References of "Anselme, Patrick"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNeuronal and psychological underpinnings of pathological gambling
Singer, Bryan F.; Anselme, Patrick ULg; Robinson, Mike J.F. et al

in Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience (2014), 8, 230

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInitial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues
Robinson, Mike J.F.; Anselme, Patrick ULg; Fischer, Adam M. et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 266(1), 119-130

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian ... [more ▼]

Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian procedure of autoshaping, visible as enhanced sign-tracking (or approach and nibbles) by rats of a metal lever whose sudden appearance acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS+) to predict sucrose pellets as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Here we examined how reward uncertainty might enhance incentive salience as sign-tracking both in intensity and by broadening the range of attractive CS+s. We also examined whether initially-induced uncertainty enhancements of CS+ attraction can endure beyond uncertainty itself, and persist even when Pavlovian prediction becomes 100% certain. Our results show that uncertainty can broaden incentive salience attribution to make CS cues attractive that would otherwise not be (either because they are too distal from reward or too risky to normally attract sign-tracking). In addition, uncertainty enhancement of CS+ incentive salience, once induced by initial exposure, persisted even when Pavlovian CS-UCS correlations later rose toward 100% certainty in prediction. Persistence suggests an enduring incentive motivation enhancement potentially relevant to gambling, which in some ways resembles incentive-sensitization. Higher motivation to uncertain CS+s leads to more potent attraction to these cues when they predict the delivery of uncertain rewards. In humans, those cues might possibly include the sights and sounds associated with gambling, which contribute a major component of the play immersion experienced by problematic gamblers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhat motivates gambling behaviour? Insight into dopamine’s role
Anselme, Patrick ULg; Robinson, Mike J.F.

in Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience (2013), 7, 182

It is commonly believed that monetary gain is the cause of gambling behaviour in humans. Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), the chief neuromediator of incentive motivation, is indeed released to a larger extent in ... [more ▼]

It is commonly believed that monetary gain is the cause of gambling behaviour in humans. Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), the chief neuromediator of incentive motivation, is indeed released to a larger extent in pathological gamblers (PG) than in healthy controls (HC) during gambling episodes (Joutsa et al., 2012; Linnet et al., 2011), as in other forms of compulsive and addictive behaviour. However, recent findings indicate that the interaction between DA and reward is not so straightforward (Blum et al., 2012; Linnet et al., 2012). In PG and HC, DA release seems to reflect the unpredictability of reward delivery rather than reward per se. This suggests that the motivation to gamble is strongly (though not entirely) determined by the inability to predict reward occurrence. Here we discuss several views of the role of DA in gambling, and attempt to provide an evolutionary framework to explain its role in uncertainty. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPreference for rich, random tactile stimulation in woodlice (Porcellio scaber)
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Learning & Motivation (2013), 44(4), 326-336

All living beings exhibit preferences for a variety of biologically significant stimuli. Interestingly, stimuli without biological significance, such as saccharine, are also able to induce preferences in ... [more ▼]

All living beings exhibit preferences for a variety of biologically significant stimuli. Interestingly, stimuli without biological significance, such as saccharine, are also able to induce preferences in vertebrates. Can invertebrates show preferences for biologically neutral cues as well – i.e. independently of any conditioning process? Experiment 1 aimed to determine the preference of woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latreille 1804) exposed to floor textures that differed in tactile cues, how they expressed their tactile preference, and whether they were able to inhibit that preference when a shelter of variable quality was available on the non-preferred floor texture. Experiment 2 provided additional information relative to the strength of woodlice’s tactile preference as well as the way of measuring it. Experiment 3 complemented the previous one in attempting to determine woodlice’s preference for regular versus random tactile cues. Taken together, the results suggest that (i) woodlice are able to process sensory information relative to biologically non-significant stimuli and (ii) that, because the motivation induced can interact with sheltering as a survival-related behavior, the processing of both types of motivation might depend on the same brain systems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDopamine, motivation, and the evolutionary significance of gambling-like behaviour
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2013), 256(1), 1-4

If given a choice between certain and uncertain rewards, animals tend to prefer the uncertain option, even when the net gain is suboptimal. Animals are also more responsive to reward-related cues in ... [more ▼]

If given a choice between certain and uncertain rewards, animals tend to prefer the uncertain option, even when the net gain is suboptimal. Animals are also more responsive to reward-related cues in uncertain situations. This well-documented phenomenon in many animal species is in opposition to the basic principles of reinforcement as well as the optimal foraging theory, which suggest that animals will prefer the option associated with the highest reward rate. How does the brain code the attractiveness of unreliable/poor reward sources? And how can we interpret this evidence from an adaptive point of view? I argue that unpredictability and deprivation – whether physiological or psychological – enhance motivation to seek valuable stimuli for the same reason: compensating the difficulty an organism has to predict significant objects and events in the environment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPROFINTEG: A TOOL FOR REAL-LIFE ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING IN PATIENTS WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
Anselme, Patrick ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg; Bouwens, Sharon et al

in Psychologica Belgica (2013), 53(1), 3-22

Although there are many instruments for assessing activities of daily living (IADL) in brain injured patients, few instruments specifically target cognitive impairment and its impact on IADL. The present ... [more ▼]

Although there are many instruments for assessing activities of daily living (IADL) in brain injured patients, few instruments specifically target cognitive impairment and its impact on IADL. The present study presents the development of the Profinteg instrument, a tool for real-life assessment as well as rehabilitation of IADL in patients with cognitive impairment. This two-stage instrument covers over 90 activities. Psychometric properties of the different Profinteg measures were explored in twenty-five patients with mild to severe cognitive difficulties and twenty-five caregivers. The feasibility of the Profinteg rehabilitation procedure was explored in three patients. Excellent interrater reliability (r > 0.90, p < 0.01) was observed for all measures. Good sensitivity to changes in IADL disability over time was also observed (T = 2.37, p < 0.02). Significant improvement of IADL functioning was found after rehabilitation guided by Profinteg assessment. The Profinteg instrument detects with precision the difficulties patients encounter in their real-life setting via (1) assessment of a large number of activities and (2) detailed decomposition of activities into sub-activities. The Profinteg tool also provides promising results for guidance of IADL rehabilitation in the patient’s real-life environment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSensitivity to tactile novelty in the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Processes (2013), 92(1), 52-59

Invertebrates have been studied at biochemical, ecological, and behavioural levels, but current knowledge about the impact that learning may have on behaviour is rather sparse. The present study aimed to ... [more ▼]

Invertebrates have been studied at biochemical, ecological, and behavioural levels, but current knowledge about the impact that learning may have on behaviour is rather sparse. The present study aimed to examine the sensitivity of isolated rough woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latreille 1804) to the tactile novelty of their environment. A simple way to test this issue was to refer to the place preference paradigm, traditionally used in vertebrates. In Experiment 1, woodlice were placed in a compartment for 30 min in order to assess their ability to develop habituation in the absence of reward. In Experiment 2, woodlice were exposed to a compartment for 20 min (habituation phase) and were then given free choice between that compartment and a novel compartment for 2 min (preference phase). Depending on test conditions, rewards (humidity and/or shelter) were present or absent in the familiar compartment. The familiar and novel compartments differed with respect to the texture of the floor. In Experiment 3, the floor texture was the same in the two compartments in order to control for a novelty effect. The main results indicate that woodlice exhibited increased locomotion time, increased distance travelled, and increased speed in the novel compartment compared to the familiar compartment. There was no preference for either compartment when the floor textures of both were identical. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReward uncertainty enhances incentive salience attribution as sign-tracking
Anselme, Patrick ULg; Robinson, Mike J.F.; Berridge, Kent C.

in Behavioural Brain Research (2013), 238(1), 53-61

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to act as motivational magnets following repeated association with unconditioned stimuli (UCSs) such as sucrose rewards. By traditional views, the more reliably predictive a ... [more ▼]

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to act as motivational magnets following repeated association with unconditioned stimuli (UCSs) such as sucrose rewards. By traditional views, the more reliably predictive a Pavlovian CS-UCS association, the more the CS becomes attractive. However, in some cases, less predictability might equal more motivation. Here we examined the effect of introducing uncertainty in CS-UCS association on CS strength as an attractive motivation magnet. In the present study, Experiment 1 assessed the effects of Pavlovian predictability versus uncertainty about reward probability and/or reward magnitude on the acquisition and expression of sign-tracking (ST) and goal-tracking (GT) responses in an autoshaping procedure. Results suggested that uncertainty produced strongest incentive salience expressed as sign-tracking. Experiment 2 examined whether a within-individual temporal shift from certainty to uncertainty conditions could produce a stronger CS motivational magnet when uncertainty began, and found that sign-tracking still increased after the shift. Overall, our results support earlier reports that ST responses become more pronounced in the presence of uncertainty regarding CS-UCS associations, especially when uncertainty combines both probability and magnitude. These results suggest that Pavlovian uncertainty, although diluting predictability, is still able to enhance the incentive motivational power of particular CSs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBehavioural effects of approach-avoidance motivational conflicts in Zebrafish: testing an Attentional Control Model on videotracked swimming activity
Ylieff, Marc ULg; Froidbise, Sophie; Jacquet, Laurie et al

Poster (2012, July 05)

Motivational conflicts have been thoroughly studied in birds and mammals over the last decades, but their investigation has remained anecdotic with respect to fish. However, recent researches reveal that ... [more ▼]

Motivational conflicts have been thoroughly studied in birds and mammals over the last decades, but their investigation has remained anecdotic with respect to fish. However, recent researches reveal that, emotion and cognition also play a pivotal role in the expression of fish behaviour. Fish exhibit fear, long-term memory, attentional and learning capacities that are comparable with those of other vertebrates, including nonhuman primates. Thus, fish can be expected to manage motivational conflicts using cognitive similar resources. As many other teleost fishes, zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a good candidate to investigate the behavioural effects of approach–avoidance conflicts because of its genetic and neurophysiological proximity with “higher” vertebrates. The present study aims to determine how Zebrafish reacted to threats of different magnitude (low vs. high) following the delivery of food. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDrawn in by the unpredictable: reward uncertainty broadens the spotlight of incentive salience attribution
Robinson, Mike J.F.; Fischer, Adam M.; Anselme, Patrick ULg et al

Poster (2012, May 19)

The motivational value assigned to cues (CSs) associated with reward (UCS) is known as incentive salience, and is determined through the synergy of previous learning of the CS-UCS association (the sum of ... [more ▼]

The motivational value assigned to cues (CSs) associated with reward (UCS) is known as incentive salience, and is determined through the synergy of previous learning of the CS-UCS association (the sum of experiences an individual has with that cue-reward combination) and the mesolimbic state of the individual at the time of cue re-encounter. Typically, the amount of incentive salience attributed to a cue is believed to increase with the relative reliability that the cue predicts reward, where cues that consistently predict reward become powerful motivational magnets, eliciting approach and even consummatory behaviors (similar to those produced by the reward itself). In contrast, cues that predict reward with a lesser degree of certainty should theoretically be less attractive, and accrue lower levels of incentive salience. However, in some cases, cues that predict reward with maximal levels of uncertainty, such as in gambling, may generate higher levels of incentive salience attribution and become very attractive. In order to examine the impact of uncertainty, we used a Pavlovian conditioned approach task (autoshaping), where a bright noisy lever cue precedes delivery of a sucrose reward pellet. We have previously shown that a cue that predicts a reward only half the time (probability = 50%), but where the value of that reward can vary (1, 2 or 3 sucrose pellets), attracts more incentive value than a cue that systematically (probability = 100%) predicts a single sucrose reward pellet. Here we examined whether the increased incentive value attributed to uncertain cues was equally distributed across cues that were proximal (5 cm) or distal (20 cm) to the site of reward (magazine). Our results confirm that incentive value is greater for uncertain cues, and show that it is equally distributed across proximal and distal cues. In contrast, when the CS cue predicts the UCS reward with absolute certainty, incentive value is preferentially given to proximal cues, with distal cues being almost ignored. This suggests that reward uncertainty not only attributes more incentive value to cues, but that it may also act by recruiting a broader range of cues. However, since the learnt predictive value of the cue is low, this increase in incentive salience may be generated through greater mesolimbic activity driven by anticipation and/or stress of an unpredictable reward. In conclusion, reward uncertainty may transform a broad array of cues into powerful motivational magnets, which in turn could help explain what makes gambling so attractive. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSpécificité et propriétés interactives des motivations incitatrices : le rôle de la cognition
Anselme, Patrick ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Psychologie Française (2012), 57(3), 175-191

La motivation incitatrice est un processus psychologique qui augmente l’attractivité des sources de récompense (nourriture, sexe, drogue, etc.) et qui a pour effet de diriger le comportement vers ces ... [more ▼]

La motivation incitatrice est un processus psychologique qui augmente l’attractivité des sources de récompense (nourriture, sexe, drogue, etc.) et qui a pour effet de diriger le comportement vers ces stimuli – et à l’opposé des événements aversifs. Que se passe-t-il lorsque l’expression d’une motivation est contrecarrée ou que deux motivations antagonistes entrent en conflit ? La plupart des modèles théoriques destinés à expliquer les interactions motivationnelles postulent l’existence d’obscurs mécanismes physiologiques sans investiguer la composante psychologique de ces interactions. Cet article a pour objectif de montrer qu’une théorie motivationnelle peut seulement offrir un cadre interprétatif cohérent des interactions entre motivations incitatrices, et de ces motivations elles-mêmes, à condition d’intégrer certaines variables cognitives – en particulier, l’anticipation et l’attention. Cette approche offre une interprétation des activités de déplacement mieux en accord avec les observations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailModularity of mind and the role of incentive motivation in representing novelty
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Animal Cognition (2012), 15(4), 443-459

Animal and human brains contain a myriad of mental representations that have to be successfully tracked within fractions of a second in a large number of situations. This retrieval process is hard to ... [more ▼]

Animal and human brains contain a myriad of mental representations that have to be successfully tracked within fractions of a second in a large number of situations. This retrieval process is hard to explain without postulating the massive modularity of cognition. Assuming that the mind is massively modular, it is then necessary to understand how cognitive modules can efficiently represent dynamic environments – in which some modules may have to deal with change-induced novelty and uncertainty. Novelty of a stimulus is a problem for a module when unknown, significant stimuli do not satisfy the module’s processing criteria – or domain specificity – and cannot therefore be included in its database. It is suggested that the brain mechanisms of incentive motivation, recruited when faced with novelty and uncertainty, induce transient variations in the domain specificity of cognitive modules in order to allow them to process information they were not prepared to learn. It is hypothesised that the behavioural transitions leading from exploratory activity to habit formation are correlated with (and possibly caused by) the organism’s ability to counter novelty-induced uncertainty. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLoss in risk-taking: Absence of optimal gain or reduction in one’s own resources?
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2012), 229(2), 443-446

Determining how living beings react to tasks that reflect realistic situations of risk has given rise to a vast literature. However, I argue that the methodologies traditionally used to test humans and ... [more ▼]

Determining how living beings react to tasks that reflect realistic situations of risk has given rise to a vast literature. However, I argue that the methodologies traditionally used to test humans and nonhumans relative to risk often fail to achieve their goal. When risk is modelled in laboratory, potential decision cost (or potential loss) typically denotes an absence of optimal gain. In contrast, when risk occurs in real-life situations, potential loss denotes the reduction in an individual’s limited resources – whether energetic, social, financial, etc. This conceptual difference about the nature of risk may have important implications for the understanding of the parameters that control risk-taking behaviour. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailReplacement of goal-tracking by sign-tracking under reward uncertainty, and impairment by dopamine antagonism in the rat
Anselme, Patrick ULg; Robinson, Mike J.F.; Difeliceantonio, Alexandra G. et al

Poster (2011, November 16)

Hypothesis: uncertainty influences Pavlovian reward prediction by arousing incentive motivation for reward (or ‘wanting’), expressed as sign-tracking (ST) or goal-tracking (GT) responses in an autoshaping ... [more ▼]

Hypothesis: uncertainty influences Pavlovian reward prediction by arousing incentive motivation for reward (or ‘wanting’), expressed as sign-tracking (ST) or goal-tracking (GT) responses in an autoshaping paradigm. Here we investigated the effect of 3 types of uncertainty: 1) reward probability (UCS occurred after CS+ under 50% probability), 2) uncertainty about reward magnitude (UCS was 1, 2, or 3 sucrose pellets), and 3) uncertainty resulting from a combination of both conditions. We also tested the effects of reversal learning (shift in reward probability from 100 to 50%) and systemic dopamine blockade under uncertainty (flupenthixol, i.p.) on acquisition of autoshaping. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe uncertainty processing theory of motivation
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2010), 208(2), 291-310

Most theories describe motivation using basic terminology (drive, ‘wanting’, goal, pleasure, etc.) that fails to inform well about the psychological mechanisms controlling its expression. This leads to a ... [more ▼]

Most theories describe motivation using basic terminology (drive, ‘wanting’, goal, pleasure, etc.) that fails to inform well about the psychological mechanisms controlling its expression. This leads to a conception of motivation as a mere psychological state ‘emerging’ from neurophysiological substrates. However, the involvement of motivation in a large number of behavioural parameters (triggering, intensity, duration, and directedness) and cognitive abilities (learning, memory, decision, etc.) suggest that it should be viewed as an information processing system. The Uncertainty Processing Theory (UPT) presented here suggests that motivation is the set of cognitive processes allowing organisms to extract information from the environment by reducing uncertainty about the occurrence of psychologically significant events. This processing of information is shown to naturally result in the highlighting of specific stimuli. The UPT attempts to solve three major problems: (i) how motivations can affect behaviour and cognition so widely, (ii) how motivational specificity for objects and events can result from nonspecific neuropharmacological causal factors (such as mesolimbic dopamine), and (iii) how motivational interactions can be conceived in psychological terms, irrespective of their biological correlates. The UPT is in keeping with the conceptual tradition of the incentive salience hypothesis while trying to overcome the shortcomings inherent to this view. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe effect of exposure to drugs on the processing of natural rewards
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (2009), 33(3), 314-335

Why does moderate exposure to a drug reward make natural rewards increasingly attractive to organisms, whereas prolonged exposure to the same drug reward has the opposite effect? The paradox behind that ... [more ▼]

Why does moderate exposure to a drug reward make natural rewards increasingly attractive to organisms, whereas prolonged exposure to the same drug reward has the opposite effect? The paradox behind that question remains unsatisfactorily captured by current theories of addiction. The incentivesensitisation theory is viewed as a promising approach to this paradox, although it provides no mechanism to explain the decrease in interest of natural rewards as time exposure to a drug increases. To attempt to remedy this problem, I describe a model called the anticipatory dynamics model (ADM) that suggests a pivotal role of anticipation and attention inmotivational interactions. In addition to relying on strong neuropsychopharmacological data, the ADM provides an original conception of motivational specificity. The ADM is an extension of the incentive-sensitisation theory that hypothesizes how drugs interact with natural rewards. It has not been tested empirically, although a possible experiment to test two predictions in the field of addiction is presented. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDaily activity rhythms of the African catfish Heterobranchus longifilis (Clariidae) in an experimental enclosure
Anselme, Patrick ULg; Bernaerts, Pascale; Poncin, Pascal ULg

in Aquatic Living Resources (2008), 21(4), 419-422

The swimming, air-gaping, and agonistic behaviours of Heterobranchus longifilis (318 +/- 67 mm) were examined while fish were in a fasted state under 12L: 12D and variable group size ( 2, 5, 10 and 15 ... [more ▼]

The swimming, air-gaping, and agonistic behaviours of Heterobranchus longifilis (318 +/- 67 mm) were examined while fish were in a fasted state under 12L: 12D and variable group size ( 2, 5, 10 and 15 fish) in a 1000-L aquarium. Fish exhibited a predominantly nocturnal activity pattern independent of group size. A diurnal peak of activity occurred, however, at the usual feeding time. A reduction in frequency of agonistic interactions was observed in larger groups. Five fish were then observed under 72L: 0D and 0L: 72D. The nocturnal activity pattern remained, contrary to the diurnal peak, and was independent of the duration of illumination or darkness. These results suggest the absence of biological clock in H. longifilis, although fish may somehow be influenced by past feeding experience. Behavioural plasticity in this species may provide potential for aquaculture in northern latitudes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (12 ULg)