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See detailComparison of the sedative and hemodynamic effects of acepromazine and promethazine in the standing horse.
Pequito, Manuel; Amory, Hélène ULg; Serteyn, Didier ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2012), 32(12), 1-6

The objective of this study was to compare the sedative and peripheral hemodynamic effects of acepromazine (ACP) and promethazine (PTZ) in the standing healthy horse. Nine healthy Warmblood horses ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to compare the sedative and peripheral hemodynamic effects of acepromazine (ACP) and promethazine (PTZ) in the standing healthy horse. Nine healthy Warmblood horses randomly received either intravenous ACP at 0.1 mg/kg or PTZ at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/kg. A sedation score based on clinical examination was recorded, and systolic arterial blood pressure was noninvasively evaluated using a Doppler flow detector at the tail, just before and every 15 minutes until 60 minutes after drug injection. Hemodynamics of the median artery of the left forelimb was studied using Doppler ultrasonography just before and 45 minutes after injection of the drug, which allowed calculation of surface (SURF), diameter (DIAM), and circumference (CIRC) of the vessel and peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV), volumetric flow (VF), and resistivity index (RI) of the blood flow. Regardless of the dose used, PTZ had lesser sedative and hypotensive effects than ACP at 0.1 mg/kg and did not induce significant variations in SURF, DIAM, CIRC, PSV, EDV, MV, VF, and RI of the studied standing horses. Conversely, the vasodilatory properties of ACP were illustrated by a significant increase in SURF, DIAM, CIRC, PSV, EDV, MV, and VF and a significant reduction of the RI. Unlike ACP, PTZ did not induce alterations on the morphology of the Doppler waveform. PTZ appears to have less sedative and peripheral vasodilator effects than ACP, thus it could be safer than ACP in patients suffering from hypotension. [less ▲]

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See detailReversal of acepromazine-induced hemodynamic alterations by norepinephrine in standing horses
pequito, Manuel; Amory, Hélène ULg; Peters, Fabrice et al

Poster (2011, March 18)

Acepromazine (ACP) is a phenothiazine commonly used to sedate horses. Additionally, ACP exerts strong anti-inflammatory effects, which might have a therapeutic potential in horses suffering from systemic ... [more ▼]

Acepromazine (ACP) is a phenothiazine commonly used to sedate horses. Additionally, ACP exerts strong anti-inflammatory effects, which might have a therapeutic potential in horses suffering from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). However, the ACP-induced vasodilation precludes its use in horses with SIRS-related cardiovascular compromise. The objective of this study was to test if the hemodynamic effects of the administration of 0,1 mg/kg of ACP could be counteracted by an intravenous infusion of norepinephrine (NOR) at 1ug/kg/min in healthy horses. In 5 healthy adult horses, a 15 minutes NOR IV infusion was administered 45 minutes after an injection of 0,1 mg/kg of ACP IV. The systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) was non-invasively measured by Doppler sphingometry at the tail. Hemodynamics of the median artery of the left forelimb were studied using Doppler ultrasonography, through calculation of the vessel’s surface (SURF), diameter (DIAM), circumference (CIRC), and peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV), volumetric flow (VF) and resistivity index (RI) of the flow. Both SAP and Doppler parameters were determined at regular intervals during the entire study. ACP induced a hypotension and a vasodilatation, that were evidenced by a significant rise of the SURF, DIAM, CIRC, PSV, EDV, MV and VF and reduction of the SAP and RI. During NOR infusion, all these ACP-induced hemodynamic changes were reversed. These findings suggest that a continuous IV NOR infusion at 1ug/kg/min is able to revert ACP-induced hypotension and vasodilation in healthy adult horses. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo administration of acepromazine or promethazine to horse decreases the reactive oxygen species production response of subsequently isolated neutrophils to stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate
Péters, Fabrice; Franck, Thierry ULg; Pequito, Manuel et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2009)

The previous experiments have shown that some phenothiazines have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. In this study the inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by ... [more ▼]

The previous experiments have shown that some phenothiazines have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. In this study the inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils was studied in two groups of horses, which received a dose of 0.1 mg⁄ kg of either acepromazine or promethazine intravenously. Blood samples were collected before (T0) and 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 h after drug administration. The chemiluminescence (CML) response of neutrophils was measured ex vivo in the presence of luminol for a period of 10 min and the maximum CML value (peak value) recorded. There was a significant inhibition of the ROS production in the acepromazine treated group (49% inhibition) at 5 h after administration and in the promethazine group (24% inhibition) at 3 h after administration (P < 0.05 vs. T0). These findings are of therapeutic relevance in the use of phenothiazines in equine patients with inflammatory diseases where neutrophil activation and ROS production are implicated. [less ▲]

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