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See detailQuantitative Analysis of the Relative Abundance Changes Observed in Type I, III and V Collagen after Suspensory Ligament Injuries in Horses
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

in Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2014, July)

Introduction: The equine suspensory ligament (SL) injuries are an important cause of lameness in horses. Quantification of the relative abundance of the constitutive collagen types is essential to ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The equine suspensory ligament (SL) injuries are an important cause of lameness in horses. Quantification of the relative abundance of the constitutive collagen types is essential to investigate the differences between normal and injured tissues. The aim of this original study was to precisely determine the different collagen ratios both in injured and normal SL. This approach is a rational step towards understanding the intimate mechanisms of SL repair and regeneration at the molecular and histological levels. Methods: Five Warmblood horses with visible signs of injury in only one forelimb SL were selected. Specimens were obtained from the central core of lesions in damaged SLs and from the corresponding regions in other healthy SLs. Collagen types I, III and V were purified by differential salt precipitation after collagen extraction with acetic acid containing pepsin and they were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The bands corresponding to types I, III, and V collagen were assessed by densitometry after SDS-PAGE. SAS software (SAS Institute 2001) was used for all statistical analyses. Results: Based on ultrastructural observations, purified fibers of types I, III, and V collagens have been identified. The relative proportions of type III and type V collagen were significantly higher in the specimens‎ from damaged tissue compared with specimens from normal tissue (P < 0.001). These changes were concomitant with significant decrease in type I collagen in the injured tissue (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our study showed that after SL injury, the relative abundance of the different collagen types is modified. These changes are the molecular hallmark of a decrease in tissue quality and mechanical properties of the ligament. It lays down the bases of subsequent researches on the tissue regeneration that may lead to the development of new treatment strategies for damaged tissues, particularly in the equine SL injuries. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro culture of seal muscle-derived satellite cells
Freichels, Astrid ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2014, April)

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See detailContribution à l’étude de l’activité antivirale et du mécanisme moléculaire de la MX1 bovine
Baise, Etienne ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

Summary Type I interferons (IFNs a/b) induce the synthesis of many factors belonging to the innate immune system which is known to play an essential role as the first defence line against the viral ... [more ▼]

Summary Type I interferons (IFNs a/b) induce the synthesis of many factors belonging to the innate immune system which is known to play an essential role as the first defence line against the viral infection. Among these contributors, the MX protein (a member of the large GTPase family) along with the double stranded (ds) RNA dependent protein kinase R (PKR) and the 2’5’ oligoadenylate synthetase/Rnase L system, has been shown to be one of the most efficient among the murine and the human species. The bovine counterpart of the MX system was, at the beginning of this work, described at the sole gene level (the CDS sequence) but its functional capacity was still totally unexplored. Accordingly, our first aim was to assess the ability of the bovine GTPase we called boMX1 to inhibit viruses infecting cattle. A Vero cell line (V103) conditionally expressing the boMX1 was established. To proof the concept, we firstly tested the inhibition of a canonical virus on this field, the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) which was confirmed to be as sensitive to boMX1 as previously shown to MXA (Homo sapiens). In a second step, we focused our investigation on the activity of boMX1 against two Paramyxoviridae viruses, the boRSV and the boPI3, both of these being sensitive to IFNs as reported in the literature and furthermore confirmed by our previous in vitro experiments. Although boMX1 was expected to be the most important factor of the type I interferon resistance recorded against boPI3 and boRSV, our study has shown that the bovine protein was not able to block these viruses belonging to the Respirovirus genus. Conversely, the famous Orthomyxoviridae virus member, Influenza A was shown to be almost completely inhibited in cells expressing boMX1. The inhibitory potential of boMX1 was so strong it could only be measured upon the replacement of the low pathogenic H1N1 strain used in the first assays by the hypervirulent H7N7 one. In this case, the protection rate was as high as 108. Typically, the value found for the human counterpart MXA is in the range of 103 – 104 and according to our knowledge, none of the MX proteins investigated so far have never been shown to be so effective against Influenza A. In the wave of these results, the well-known avian H5N1 Influenza A strain has been tested in vitro and in vivo. All the data reinforced the concept of a very high anti-Influenza A activity for BoMX1. A such important antiviral effect appeared as an opportunity to initiate an experimental approach of the largely unknown underlying mechanism(s) of the MX antiviral activity. Our first objective was to identify the “primum movens” of the inhibition mechanism. Therefore, we followed the kinetic of the infection in V103 expressing or not the boMX1 during one single cycle. The evidence of an important activity of the bovine GTPase in the first hours post-infection led us to identify at the RNA level which replication step was the first to be blocked. Following the collected results, we adapted a primer extension method to quantify the genomic viral RNA (vRNA) early entry in the induced and non induced cell cultures. Finally, we tested a first interaction hypothesis between the boMX1 and a potential interacting protein sister. [less ▲]

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See detailFlow Cytometric Probing of Mitochondrial Function in Equine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Cassart, Dominique ULg; Fett, Thomas ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2007), 3

BACKGROUND: The morphopathological picture of a subset of equine myopathies is compatible with a primary mitochondrial disease, but functional confirmation in vivo is still pending. The cationic dye JC-1 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The morphopathological picture of a subset of equine myopathies is compatible with a primary mitochondrial disease, but functional confirmation in vivo is still pending. The cationic dye JC-1 exhibits potential-dependent accumulation in mitochondria that is detectable by a fluorescence shift from green to orange. As a consequence, mitochondrial membrane potential can be optically measured by the orange/green fluorescence intensity ratio. A flow cytometric standardized analytic procedure of the mitochondrial function of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells is proposed along with a critical appraisal of the crucial questions of technical aspects, reproducibility, effect of time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing and reference values. RESULTS: The JC-1-associated fluorescence orange and green values and their ratio were proved to be stable over time, independent of age and sex and hypersensitive to intoxication with a mitochondrial potential dissipator. Unless time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing does not exceed 5 hours, the values retrieved remain stable. Reference values for clinically normal horses are given. CONCLUSION: Whenever a quantitative measurement of mitochondrial function in a horse is desired, blood samples should be taken in sodium citrate tubes and kept at room temperature for a maximum of 5 hours before the laboratory procedure detailed here is started. The hope is that this new test may help in confirming, studying and preventing equine myopathies that are currently imputed to mitochondrial dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological alterations in oxidative muscles and mitochondrial structure associated with equine atypical myopathy
Cassart, Dominique ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg; Cherel, Yann et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2007), 39(1), 26-32

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There is a lack of well documented studies about muscular lesions in equine atypical myopathy (EAM). <br /> <br />OBJECTIVES: To characterise morphopathological changes of ... [more ▼]

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There is a lack of well documented studies about muscular lesions in equine atypical myopathy (EAM). <br /> <br />OBJECTIVES: To characterise morphopathological changes of striated muscles and myocardium, to progress understanding of this disease. <br /> <br />METHODS: Thirty-two horses age 0.5-7 years kept on pasture were referred for a sudden ataxia/myoglobinuria syndrome. Clinical examination (stiffness, muscle pain, muscle fasciculations, abnormal gait, recumbency, myoglobinuria, tachycardia, sweating) and plasma CPK, LDH and AST levels were consistent with extensive myonecrosis and, together with anamnestic data, with so-called 'equine atypical myopathy' (EAM), a disease of unknown aetiology reported since 1939. Macroscopic and microscopic (histology, histoenzymology, ultrastructure) lesions were evaluated. <br /> <br />RESULTS: Necropsic examination revealed large areas of muscle necrosis, the extent and severity of which varied between cases and muscles, but which were clearly more constant and severe in respiratory and postural muscles and in the myocardium. Histology highlighted a multifocal and monophasic process compatible with Zenker degeneration/necrosis that mostly and segmentally affected type 1 fibres. Histochemical evaluation revealed a weak and disorganised pattern of NADH tetrazolium reductase staining, the absence of calcium salts precipitates and a dramatic accumulation of lipid droplets. Ultrastructural examination often revealed fibres of which the sole modifications were altered mitochondria and sarcoplasmic lipidosis. <br /> <br />CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the data suggest that a primary alteration of mitochondria should be considered, although secondary mitochondrial abnormalities have yet to be ruled out. <br /> <br />POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: The morphological features gathered here reveal that EAM shares most of the characteristics of toxic myopathies. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of MX dynamin, oligoadenylate synthetase, and protein kinase R to anti-paramyxovirus activity of type-1 interferons in vitro
Leroy, M.; Baise, Etienne ULg; Pire, G. et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2007), 68

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of MX dynamin, oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) to the antiviral effects of type 1 interferons (IFNs ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of MX dynamin, oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) to the antiviral effects of type 1 interferons (IFNs) against bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V) infection of Vero cells. SAMPLE POPULATION: Vero cell cultures. PROCEDURES: PI-3V yield was first compared between control and transfected type 1 IFNs-incompetent Vero cells expressing recombinant OAS or MX proteins. Afterwards, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) was used to scale the degree of PKR activation upon infection of Vero cells by PI-3V. RESULTS: Overexpression of OAS did not result in significantly decreased viral replication. Phosphorylated eIF2alpha forms, the hallmark of PKR activation, were not increased in IFNalpha-primed infected Vero cells. Although human MXA contributed to partial blockade of replication of bovine PI-3V, the antiviral effect was not as strong as that of IFNalpha. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The powerful anti-Paramyxovirus activity of type 1 IFNs is mediated by noncanonic pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of the interferon-alpha/beta-inducible bovine Mx1 dynamin interferes with replication of rabies virus
Leroy, Michael; Pire, Grégory; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Neurobiology of Disease (2006), 21(3), 515-521

Rabies is a fatal anthropozoonotic viral infection of the central nervous system that remains a serious public health problem in many countries. As several animal cases of spontaneous survival to ... [more ▼]

Rabies is a fatal anthropozoonotic viral infection of the central nervous system that remains a serious public health problem in many countries. As several animal cases of spontaneous survival to infection were reported and because type 1 interferons were shown to protect against the virus, it was suggested that innate resistance mechanisms exist. Among the antiviral proteins that are synthesized in response to interferon-alpha/beta stimulation, Mx proteins from several species are long known to block the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). As both VSV and rabies virus belongs to the Rhabdoviridae family, this study was started with the aim to establish whether the anti-VSV activity of a mammalian Mx protein could be extended to rabies virus. This question was addressed by inoculating the virus onto a bovine Mx1 or human MxA-expressing Vero cell clone. Plaque formation was unambiguously blocked, and viral yields were reduced 100- to 1000-fold by bovine Mx1 expression for both SAG2 and SADB19 viral strains. In opposition, only SAG2 strain could be inhibited by the expression of human MxA protein. The effect of both proteins expression was then evaluated at the viral protein expression level. Again, boMx1 was able to repress protein expression in both strain, whereas only SAG2 proteins were inhibited in human MxA-expressing cells. These results suggest that protection conferred by interferon-alpha/beta against rabies could be, at least partially, attributable to the Mx pathway. Alternatively, bovine Mx1 could be unique in its ability to repress rabies virus which, if confirmed in vivo, would open an avenue for the development of new antirabies therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailResistance of paramyxoviridae to type I interferon-induced Bos taurus Mx1 dynamin
Leroy, Michael; Baise, Etienne ULg; Pire, Grégory et al

in Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research (2005), 25(4), 192-201

Typical targets of type I interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral Mx proteins known to date have been shown to share a common profile: single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses. Among them, human MxA is known ... [more ▼]

Typical targets of type I interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral Mx proteins known to date have been shown to share a common profile: single-stranded negative-sense RNA viruses. Among them, human MxA is known to interfere with the replication of measles, human, and bovine parainfluenza-3 viruses (BoPi3V), that is, three members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Recently, bovine Mx1 protein (BoMx1) was included in the group of Mx proteins with authenticated antiviral potential, as it dramatically represses the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). As replication in bovine cells of Pi3, respiratory syncytial (RS), and Sendai (Se) viruses, all members of the same family, is known to be reduced on IFN-alpha incorporation into the culture medium, it was hypothesized that the BoMx1 pathway possibly was involved, its antiviral spectrum thus probably extending to Paramyxoviridae. In this study, probing of BoMx1-inhibiting effects was carried out by infecting a transgenic Vero cell line that allows tightly regulated conditional expression of BoMx1 after doxycycline treatment with a wide array of Paramyxoviridae. Expressing and nonexpressing cells displayed similar viability, cytopathic effects (CPEs), and amounts of infectious virus yields, whatever the infecting virus or the multiplicity of infection (moi) imposed. It is, therefore, concluded that BoMx1 does not interfere with Paramyxoviridae. [less ▲]

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See detailCloning and characterisation of the primary structure of the sheep lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 alpha subunit
Fett, Thomas ULg; Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Molecular Immunology (2005), 42(12), 1503-1508

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. The ovine cDNA encoding CD1 1a, the predominant a subunit of the beta(2)-integrin ... [more ▼]

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. The ovine cDNA encoding CD1 1a, the predominant a subunit of the beta(2)-integrin family, was sequenced and compared with the human, bovine and murine sequences. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of its known mammalian homologues. Along with the ovine CD18-encoding cDNA, which is available for a few months, the sequence data provided here will allow the Ovis aries beta(2)-integrin CD1 1a/CD18 (LEA-1, alpha(L)beta 2) expression in vitro as a tool to examine the specificities of inflammation in the ovine species. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular characterization of the caprine (Capra hircus) lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 alpha subunit
Fett, Thomas ULg; Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2005)

Background: Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2) is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Results: The Capra hircus CD11a ... [more ▼]

Background: Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2) is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Results: The Capra hircus CD11a-encoding cDNA was sequenced and compared with its human, murine, rat, bovine and ovine counterparts. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of its known mammalian homologues. Conclusion: Therefore, along with the caprine CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a few months, the sequence data revealed here will allow the Capra hircus LFA-1 expression in vitro as a tool to explore the specificities of inflammation in the caprine species. [less ▲]

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See detailClues for Differential Diagnosis of atypical myopathy
Votion, Dominique ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Proceeding of the Maastricht International Congress on Equine Medicine (MICEM) (2004, December)

Atypical myopathy (AM), also called “atypical myoglobinuria”, is a frequently and rapidly fatal myopathy of unknown origin occurring sporadically in grazing horses. As opposed to the exertional ... [more ▼]

Atypical myopathy (AM), also called “atypical myoglobinuria”, is a frequently and rapidly fatal myopathy of unknown origin occurring sporadically in grazing horses. As opposed to the exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome (ERS), clinical signs of AM are not induced by exercise. The condition has been reported in several European countries including Belgium, France, Germany and Great Britain. Clinical signs of AM are characterised by muscular weakness, stiffness, recumbency, sweating and when urine is observed, myoglobinuria. These signs are characteristic but not pathognomonic of the disease; the differential diagnosis of sudden weakness, severe myopathy and/or unexpected death includes several neurogenic and myopathic disorders. The main pathologies that share clinical similarities with AM include the acute form of grass sickness (GS), acute piroplasmosis, botulism, ERS, the hyperkalemic periodic paresis (HPP), nutritional myopathy (NM; i.e. vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency), plants or drugs (i.e. ionophores intoxication) intoxication, tetanus and postanaesthesia myopathy. This report aims at reviewing key facts in history, clinical signs, clinical examination and laboratory findings that contribute towards the diagnosis of AM and/or invalidate the diagnosis of other pathologies. [less ▲]

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See detailAtypical Myopathy (Atypical Myoglobinuria)
Votion, Dominique ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg; Demoulin, Vincent ULg et al

in IVIS Reviews in Veterinary Medicine (2004)

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See detailMolecular cloning and characterisation of the CD18 partner in ovine (Ovis aries) beta(2)-integrins
Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Fett, Thomas ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Gene (2004), 334

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the ovine beta(2) (CD18 ... [more ▼]

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the ovine beta(2) (CD18) subunit, common to the leukocyte beta(2)-integrin family. The deduced 770-amino-acid sequence reveals a transmembrane protein with 81%, 83% and 95% identity with its murine, human and bovine homologues, respectively. Comparisons of CD18 sequences emphasize the functional importance of the beta(2) subunit I-like domain and included metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS)-like motif and confirm that of the cytoplasmic tail. The data provided here will offer the possibility to explore new avenues in studies based on the ovine model. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe bovine (Bos taurus) CD11a-encoding cDNA: molecular cloning, characterisation and comparison with the human and murine glycoproteins
Fett, Thomas ULg; Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Gene (2004), 325

The bovine cDNA encoding CD11 a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in multiple leukocyte functions, was sequenced and compared with the human and murine sequences. Despite some focal differences, it ... [more ▼]

The bovine cDNA encoding CD11 a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in multiple leukocyte functions, was sequenced and compared with the human and murine sequences. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of its known mammalian homologs. Along with the bovine CD18-encoding cDNA, which is available for a long time, the sequence data provided here will allow the successful expression of bovine CD11a, thus giving the first opportunity to express the Bos taurus beta(2)-integrin CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1, alpha(L)beta(2)) in vitro as a tool to examine the specificities of inflammation in the bovine species. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the caprine (Capra hircus) beta-2 integrin CD18-encoding cDNA and identification of mutations potentially responsible for the ruminant-specific virulence of Mannheimia haemolytica
Zecchinon, Laurent ULg; Fett, Thomas ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg et al

in Molecular Membrane Biology (2004), 21(5, Sep-Oct), 289-295

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a great number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the caprine beta(2 ... [more ▼]

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a great number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the caprine beta(2) (CD18) sub-unit, common to the leukocyte beta(2)-integrin family. The deduced 770-amino-acid sequence reveals a transmembrane protein with 80, 81, 83, 96 and 99% identity with its canine, murine, human, bovine and ovine homologues respectively. Analysis of CD18 sequences emphasizes the functional importance of the beta(2) sub-unit I-like domain, and included metal ion-dependent adhesion site-like motif and confirms that of the cytoplasmic tail. Moreover, comparisons of ruminant versus non-ruminant CD18 sequences allowed the identification of 16 potential mutation sites that could be held responsible for the unique virulence of Mannheimia haemolytica for ruminants. Mannheimiosis is known to be the major respiratory disease among ruminants, whereas it is not pathogenic for other mammals, an observation that has been attributed to a specific interaction between M. haemolytica leukotoxin and ruminants' CD18. Therefore, the data provided here offer the possibility to explore new avenues in studies based on the caprine model and provide key information for future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the ruminant-specific virulence of M. haemolytica. [less ▲]

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See detailConditional expression of type I interferon-induced bovine Mx1 GTPase in a stable transgenic vero cell line interferes with replication of vesicular stomatitis virus
Baise, Etienne ULg; Pire, Grégory; Leroy, Michael et al

in Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research (2004), 24(9), 513-521

In some vertebrate species, type I interferon(IFN)-induced Mx gene expression has been shown to confer resistance to some single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses in vitro. Because the bovine species is ... [more ▼]

In some vertebrate species, type I interferon(IFN)-induced Mx gene expression has been shown to confer resistance to some single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses in vitro. Because the bovine species is subject to an exceptionally wide array of infections caused by such viruses, it is anticipated that an antiviral allele should have been retained by evolution at the bovine Mx locus. The identification of such allele may help in evaluating the real significance of the Mx genotype for disease resistance in vivo, in deciphering host-virus molecular interactions involved, or in improving innate disease resistance of livestock through marker-assisted selection. We validated a double transgenic Vero cell clone in which the bovine Mx1 reference allele is placed under control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer-promoter sequence containing elements from the bacterial tetracycline resistance operon to regulate transcription. In the selected clone, transgene repression was very tight, and derepression by doxycycline led to homogeneous 48-h duration expression of physiologic levels of bovine Mx1. Expression of the transgene caused a dramatic decrease in cytopathic efficiency and a 500-5000-fold yield reduction of the Indiana and New Jersey serotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). To our knowledge, the transgenic clone developed here is the first ever reported that allows conditional expression of an Mx protein, thus providing a valuable tool for studying functions of Mx proteins in general and that of bovine Mx1 in particular. This latter may henceforward be included in the group of Mx proteins with authenticated anti-VSV activity, which offers new research avenues into the field of host-virus interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailGenomic structure, organisation, and promoter analysis of the bovine (Bos taurus) Mx1 gene
Gérardin; Baise, Etienne ULg; Pire, Grégory et al

in Gene (2004), 326

Some MX proteins are known to confer a specific resistance against a panel of single-stranded RNA viruses. Many diseases due to such viruses are known to affect cattle worldwide, raising the possibility ... [more ▼]

Some MX proteins are known to confer a specific resistance against a panel of single-stranded RNA viruses. Many diseases due to such viruses are known to affect cattle worldwide, raising the possibility that the identification of an antiviral isoform of a bovine MX protein would allow the implementation of genetic selection programs aimed at improving innate resistance of cattle. With this potential application in mind, the present study was designed to isolate the bovine Mx1 gene including its promoter region and to investigate its genomic organisation and promoter reactivity. The bovine Mx1 gene is made up of 15 exons. All exon-intron boundaries conformed to the consensus sequences. A PCR product that contained a approximately 1-kb, 5'-flanking region upstream from the putative transcription start site was sequenced. Unexpectedly, this DNA region did not contain TATA or CCAAT motifs. A computer scan of the region disclosed a series of putative binding sites for known cytokines and transcription factors. There was a GAAAN(1-2)GAAA(C/G) motif, typical of an interferon-sensitive responsive element, between -118 and -107 from the putative transcription start site. There were also a NF-kappaB, two interleukin-6 binding sites, two Sp1 sites and five GC-rich boxes. The region also contained 12 stretches of the GAAA type, as described in all IFN-inducible genes. Bovine Mx1 expression was assessed by Northern blotting and immunofluorescence in the Madin Darby bovine kidney cells (MDBK) cell line treated with several stimuli. In conclusion, the bovine Mx1 gene and promoter region share the major structural and functional characteristics displayed by their homologs described in the rainbow trout, chicken, mouse and man. [less ▲]

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See detailLa myopathie atypique des équidés: particularités cliniques, examens complémentaires et hypothèses étiologiques.
Votion, Dominique ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Journée AVEF (Association des Vétérinaires Equins Français) (2003, October)

La myopathie atypique (MA) des équidés, encore appelée myoglobinurie atypique des chevaux au pré, est un syndrome caractérisé par l’apparition soudaine de faiblesse musculaire, de raideur, de tremblements ... [more ▼]

La myopathie atypique (MA) des équidés, encore appelée myoglobinurie atypique des chevaux au pré, est un syndrome caractérisé par l’apparition soudaine de faiblesse musculaire, de raideur, de tremblements et de sudation profuse généralisée ou localisée. L’animal adopte rapidement une position en décubitus sternal ou latéral. Lorsque de l’urine est émise, celle-ci a une couleur brune « chocolatée ». L’examen clinique révèle fréquemment de la tachycardie, de l’hypothermie et de la dyspnée. Le dosage de l’activité sérique de la créatinine kinase contribue à la présomption de MA en démontrant une destruction musculaire massive mais le diagnostic définitif repose nécessairement sur l’examen histologique des muscles intervenant dans la posture et la respiration, muscles généralement atteints lors de cette maladie ainsi que sur l’examen du muscle cardiaque où des lésions de dégénérescence sont occasionnellement observées. Diverses hypothèses étiologiques sont en cours d’investigation et les plus probables incriminent l’action d’une mycotoxine ou d’une toxine d’origine bactérienne, ingérée ou produite dans le tractus digestif. Néanmoins, une carence nutritionnelle n’est pas exclue. Quelle que soit la cause, il semble que des conditions climatiques défavorables favorisent le déclenchement des symptômes. La récolte de données épidémiologiques permettra de mieux définir les moyens de prévention de cette maladie souvent fatale. [less ▲]

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