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See detailHighly efficient, long life, reusable and robust photosynthetic hybrid core-shell beads for the sustainable production of high value compounds
Desmet, Jonathan; Meunier, Christophe; Danloy, Emeric et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2015), 448

An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate–SiO2–polycation) shell: (Na-alginate– SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life ... [more ▼]

An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate–SiO2–polycation) shell: (Na-alginate– SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life photosynthetically active material for a sustainable manufacture of high-value metabolites is presented. Bead formation is based on crosslinking of an alginate biopolymer and mineralisation of silicic acid in combination with a coacervation process between a polycation and the silica sol, forming a semi-permeable external membrane. The excellent mechanical strength and durability of the monodispersed beads and the control of their porosity and textural properties is achieved by tailoring the silica and alginate loading, polycation concentration and incubation time during coacervation. This process has led to the formation of a remarkably robust hybrid material that confers exceptional protection to live cells against sheer stresses and contamination in a diverse range of applications. Dunaliella tertiolecta encapsulated within this hybrid core–shell system display high photosynthetic activity over a long duration (>1 year). This sustainable biotechnology could find use in high value chemical harvests and biofuel cells to photosynthetic solar cells (energy transformation, electricity production, water splitting technologies). Furthermore the material can be engineered into various forms from spheres to variable thickness films, broadening its potential applications. 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHYDRODYNAMICS IN A DISPOSABLE RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED STIRRED BIOREACTOR WITH ELLIPTIC PENDULUM MOTION PADDLE
Collignon, Marie-Laure ULg; Droissart, Laurent; Delafosse, Angélique ULg et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2015), 93

Stainless steel bioreactors increasingly fall behind to their disposable counterparts in pharma research as they do not require cleaning or sterilization. This led company ATMI LifeSciences to develop the ... [more ▼]

Stainless steel bioreactors increasingly fall behind to their disposable counterparts in pharma research as they do not require cleaning or sterilization. This led company ATMI LifeSciences to develop the “Nucleo™”. Original in design, this disposable bioreactor comprises a rectangular parallelepiped plastic bag stirred by a paddle revolving in elliptic pendulum motion. Studies covering this bioreactor showed good homogeneity of culture medium as well as good productivity for animal cell cultures. To further explain these good performances, the flow inside the “Nucleo™” had to be resolved. This paper focuses on the mean flow description, computed from stereo-PIV measurements performed in 20 verticals covering the whole volume of a 50 dm3 Nucleo™ bioreactor. As the flow is already turbulent in the chosen agitation conditions, its dimensionless mean velocity field does not vary with the paddle rotational speed. Mean flow pattern exhibits an axial symmetry – same flow is observed in opposite quarters of the tank – and can be described as a three-dimensional helix coiled on itself to form a distorted horizontal torus which covers the whole tank volume. Mean velocity value is on average doubled in the cone swept by the paddle, and its two horizontal components are twice higher than its vertical ones. However, mean velocity remains significant everywhere and, in particular, no stagnant area is observed in tank corners. Our results thus confirm previous studies observations. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of viscosity on Liquid Flow Inside Structured Packings
Bradttmöller, Christian; Janzen, Anna; Crine, Michel ULg et al

in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2015), 54

In this study, X-ray computer tomography and light-induced fluorescence were applied to investigate the morphology of liquid flow inside structured packings. Fluid dynamic parameters such as liquid holdup ... [more ▼]

In this study, X-ray computer tomography and light-induced fluorescence were applied to investigate the morphology of liquid flow inside structured packings. Fluid dynamic parameters such as liquid holdup and wetted surface were determined to study the effect of the variation of viscosity and liquid load. Flow patterns inside the packing were identified and categorized. Liquid film thickness and its distribution were analyzed on single sheets. For both methods, the measured holdup values are in good agreement, despite differences in the techniques of measurement. For the flow patterns and their relative contribution, as well as mean liquid film thickness, a strong dependency on the varied parameters was found. Furthermore, the density function of film thickness distribution changed characteristically with liquid load and viscosity. The complementary use of tomography and optical assessment allowed an improved insight into flow phenomena and the observed interdependency of physical, geometric, and operational parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the links between mass transfer conditions, dissolved hydrogen concentration and biohydrogen production by the pure strain Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009
Beckers, L.; Masset, J.; Hamilton, C. et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2015), 98

Fermentative hydrogen production has often been described as inhibited by its own gas production. In this work, hydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum was investigated in batch Biochemical Hydrogen ... [more ▼]

Fermentative hydrogen production has often been described as inhibited by its own gas production. In this work, hydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum was investigated in batch Biochemical Hydrogen Potential (BHP) tests and in a 2.5L anaerobic sequenced batch reactor (AnSBR) under different operating conditions regarding liquid-to-gas mass transfer. Through the addition of both stirring up to 400rpm and nitrogen sparging, the yields were enhanced from 1.6 to 3.1molH2molglucose -1 and the maximum hydrogen production rates from 140 to 278mLh-1. These original results were achieved with a pure Clostridium strain. They showed that hydrogen production was improved by a higher liquid-to-gas hydrogen transfer resulting in a lower dissolved hydrogen concentration in the culture medium and therefore in a lower bacterial inhibition. In addition, biohydrogen partitioning between the gas and the liquid phase did not conform to Henry's Law due to critical supersaturation phenomena up to seven-fold higher than the equilibrium conditions. Therefore, dissolved hydrogen concentration should be systematically measured instead of the headspace hydrogen partial pressure. A model was proposed to correlate H2 production yield and rate by the pure C. butyricum strain CWBI1009 with mass transfer coefficient KLa. [less ▲]

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See detailCFD Comparison of hydrodynamics between BIOSTAT® Cultibag STR and standard Stirred Cell Culture Bioreactors
Calvo, Sébastien ULg; Delafosse, Angélique ULg; Crine, Michel ULg et al

Poster (2014, September 10)

Single-use bioreactors have been increasingly used for animal cell cultures on microcarriers in screening experiments. Because of their manufacturing process, the shape of these kinds of vessels such as ... [more ▼]

Single-use bioreactors have been increasingly used for animal cell cultures on microcarriers in screening experiments. Because of their manufacturing process, the shape of these kinds of vessels such as the BIOSTAT® Cultibag STR one, is limited. For example, technical constraints on weld seams limit angles to 30° and no baffle may be installed. The shape of standard re-usable vessels may thus not be exactly reproduced and the flow structure may thus significantly differs from the flow structure in standard bioreactors. [less ▲]

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See detailINFLUENCE OF SLUDGE TREATEMENT ON ITS CONVECTIVE DRYING BEHAVIOR
Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Herbreteau, Benjamin; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 27)

Drying appears as a major step prior to valorization of sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This study uses an experimental design on different sludges to highlight the drying behavior according to ... [more ▼]

Drying appears as a major step prior to valorization of sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This study uses an experimental design on different sludges to highlight the drying behavior according to drying conditions, storage and extrusion. This research is performed with industrial view, but on a single cylinder sample, and focuses on five responds: maximum drying flux, time to reach 95% of dry matter, final volume, critical moisture and slowing-down coefficient. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation of polyaniline-modified local clay and study of its sorption capacity
Benhebal, Hadj; Chaid, Messaoud; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry (2014), 4(98), 6

Clay minerals are frequently used in adsorption processes with aqueous solution; it was found that the adsorption properties of clays change when the samples are modified. In this context, polyaniline ... [more ▼]

Clay minerals are frequently used in adsorption processes with aqueous solution; it was found that the adsorption properties of clays change when the samples are modified. In this context, polyaniline-modified clay nanocomposite (at 10 %) was prepared by in situ polymerization processes. The structural and morphological characteristics of the synthesized material are systematically examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The adsorption property of the modified clay was evaluated for the removal of a reactive dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution at room temperature (25 C) via batch adsorption. [less ▲]

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See detailCFD-based Compartment model for description of mixing in bioreactors
Delafosse, Angélique ULg; Calvo, Sébastien ULg; Collignon, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2014), 106

In most bioprocesses, it is fundamental to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. Computational Fluid Dynamics can ... [more ▼]

In most bioprocesses, it is fundamental to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. Computational Fluid Dynamics can provide detailed modeling about hydrodynamics and mixing. However, it is computationally intensive, especially when reactions are taken into account. Another way to predict hydrodynamics is the use of “Compartment” or “Network-of-zones” model which are much less demanding in computation time than CFD. However, compartments and fluxes between them are often defined by considering global quantities not representative of the flow complexity. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a solution is to combine compartment modeling and CFD simulations. The aim of this study is to propose a compartment model where the flow rates between two adjacent compartments are easily computed from the velocity fields obtained by CFD. The mixing evolution predicted by the CFD-based compartment model have been then compared with mixing experiment results. Unlike a CFD mixing simulation and a classical compartment model, the CFD-based compartment model proposed in this work reproduces with a good accuracy the spatial distribution of concentrations during the mixing process and this, without any adjustable parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of electrical resistance tomography measurements obtained in a bubble column: Dynamics aspects, first results
Fransolet, Emmanuelle; Crine, Michel ULg; L'Homme, Guy ULg et al

in Mann, R.; Mewes, D.; Ronson, P. (Eds.) Proceedings of 2nd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, Hanovre, Germany, 29-31 août 2001 (2014)

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See detailX-ray microtomography: A new tool to follow soft material shrinkage during convective drying
Léonard, Angélique ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Marchot, Pierre ULg et al

in 2nd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography : Hannover, Germany 29-31 août 2001 (2014)

X-ray microtomography is proposed as a new tool to investigate the shrinkage of soft material which occurs during convective drying. Reliable shrinkage curves are obtained with samples of wastewater ... [more ▼]

X-ray microtomography is proposed as a new tool to investigate the shrinkage of soft material which occurs during convective drying. Reliable shrinkage curves are obtained with samples of wastewater treatment sludge. We develop a four zones model to describe the drying kinetics based of the experimental data provided by X-ray microtomography. The observation of the drying and shrinkage curves allows us to determine 3 critical water content values, which define different drying zones where extragranular, intragranular or mixed limitations prevail. When drying is externally controlled, the decrease of the drying rate observed during experiments can be related to the reduction of the external area of the sample. © 2014 International Society for Industrial Process Tomography. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the influence of packing geometry and of liquid viscosity on the liquid flow morphology by using X-ray tomography
Janzen, Anna; Steube, Julia; Kenig, Evgeny et al

in Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (2014)

X-ray tomography is used to investigate the influence of packing geometry and of liquid viscosity on hydrodynamic quantities, as well as on the liquid flow morphology inside a packed column successively ... [more ▼]

X-ray tomography is used to investigate the influence of packing geometry and of liquid viscosity on hydrodynamic quantities, as well as on the liquid flow morphology inside a packed column successively filled with two structured metallic packing, M752Y and M500X. As expected, liquid holdup and gas-liquid interfacial area increase with liquid flow rate and viscosity. In both packings, the film flow pattern predominates, while flooded regions remain minority. The influence of liquid flow rate and viscosity on flow morphology depends on the packing geometry. In M752Y, film and flooded region flows are clearly influenced, whereas in M500X, they are not. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of liquid viscosity on separation efficiency of structured packings – modelling approach based on X-ray tomography investigations
Janzen, Anna; Steube, Julia; Crine, Michel ULg et al

in Proceedings (2014)

The objectives of this work are the investigation of liquid flow morphology inside a structured packing using X-ray tomography and the development of a modelling approach based on hydrodynamic analogy ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this work are the investigation of liquid flow morphology inside a structured packing using X-ray tomography and the development of a modelling approach based on hydrodynamic analogy between the real complex flow patterns and simplified fluid-dynamic elements. To study the influence of viscosity, water and mixtures of water and glycerine with varying glycerine fraction are used as working liquids. X-ray tomography is applied to determine the spatial distribution of liquid in the cross-section of a column filled with MellapakPlus 752.Y packing elements. The resulting images are used to evaluate liquid hold-up, gas-liquid interfacial area and to analyse liquid morphology. Liquid flow patterns (film flow, contact-point liquid, flooded regions) are identified, and the fraction of liquid within each flow pattern depending on flow rate and liquid viscosity is determined. The results of the liquid flow morphology analysis are used to develop a hydrodynamic analogy model. To implement the gas-liquid contact area and the flooded regions into this model, the packing is represented as a bundle of dry, filled and irrigated cylindrical channels, while the ratio between different type channels is determined from the analysis of tomographic images. This simplified hydrodynamic description allows a direct application of rigorous partial differential transport equations, and their solution yields local concentration fields which are used for the evaluation of the separation efficiency. The new modelling approach is validated by comparison with separation efficiency data obtained from experiments with CO2 desorption from saturated water-glycerine mixtures into air. The presented modelling approach is capable of predicting the influence of viscosity on separation efficiency of columns filled with structured packings. [less ▲]

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See detailVisible-light photo-activity of alkali metal doped ZnO
Benhebal, Hadj; Chaib, Messaoud; Malengreaux, Charline ULg et al

in Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers (2014), 45(1), 249-253

In order to utilize visible light more efficiently in the field of photocatalysis, Li, Na and K-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using a sol–gel method. The obtained samples were characterized by BET ... [more ▼]

In order to utilize visible light more efficiently in the field of photocatalysis, Li, Na and K-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using a sol–gel method. The obtained samples were characterized by BET surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–vis analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated for the degradation of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) under visible light irradiation. It has been observed that these photocatalysts could be a promising photocatalyst for degradation of organic molecules as compared to transition metal doped ZnO under visible light. Li-doped ZnO is the most active photocatalyst and shows high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Li-doped ZnO is mainly due to the electron trapping by lithium metal ions, small particle size, large surface area, and high surface roughness of the photocatalysts. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling of Wastewater Sludge Drying with Determination of Diffusivity Moisture
Bennamoun, Lyes ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

in Journal of Residuals Science and Technology [=JRST] (2013), 10(4), 165

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See detailDévéloppement intégré de matériaux hybrides photosynthétiques par encapsulation de micro-algues en vue de la production de méthabolites à haute valeur ajoutée (projet FOTOBIOMAT)
Duprez, Marie-Eve; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Thomas, Diane et al

Poster (2013, November 15)

La production de métabolites à haute valeur ajoutée tels que les caroténoïdes peut se faire au travers de la culture de micro-algues de type Dunaliella sp. notamment. La croissance de la biomasse en ... [more ▼]

La production de métabolites à haute valeur ajoutée tels que les caroténoïdes peut se faire au travers de la culture de micro-algues de type Dunaliella sp. notamment. La croissance de la biomasse en cellules libres a pour inconvénient majeur la destruction de la souche micro-algale lors des différentes étapes d’extraction des composés d’intérêt. Le projet FOTOBIOMAT (subsidié par le programme Greenomat de la Région wallonne) a pour but de développer un nouveau type de photobioréacteur dans lequel sont mises en oeuvre les micro-algues encapsulées dans des billes constituées d’un matériau hybride (alginate-silice). Les billes sont maintenues en suspension dans un lit fluidisé (mélange assez doux ne compromettant pas l’intégrité des billes). Ce type de mélange permet de renouveler les billes à la paroi du photobioréacteur, au contact de la source lumineuse. Le processus de photosynthèse est ainsi utilisé afin de convertir du CO2 en composé à haute valeur ajoutée (-carotène par exemple). La viabilité des micro-algues encapsulées doit être très importante (minimum 6 mois). Idéalement, le -carotène produit devrait être récupéré par une voie non polluante et ce, quasi en continu. Le projet est réalisé conjointement par quatre institutions universitaires (Université de Namur, Université Catholique de Louvain, Université de Liège et Université de Mons). Nous présentons ici différents résultats relatifs aux transferts gazeux et de matière au sein des billes, des billes vers une solution liquide ou de la solution vers les billes. L’oxygène produit par les micro-algues ainsi que le dioxyde de carbone consommé, preuves d’une bonne activité photosynthétique, doivent pouvoir migrer entre la matrice solide et le milieu de culture. La consommation de certains nutriments, les nitrates par exemple, essentiels à la croissance et à la survie de la souche micro-algale choisie peut également être suivie au cours du temps. Pour ce faire, différents types de sondes ont été utilisés avec plus ou moins de succès (Tableau 1). Les métabolites à haute valeur ajoutée produits (ici, le -carotène) doivent pouvoir être extraits des micro-algues et du matériau afin d’être récupérés dans la phase liquide. Des mesures de diffusion de composés tels que la rhodamine B (colorant) et de -carotène d’une solution agitée aux billes a été étudiée (Figures 1 et 2). Enfin, afin d’étudier leur capacité d’extraction du -carotène en-dehors des billes, différents solvants, dont la plupart sont connus pour leur capacité efficacité d’extraction de caroténoïdes hors des micro-algues, ont été testés. Il s’est avéré que si quelques solvants permettaient effectivement d’extraire du -carotène en-dehors des billes, ils étaient « agressifs » vis-à-vis du matériau (Tableau 2) ou de la biomasse. En outre, à l’heure actuelle, si aucun solvant « vert » et biocompatible n’a pu encore se dégager, l’huile de tournesol est en cours de test, tout en étudiant également l’action de procédés plus physiques (sonication, variations légères de température, …). [less ▲]

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See detailProcédé de fabrication d'un matériau hybride photosynthétique obtenu par encapsulation de micro-algues en vue de sa mise en oeuvre dans un photobioréacteur à biomasse fixée
Lox, Frédéric ULg; Crine, Michel ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg et al

Poster (2013, November 15)

La méthode d’encapsulation a une grande influence sur la productivité et sur la viabilité des microalgues car elle conditionne leur environnement immédiat au sein du matériau hybride. Le contrôle de la ... [more ▼]

La méthode d’encapsulation a une grande influence sur la productivité et sur la viabilité des microalgues car elle conditionne leur environnement immédiat au sein du matériau hybride. Le contrôle de la porosité, de la composition chimique et la stabilité mécanique est fondamental. Cette étape de recherche consiste en la détermination des formulations chimiques idéales (densité cellulaire, compositions chimiques, porosité,…) et des conditions de synthèse (précurseurs chimiques, conditions d’encapsulation sol-gel) des matériaux hybrides photosynthétiques avec des microalgues sélectionnées; la géométrie (forme et dimensions) d’un matériau hybride donné (densité cellulaire, composition chimique, porosité) a une grande influence sur le transfert de matière (CO2, nutriments) et sur la transmission de la lumière jusqu’aux microalgues et donc sur l’activité métabolique et la viabilité de celles-ci. Le projet FOTOBIOMAT (subsidié par le programme Greenomat de la Région wallonne) est réalisé conjointement par quatre institutions universitaires Université de Namur (UNAMUR), Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Université de Liège (ULg) et Université de Mons UMONS)). La composition de départ du MHPS a été déterminée par UNAMUR. Nous aborderons ici les étapes de conception, construction et mise au point d’un dispositif de fabrication en continu de billes de matériau hybride photosynthétique contenant une microalgue du genre Dunaniella ainsi que l’adaptation du protocole de synthèse des billes en vue de permettre une production importante puis une production en continu qui ont été développées par le Laboratoire de Génie Chimique (LGC) de l’Université de Liège. Nous présenterons des études sur la caractérisation des MHPSs : -le transfert de lumière au sein du matériau et la diffusion de composés tels qu’un colorant (la rhodamine B), un pigment (le b-carotène) ou une protéine (l’hémoglobine) d’une solution agitée aux billes ont été réalisées ainsi que des tests d’extraction de b-carotène encapsulé directement dans les billes (UMONS) ; -la résistance, la distribution de la composition, la surface spécifique et la porosité de la couche La méthode d’encapsulation a une grande influence sur la productivité et sur la viabilité des microalgues car elle conditionne leur environnement immédiat au sein du matériau hybride. Le contrôle de la porosité, de la composition chimique et la stabilité mécanique est fondamental. Cette étape de recherche consiste en la détermination des formulations chimiques idéales (densité cellulaire, compositions chimiques, porosité,…) et des conditions de synthèse (précurseurs chimiques, conditions d’encapsulation sol-gel) des matériaux hybrides photosynthétiques avec des microalgues sélectionnées; la géométrie (forme et dimensions) d’un matériau hybride donné (densité cellulaire, composition chimique, porosité) a une grande influence sur le transfert de matière (CO2, nutriments) et sur la transmission de la lumière jusqu’aux microalgues et donc sur l’activité métabolique et la viabilité de celles-ci. Le projet FOTOBIOMAT (subsidié par le programme Greenomat de la Région wallonne) est réalisé conjointement par quatre institutions universitaires Université de Namur (UNAMUR), Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Université de Liège (ULg) et Université de Mons UMONS)). La composition de départ du MHPS a été déterminée par UNAMUR. Nous aborderons ici les étapes de conception, construction et mise au point d’un dispositif de fabrication en continu de billes de matériau hybride photosynthétique contenant une microalgue du genre Dunaniella ainsi que l’adaptation du protocole de synthèse des billes en vue de permettre une production importante puis une production en continu qui ont été développées par le Laboratoire de Génie Chimique (LGC) de l’Université de Liège. Nous présenterons des études sur la caractérisation des MHPSs : -le transfert de lumière au sein du matériau et la diffusion de composés tels qu’un colorant (la rhodamine B), un pigment (le b-carotène) ou une protéine (l’hémoglobine) d’une solution agitée aux billes ont été réalisées ainsi que des tests d’extraction de b-carotène encapsulé directement dans les billes (UMONS) ; -la résistance, la distribution de la composition, la surface spécifique et la porosité de la couche externe des MHPS (UNAMUR) ; -la répartition des dimensions et de la densité des billes obtenue en fonction du mode de production (ULg). [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of sludge storage duration on its dewatering and drying ability
Pambou, Yvon-Bert; Salmon, Thierry ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

Poster (2013, October)

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