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See detailCHRONIC TOXIC HEPATITIS IN BEEF CALVES DUE TO MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN MIXED FEED
Theron, Léonard ULg; Callebaut, Alfons; Bayrou, Calixte ULg et al

in Zemljic, Borut; Podpecan, Ozbalt; Zmljic-Jokhadar, Spela (Eds.) Proceedings of the XV middle European Buiatric Congress (2015, June 10)

Mycotoxins intoxination is an emerging disorder in Belgium, due to evolution of cultural practices and harvesting weather conditions. These intoxinations are difficult to diagnose for the vet practioners ... [more ▼]

Mycotoxins intoxination is an emerging disorder in Belgium, due to evolution of cultural practices and harvesting weather conditions. These intoxinations are difficult to diagnose for the vet practioners, since unspecific clinical signs, and their impact on ruminant disorder remains controversial. Although legal concentrations have been established for mycotoxins in the EU, farm forages are most of the time not tested (EU 2006/576/EC). In January 2015, a 500 calvings cross-bred Belgian blue cattle herd (BVDV free) referred a second (the first was directly sent to the rendering-plant) unexplained fatal case of jaundice on a 2 months-old calf to the Clinic for Ruminants of the University of Liège for necropsy. In 2013, a case of jaundice due to a Salmonella dublin hepatocholecystitis had previously diagnosed in this farm (Ronzoni et al., 2014), but so far preventions measures were implemented. Necropsy revealed generalized icterus, mild bilirubinuria, splenomegaly, but no precise etiology. On February a second 2 month old calf with jaundice is referred, lethargic, normothermic with a mild diarrhea, Calf shown generalized jaundice, anemia, elevation of leukocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes), TGO, bilirubinemia, total biliary acids and Globulins (alpha2). He had also diminished erythrocytes and albuminemia. Copraemia, leptospirosis serology, leademia, hemoculture and pancreatic enzymes were within normal ranges, ruling out classic causes of jaundice in calf. Abdomen ultrasonography revealed a mild hyperechogenicity of the liver but no gall bladder modifications. Symptomatic treatment was based on symptoms, with fluidotherapy and choleretics. A third calf was referred three days after in a worst clinical condition, with also a severely modified liver enzymes, but no anemia. Three days after, this calf died and a necropsy revealed petechiae and hemorrhages in the abomasum, congestive mucosae in the distal bowel, white depot in the kidney medulla, modified urine and splenomegaly. Bile bacteriology and leptospirosis PCR was negative and liver histopathology revealed a severe histopathological liver degeneration associated with a disruption of the parenchyma and marked hyperplasia of the bile ducts compatible with chronic metabolic disorder. Meanwhile, the anemic calf recovered from anemia without any treatment after 4 days and was discharged from the Clinic for Ruminants. Considering the weird clinical patterns of these jaundice cases, and the fact that only calves from 2 to 3 months were affected, a nutritional origin as etiology was suspected. To test it, eight clinically healthy two to three months-old calves, of two different pens were sampled. TGO, GLDH, GGT or biliary acids were either modified and the values tended to increase with the age of the calves. The water was analyzed for classic toxics, and cultured for total germ content and everything were within recommended values. The calves fed with a milk replacer (30 % milk powder), and a commercial calf starter until one month of age. Then, they were given a mixed feed (containing cereal mix, cocoa, beet pulp, soja, maize), made at the farm from primary product/byproducts bought from different sources. The mix was tested for mycotoxins presence and ranged from 0.8 to 1.5 ppm of Desoxynivalenone (DON), and 115-215 ppb of Zearalenone (ZEA). The principal source of DON was maize (3.1 to 6.2 ppm), as for ZEA (0.3-0.6 ppm), but several compounds contained small dose of DON (0.2-0.7 ppm) for Barley feed, Tanned soja. Cacao contained 2.7 to 5.9 ppb of Ochratoxine (OTA). Nutritionnal recommendations were immediately given with a change in the source of maize and an addition of clay and yeast at 40g/calf/day and hay. Since, any other hypothetic origin to this progressive hepatic intoxination was demostrated, and that the doses founded, even if barely legal in the mix, are not accounted for toxic in the EU regulation, we believe that the calves were chronically exposed to these toxins. However, some mycotoxins experts still claim that various clinical signs would be observed in ruminants, if the rumen is partially defaunated, like in our case with the lake of forage. We propose that monitoring of subclinical liver health could be a key to screen DON effects. [less ▲]

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See detailLes utilités de l’échographie chez le bovin en dehors du suivi de reproduction
Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Knapp, Emilie ULg; Rao, Anne-Sophie ULg et al

Scientific conference (2014, November 17)

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See detailWound management of a pregnant Belgian blue cow with severe toxic cutaneous necrosis affecting the limbs.
Gaillot, Claire; Claeys, Stéphanie ULg; Douffet, François ULg et al

Scientific conference (2014, October 17)

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See detailCarnet Clinique de Médecine de Troupeau
Guyot, Hugues ULg; Theron, Léonard ULg; Frisee, Vincent ULg et al

Book published by ULG - FMV - DCP - 4ème édition (2014)

L’agriculture évolue, la médecine vétérinaire suit le même chemin. Les troupeaux d’hier ressemblent de moins en moins à ceux d’aujourd’hui. Hier, la médecine vétérinaire se concentrait sur l’urgence et ... [more ▼]

L’agriculture évolue, la médecine vétérinaire suit le même chemin. Les troupeaux d’hier ressemblent de moins en moins à ceux d’aujourd’hui. Hier, la médecine vétérinaire se concentrait sur l’urgence et donc le cas individuel. Dès aujourd’hui, et encore plus demain, il faut voir l’individu dans sa globalité et donc dans son troupeau. L’unité épidémiologique n’est plus l’individu mais le troupeau. La médecine devient davantage préventive que curative. De là est né le concept Herd Health & Production Management (HH&PM) alliant à la fois des mesures préventives et curatives dans le but d’améliorer la productivité et la rentabilité du troupeau. Cette forme de médecine garde toutefois à l’esprit les attentes du consommateur en termes de qualité des denrées alimentaires d’origine animale (résidus, qualités organoleptiques et microbiologiques) et de bien-être animal. Le concept HH&PM peut se définir comme « l’expression maximale du potentiel génétique d’un animal individuel et du troupeau comme un tout, en optimisant le management de l’exploitation, ainsi que les conditions de la ferme et en conséquence, les entrées économiques de la ferme ». L’examen global d’un troupeau requiert toutefois des connaissances élargies : alimentation, médecine, thériogénologie, bioclimatologie, parasitologie, bactériologie, épidémiologie, économie, zootechnologie. Il est essentiel de ne pas segmenter ses connaissances à l’approche du troupeau tant les problèmes rencontrés peuvent être multifactoriels. La 4ème édition de ce carnet clinique se veut toujours plus pratique et calquée sur le modèle des visites HH&PM que le Département Clinique des Animaux de Production (DCP) de l’Université de Liège réalise quotidiennement sur le terrain. De nombreux rappels sont proposés ainsi que des pistes et/ou canevas permettant d’appréhender au mieux une problématique de troupeau. Cependant, il est très difficile d’être exhaustif pour un carnet de poche (cet outil est avant tout un aide-mémoire en exploitation) et le lecteur prendra soin de compléter ses connaissances dans les livres/cours ad hoc. Par ailleurs, les informations contenues dans ce carnet ne sont pas fixées une fois pour toutes. Les législations, normes, spécialités pharmaceutiques peuvent évoluer et le détenteur de ce carnet clinique de médecine de troupeaux veillera à se tenir informé de ces modifications potentielles. Enfin, bien que les normes établies constituent des repères objectifs, le praticien sera attentif à ne pas émettre de jugement ou diagnostic définitif sur base de simples normes, mais analysera la situation dans sa globalité, en tenant compte de l’aspect clairement multifactoriel des maladies de production dans les élevages bovins laitiers ou viandeux. Enfin, j’adresse mes remerciements aux Profs Emile Bouchard et Luc DesCôteaux, (Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe Québec, Canada), et leurs collaborateurs, au Dr. Virginie Filteau (DSAHR Inc., Québec, Canada), à mes collègues du DCP et de la FMV, et à MSD pour l’inspiration, l’impulsion et l’aide à la réalisation de ce carnet clinique. Pour l’Equipe, Pr. Hugues Guyot 4ème édition – Liège – Janvier 2014 Editions précédentes : 1ère édition (2002), 2ème édition (2006), 3ème édition (2011) [less ▲]

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See detailFluidothérapie chez le veau
Sartelet, Arnaud ULg; Lecomte, Denis; Theron, Léonard ULg et al

Conference (2013, September 27)

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See detailGranulomatous meningo-encephalitis caused by Toxoplasma gondii in three bulls, a possible explanation for unexplained sporadic bovine meningo-encephalitis
Theron, Léonard ULg; Tabaran, F; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Revista Portuguesa de Buiatria (2012, June), (Special Edition),

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See detailSuccessful reduction of cholelithiasis in a holstein cow
Lamain, Guillaume; Frisee, Vincent ULg; Ramery, Eve ULg et al

in Cattle Practice (2012), 20(1), 93-98

A pregnant 3.5 year-old high-productive Holstein cow in the third month of lactation showed colic signs, marked anorexia, and stopped milk production. Clinical examination revealed tachypnea, pyrexia and ... [more ▼]

A pregnant 3.5 year-old high-productive Holstein cow in the third month of lactation showed colic signs, marked anorexia, and stopped milk production. Clinical examination revealed tachypnea, pyrexia and the mucous membranes were all congested. Signs of abdominal discomfort were observed, the abdomen was tense and painful; digestive activity was poor. Blood investigations revealed inflammation, cholestasis, and leucocytosis with marked neutrophilia. Trans-abdominal ultrasonography revealed decreased digestive transit and enlarged gall-bladder. Hepatic or biliary involvement was suspected. A right-flank exploratory laparotomy revealed a gallbladder filled with firm and mobile 0.5 to 1cm diameter fluctuant masses. Digital palpation allowed cholelith extraction through the cystic duct into the duodenum. After the surgery, the cow progressively regained a normal appetite and pain signs decreased. Blood samples analysed 10 days after the surgery still showed inflammation but to a lesser extent. Hepatic enzymes were markedly increased, indicating hepatic injury. Three months after the surgery, the cow was healthy and was inseminated. This case report suggests that cholelithiasis may be diagnosed and successfully treated in early stage of the disease in cattle, though this condition is rare in this species. This is the second report of manual cholelith extraction in a cow. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccessful reduction of cholelithiasis in a Holstein cow
Lamain, Guillaume ULg; Frisee, Vincent ULg; Ramery, Eve ULg et al

Poster (2011, September)

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See detailDevelopment of a scoring system to assess lameness status in dairy cattle farms
Frisee, Vincent ULg; Guyot, Hugues ULg

in Société Belge Francophone de Buiatrie & Vlaamse vereniging voor Buiatrie (Ed.) Proceeding of the 6th European Congress of Bovine Health Management (2011, September)

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