security in children living outside of their family environment by a brief exposition of its practical illustration in institution. We want to ... [more ▼]

Objectives - This review studies the concept of affective security in children living outside of their family environment by a brief exposition of its practical illustration in institution. We want to show that sufficient affective security can be achieved even in children institutionalized with major attachment difficulties. Method - We will first examine the original meaning of the concept by a theoretical review of its evolution over the years in the literature. Then, we will consider various questions concerning the legitimacy of institutionalization in link with affective security through a case analysis illustrating the issue. We will finally end by mentioning the main practical implications about the optimization of affective security in children institutionalized. Results - It is foremost by the predictable and expected daily acts posed by the professional caregivers in institution that the child may find sufficient affective security, generating emotional well-being and ultimately, an overall adequate development. Discussion – Children early separated from their family home to be placed in residential institution most often suffer from serious difficulties in terms of attachment to others. In this context, the institution has to deal with a specifically challenge: that is, to help the child to (re-)find sufficient internal security to allow him to grow on solid foundations. The institutional life which replaces family life primarily consists of an organizational structure that seeks to make child life as predictable as possible so that it has the necessary daily benchmarks to evolve adequately. Conclusion – In the everyday life in institution, the professionals struggling with children’s attachment disorders constantly try to achieve a right emotional-body balance through their psycho-educational practices with the child deprived of secure attachment strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailChangement, disparition ou éternel retour ?
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 27)

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See detailEtudes des propriétés psychométriques de la CES-D sur un échantillon d'adolescents francophones scolarisés
Boulard, Aurore ULg; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg; Born, Michel ULg

in L'Encéphale (2014)

L’objectif de cet article est d’étudier et valider la version francaise de l’échelle de dépression Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) mise au point par Radloff (en 1977) dans une ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cet article est d’étudier et valider la version francaise de l’échelle de dépression Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) mise au point par Radloff (en 1977) dans une population d’adolescents scolarisés. [less ▲]

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See detailL'identité, la maladie et la dynamique du temps à l'adolescence
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2013, October 12)

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See detailThe experience of chronic illness and psychoptathology across life stories : the case of haemophilic boys and depressive hospitalized adolescents
Jadin, Aurore ULg; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg; Boulard, Aurore ULg

Poster (2013, September 04)

The aim of this study is to examine and compare how hemophilic adolescents and depressive hospitalized adolescents tell their own stories, how they build their identities in spite of the treatment ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to examine and compare how hemophilic adolescents and depressive hospitalized adolescents tell their own stories, how they build their identities in spite of the treatment constraints and how they involve themselves in different relationships. During an individual semi-structured interview, based on Mc Adams’ works, each teenager’s narrative was collected. Various measurements were taken. The discursive analysis and software were used to analyze the data base. First results show hemophilic boys speak about their disease spontaneously but they don’t identify only to it while depressive hospitalized adolescents define themselves exclusively by their mental disorder. Another report is that, opposed to depressive hospitalized adolescents, hemophilic boys invest hobbies, relationships with peers’ as much as non depressive adolescents even if those can feel different and sometimes restrained. [less ▲]

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See detailThe development of children's and preadolescent's narratives
Boulard, Aurore ULg; Poudat, Céline; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2013, September 04)

The aim of this study is to explore the development of children’s narratives in three different contexts that are favorable to the production of (self-)narratives: (i) at home with parent(s), (ii) at ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to explore the development of children’s narratives in three different contexts that are favorable to the production of (self-)narratives: (i) at home with parent(s), (ii) at school with peers and (iii) with a researcher in psychology. 136 children aged from 3 to 13 have been recorded 50 minutes in each situation. Once transcribed, the data were morphosyntactically annotated and processed using multivariate exploratory techniques, including Correspondence Analysis, Principal Component and Classification Analysis. The results we obtained first demonstrated that contextual indicators were more significant than age in narrative production: conversations with parents were significantly more interactive whereas interactions between children turned out to be more regressive (i.e. simplified vocabulary, demonstrative pronouns). The situation with the psychologist was the one leading to the more elaborate narratives, as children seem to show greater language control with unfamiliar adults. However, age naturally impacts the linguistic complexity of narratives, both on the lexical and morphosyntactic levels. The results we obtained enabled us to observe a gradation in the complexity of textual productions, setting the roots of the future self-narratives the subjects will be able to develop later, during adolescence. Thus, the findings show different and significant aspects of the development of narratives and self-narratives in children’s speech, considering age and context. Last but not least, they also suggest the relevance of the application of text statistics methods to clinical psychology. [less ▲]

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See detailLes pouvoirs des comptines
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Enfance Le journal des professionnels de la petite enfance (2013)

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See detailPsicosomatica da un punto di vista di un psichiatra infantile
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2013, May 11)

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See detailLa philosophie dès le primaire ! Quelques difficultés à surmonter
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in La philo mode d'emploi (2013), 236

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See detailLes représentations d’attachement chez les enfants de 5 à 8 ans placés en institution
Degraux, Christine ULg; Deschênes, Marie; Cyr, Chantal et al

Poster (2013, March)

A ce jour aucune étude n’a investigué la qualité d’attachement d’enfants hébergés en institution suite à de la maltraitance ou des négligences sévères. Or les recherches menées auprès de populations ... [more ▼]

A ce jour aucune étude n’a investigué la qualité d’attachement d’enfants hébergés en institution suite à de la maltraitance ou des négligences sévères. Or les recherches menées auprès de populations maltraitées indiquent de graves conséquences sur leur patron d’attachement ((Cyr et al., 2010) et de plus en plus de recherches soulignent les effets d’un attachement insécurisé sur le développement, surtout s’il est de type désorganisé (Lyons-Ruth & Jacobvitz, 2008). C’est pourtant ce type d’attachement qui est observé auprès d’environ la moitié des adolescents hébergés ou des adultes ayant été hébergés (Nowacki & Schoelmerich, 2010; Wallis & Steele, 2001; Webster et al., 2009). Cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer la prévalence des modes d’attachement dans un échantillon d’enfants hébergés âgés entre 5 et 8 ans (N=73). L’évaluation de l’attachement a porté non pas sur les comportements d’attachement mais sur les modèles relationnels que les enfants ont intériorisés suite aux expériences vécues auprès de leur(s) figure(s) d’attachement. La procédure des histoires à compléter a été utilisée, filmée et codée en Q-sort via les cartes pour le complément d’histoires (C.C.H.) développé par Miljkovitch et collaborateurs (2003). Les résultats indiquent que 22% des enfants présentent un attachement de type sécure, 37% de désorganisé, 31% d’évitant et 10% d’ambivalent. Ceux-ci soulignent qu’à cet âge aussi, la désorganisation est observée dans de nombreux cas et nous constatons également qu’un nombre élevé d’enfants présentent des stratégies d’évitement qui risquent de leur causer de nombreuses difficultés relationnelles. Etant donné l’importance d’une prise en charge précoce des troubles d’attachement, il est primordial de s’interroger sur les interventions à proposer dans un cadre institutionnel face aux besoins spécifiques de ces enfants. [less ▲]

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See detailLa parole de l'enfant et la vérité partagée
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Mille lieux ouverts (2013), 48

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See detailPour une approche sartrienne de l'inconscient, de l'espace et du récit de vie
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Frère, Bruno; Laoureux, Sébastien (Eds.) La phénoménologie à l'épreuve des sciences humaines (2013)

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See detailCooccurrences des personnes dans le discours de l'enfant: une approche statistique de la consturction de l'identité
Poudat, Céline; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg; Boulard, Aurore ULg

in Corpus (2012), 11

À partir de l’enregistrement de discours spontanés d’enfants âgés de 3 à 8 ans dans trois conditions (psychologue, groupe, parents), l’objectif de cette recherche sera d’appréhender le développement du ... [more ▼]

À partir de l’enregistrement de discours spontanés d’enfants âgés de 3 à 8 ans dans trois conditions (psychologue, groupe, parents), l’objectif de cette recherche sera d’appréhender le développement du rapport que l’enfant entretient avec lui-même et les autres en observant la distribution et les utilisations particulières des formes personnelles chez l’enfant. Pour qualifier ces emplois, nous examinerons le détail des cooccurrents des pronoms pour chaque catégorie considérée. La situation de groupe s’étant avérée particulièrement concluante, nous lui consacrerons la dernière partie de nos explorations en nous concentrant sur l’asymétrie cooccurrentielle du couple moi-je dans la continuité de nos travaux autour de l’asymétrie de la relation coocurrentielle (Luong et al. 2010) en insistant sur leurs résonances dans le développement de l’identité chez l’enfant. [less ▲]

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See detailTroubles réactionnels de l’attachement et compétences émotionnelles chez l’enfant âgé de cinq à huit ans
Wertz, Céline ULg; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg

in Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence (2012), 60(7-8), 492504

Background The quality of interactions experienced with primary attachment figures influences the development of emotional skills. On the other hand, we know how emotions fill a critical adaptive role for ... [more ▼]

Background The quality of interactions experienced with primary attachment figures influences the development of emotional skills. On the other hand, we know how emotions fill a critical adaptive role for the social adjustment, in that they assume both a communicative function and an informative value. In this paper, we were particularly interested in how children's patterns of attachment were expressed in terms of ability to understand other's emotions. According to Laible & Thompson's observations (1998), we tested the following hypothesis: insecure attachment representations are associated with a poverty of skills in decoding emotional signals. They especially would affect the perception of negative emotional expressions, because of their threatening nature. Method We tested this hypothesis by the meeting of four children of primary school age (5 to 8 years old) with a reactive attachment disorder, and four peer controls, matched for gender and age. At first, the Attachment Story Completion Task (Bretherton et al., 1990) allowed us to specify the type of attachment disorder for each child of the clinical group. Secondly, inspired by Pollak et al.’s study, we proposed to all subjects a recognition task of facial emotional expressions. Results We observed in the clinical group low average rates of identification of basic and primary negative emotions. But if the accuracy of judgments is a function of emotion's valence, it actually seems more especially dependent of the child's attachment pattern. More specifically, whereas some of them tend to avoid dealing with negative emotions (desactivation of attachment strategy), others fit into an opposite pattern of hypersensitivity to these emotions (hyperactivation). Particular ways of emotional perception finally appear typical of specific patterns of attachment. Moreover, the finding of specific patterns of errors, and particularly the central role of sadness in these confusions would demonstrate an immaturity of empathic and symbolic skills in children suffering from this kind of disorder. Conclusion These results, although obtained from a small sample of children, nevertheless open interesting perspectives for research, both theoretical and methodological level. They especially concern difficulties experienced by these children to consider emotion to a symbolic level and the various defenses set up in front of emotional life, prevent their access to others’ point of view. This seems causing many social dysregulations tending to increase, in turn, their deficiencies in the affective area. [less ▲]

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See detailDes mots pour se dire: Développement de la fonction narrative chez l'enfant.
Boulard, Aurore ULg; Poudat, Céline; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Dister, Anne; Longrée, Dominique; Purnelle, Gérald (Eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Textual Data Statistical Analysis (2012, June)

The present study is based on a corpus made of spontaneous oral speech: 136 children aged from 3 to 13 have been recorded in three different environments that are favorable to the production of self ... [more ▼]

The present study is based on a corpus made of spontaneous oral speech: 136 children aged from 3 to 13 have been recorded in three different environments that are favorable to the production of self-narratives. Using linguistic annotations and tried and tested text statistics methods, we have been able to show different aspects of the development of narratives and self-narratives in children speeches, including the impact of age and environment on the construction of narratives. The results we obtained are significant, and we hope we succeeded in demonstrating how relevant text statistics methods are when applied to clinical psychology. [less ▲]

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See detailCooccurrences des personnes dans le discours de l'enfant: une approche statistique de la construction de l'identité
Poudat, Céline; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg; Boulard, Aurore ULg

Conference (2012, February 08)

L’acquisition de la représentation du temps nous donne, avec le développement du langage, accès à la narrativité. Ces histoires que nous racontons aux enfants leur permettent d’accéder au monde de la ... [more ▼]

L’acquisition de la représentation du temps nous donne, avec le développement du langage, accès à la narrativité. Ces histoires que nous racontons aux enfants leur permettent d’accéder au monde de la signification. Peu à peu l’enfant s’approprie sa propre histoire en même temps qu’il constitue son identité. Le concept de self narrative (Denett, 1991), matérialisé dans le discours par l’utilisation des pronoms personnels, est un premier produit de cette évolution. Il est donc intéressant de connaître la manière dont se construit ce récit qui deviendra autobiographique à l’adolescence. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand l'enfant dit "Je"
Boulard, Aurore ULg; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg

in Enfance : Psychologie, Pédagogie, Neuropsychiatrie, Sociologie (2012), 64(2), 233-246

L’analyse statistique d’un corpus constitué de 309 discours d’enfants a permis d’observer l’évolution de l’utilisation des pronoms personnels « moi » et « je » et de mettre en évidence certaines ... [more ▼]

L’analyse statistique d’un corpus constitué de 309 discours d’enfants a permis d’observer l’évolution de l’utilisation des pronoms personnels « moi » et « je » et de mettre en évidence certaines variations d’utilisation en fonction de l’âge (entre 3 et 10 ans) et des conditions de production discursive. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial context in school: Its relation to adolescents' depressive mood
Boulard, Aurore ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Journal of Adolescence (2012), 35(1), 143-152

This study examined the impact of various school-related factors on adolescents’ depressive mood, including prosocial behavior, verbal aggression, and relationships with teachers. The data used in this ... [more ▼]

This study examined the impact of various school-related factors on adolescents’ depressive mood, including prosocial behavior, verbal aggression, and relationships with teachers. The data used in this study were collected in the context of a larger survey on victimization in secondary schools from the French Community of Belgium. Participants were 2896 secondary school students (1520 males; 1376 females) aged 12–18 years. Results showed that for both genders, the three strongest predictors of depressive mood were age, feeling of exclusion, and verbal aggression. This study focusing on school-related predictors of depressive mood confirmed the importance of the social context in school as a predictor of depression in both girls and boys. [less ▲]

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