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See detailExperimental tests and numerical modelling on eight slender steel columns under increasing temperatures
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Zhao, Bin; Gernay, Thomas ULg

in Li, G.Q.; Jiang, S.C.; Chen, Suwen (Eds.) et al Progress on Safety of Structures in Fire (2014, June 11)

In order to fill the lack of knowledge about slender elements behavior at elevated temperatures,, a European research project called FIDESC4 has been funded by the RFCS. This project involves experimental ... [more ▼]

In order to fill the lack of knowledge about slender elements behavior at elevated temperatures,, a European research project called FIDESC4 has been funded by the RFCS. This project involves experimental testing, parametric numerical analyses and development of simple design rules. The present paper reports the characteristics and the results of the FIDESC4 experimental test campaign performed at the University of Liege on slender steel columns at elevated temperatures. A total of eight columns have been tested, all of them with I shape section. Six columns were made of welded sections (some prismatic and some tapered members) and two columns were with hot rolled sections. The nominal length of the columns was 3 meters with the whole length being heated. The strength of the material (webs and flanges) was measured on sample before the tests. The order of magnitude of the initial geometrical imperfections was recorded. The columns were not restrained against longitudinal thermal elongation. The supports at the ends were cylindrical thus inducing a restrain against rotation in one plane while allowing rotation in the other plane. The allowed direction of rotation was chosen in each test to induce buckling around the strong or the weak axis. The load was applied at ambient temperature and maintained for a period of 15 minutes after which the temperature was increased under constant load. The load was applied concentrically on some tests and with an eccentricity in other tests. The load eccentricity was either applied at both ends, leading to constant bending moment distribution along the length, or at one end only, leading to a triangular bending moment distribution. Heating was applied by electrical resistances enclosed in ceramic pads. The columns and the ceramic pads were wrapped in ceramic wool insulating material. This technique was preferred to gas heating in a standard test furnace because it allows applying a slower and better controlled heating rate and thus obtaining a more uniform temperature distribution in the member. It is also easier to measured lateral displacements of the column. Preliminary blank tests were performed on unloaded specimen in order to determine the heating range to be used later on the loaded columns. The paper will also report on a modification of the heating technique that was applied and improved significantly the uniformity in the temperature distribution. Numerical simulations were performed before the tests using shell elements of the software SAFIR and assumed values of the material properties in order to predict the failure modes. It was essentially crucial to determine whether lateral supports at intermediate levels should be provided in order to ensure failure in the desired direction. Experience showed that the failure modes developed as predicted by the numerical simulations. Besides a thorough description of the experiments, the paper will also present the obtained results in terms of failure mode, ultimate temperature and evolution of longitudinal and transverse displacement. Some information will also be given about the level of detail that has to be used in the numerical model in order to get accurate results at a reasonable price. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of car parks against localised fire - Deliverable VI: Development of design recommendations, critical appraisal and application to a study case
Fang, Cheng; Izzuddin, Bassam; Elghazouli, Ahmed et al

Report (2012)

Grant Agreement Number RFSR‐CT‐2008‐00036

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See detailRobustness of car parks against localised fire - Deliverable V: Practical behavioural models for car park structures towards design practice
Fang, Cheng; Izzuddin, Bassam; Elghazouli, Ahmed et al

Report (2012)

Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel - Steel RTD Project carried out with a financial grant of the Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel - Grant Agreement Number ... [more ▼]

Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel - Steel RTD Project carried out with a financial grant of the Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel - Grant Agreement Number RFSR‐CT‐2008‐00036 [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of car parks against localised fire - Draft Final Report
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Huvelle, Clara ULg; Coméliau, Ludivine ULg et al

Report (2012)

Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel Steel RTD Project carried out with a financial grant of the Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel

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See detailRobustness of car parks against localised fire - Deliverable IV: Development of FEM model for car parks under localised fire
Fang, Cheng; Izzuddin, Bassam; Elghazouli, Ahmed et al

Report (2012)

Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel - Steel RTD Project carried out with a financial grant of the Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel - Grant Agreement Number ... [more ▼]

Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel - Steel RTD Project carried out with a financial grant of the Research Programme of the Research Fund for Coal and Steel - Grant Agreement Number RFSR‐CT‐2008‐00036 [less ▲]

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See detailFull-scale fire test on a composite floor slab incorporating long span cellular steel beams
Nadjai, Ali; Bailey, Colin; Vassart, Olivier et al

in Structural Engineer (2011), 89(21), 18-25

As part of an international major research initiative, dealing with the behaviour of long span cellular beams in steel framed buildings under fire, a large-scale fire test incorporating 15m long cellular ... [more ▼]

As part of an international major research initiative, dealing with the behaviour of long span cellular beams in steel framed buildings under fire, a large-scale fire test incorporating 15m long cellular beams was carried out. The test incorporated unprotected secondary cellular steel beams acting compositely with the supporting floor slab. The floorplate in its entirety was designed to carry the load with unprotected beams, when subjected to a severe fire, by utilising membrane action of the floor slab. The overall structure performed very well supporting the full applied static load for the duration of the test. The unprotected cellular steel beams were subjected to distortional buckling, with only the top tee providing any support through catanary action. The test supported the assumptions adopted in the structural design approach and provided an accurate estimate of the strength of the floorplate. Comparison of the recorded time-temperature relationship of the fire with the design method presented in the Eurocodes shows that the code under-predicts the severity of the fire, although this was compensated to some extent by the conservative assumptions embedded within the structural model. [less ▲]

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See detailFRACOF: Fire resistance assessment of partially protected steel-concrete composite floors
Zanon, Riccardo; Sommavilla, Mauro; Vassart, Olivier et al

in De Luca, Antonello (Ed.) XXIII Giornate italiane della costruzione in acciaio (2011, October 12)

Large scale fire tests and observations of actual building fires have shown that the fire performance of composite steel framed buildings is much better than is indicated by fire resistance tests on ... [more ▼]

Large scale fire tests and observations of actual building fires have shown that the fire performance of composite steel framed buildings is much better than is indicated by fire resistance tests on isolated elements. This contribution presents application of a simple design method, so-called FRACOF concept, for the analysis of non sway steel framed buildings with composite floors. Starting point were the outstanding results obtained in the BRE Cardington large scale building fire test programme carried out during 1995 and 1996. The method was further validated by large-scale standard furnace tests in 2008 and 2009, as well as with natural fire tests in 2010. A recent test has also shown the possibility of application of this concept to composite floors with castellated beams. The recommendations are in line with the reliability level imposed by current design rules and are limited to structures similar to that tested. The method permits designers to spare the fire protection for the framing elements for which it is not needed by keeping the same safety requirement than traditional codes. [less ▲]

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See detailFire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles
Vassart, Olivier; Hawes, Mike; Simms, Ian et al

Report (2011)

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the ... [more ▼]

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the RFCS FiCEB+ [23] and in the scope of the PHD of O.Vassart [24]. This calculation procedure has been introduced in the ACB+ software available on www.arcelormittal.com/sections [23] RFS2-CT-2007-00042 : FICEB+ - Fire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles ; March 2011 [24] O. Vassart, Analytical model for cellular beams made of hot rolled sections in case of fire, PhD Thesis, Université Blaise Pascal Clermont-Ferrand II, 2009 [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale fire test of unprotected cellular beam acting in membrane action
Vassart, Olivier; Bailey, C. G.; Hawes, M. et al

in Franssen, Jean-Marc; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference Structures in Fire (2010, June)

This paper describes a full scale fire test performed recently on a composite floor for analysing the possibility of tensile membrane action to develop when the unprotected steel beams in the central part ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a full scale fire test performed recently on a composite floor for analysing the possibility of tensile membrane action to develop when the unprotected steel beams in the central part of the floor are made of cellular beams. The natural fire was created by a wood crib fire load of 700 MJ/m² and the 9 x 15 m floor survived the fire that peaked at 1000°C and lasted for 90 minutes. Blind predictions of the air temperature development by the software Ozone and of the structural behaviour by the software SAFIR which proved quite satisfactory are also described. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents
Yi, Chuixiang; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li, Runze et al

in Environmental Research Letters (2010), 5(3),

Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating ... [more ▼]

Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid-and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid-and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 degrees N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at similar to 16 degrees C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence. [less ▲]

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See detail3D simulation of Industrial Hall in case of fire. Benchmark between ABAQUS, ANSYS and SAFIR
Vassart, Olivier; Cajot, Louis-Guy; O'Connor, Marc et al

in Interflam2004 Proceedings. Fire Sciences and Engineering Conference (2004, July)

For simple storey buildings, the structural behaviour in case of fire is relevant only for the safety of the firemen. The protection of occupants and goods is a matter of fire spread, smoke propagation ... [more ▼]

For simple storey buildings, the structural behaviour in case of fire is relevant only for the safety of the firemen. The protection of occupants and goods is a matter of fire spread, smoke propagation, active fire fighting measures and evacuation facilities. Brittle failure, progressive collapse and partial failure of façades elements outwards may endanger the fire fighters and have to be avoided. In order to deal with such an objective, the simulation softwares has to cover the 3D structural behaviour including membrane and restrained effects as well as the failure mode so that post-local failure stage can be analysed. Such calculation models (ANSYS, ABAQUS and SAFIR [1]) have been compared true a benchmark. In this benchmark, two different users used ABAQUS. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison between five structural fire codes applied to steel elements
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Schleich, Jean-Baptiste; Cajot, Louis-Guy et al

in Proceedings Fourth International Symposium on Fire Safety Science (1994)

Five codes have been used to simulate the fire behaviour of steel structural elements subjected to fire and the results have been compared. There is no coparison with experimental results.

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (1 ULg)