References of "Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle"
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See detailCharacterization of the skin using capacitance imaging.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Paquet, Philippe ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Expert Review of Dermatology (2010), 5

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See detailThe skin landscape following nonoptical capacitance imaging.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg

in American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2010), 11(2), 89-94

Skin capacitance is an electrical property measurable at the level of the stratum corneum. Values are related to the moisture content of the tissue. Using the silicon image sensor technology, it has ... [more ▼]

Skin capacitance is an electrical property measurable at the level of the stratum corneum. Values are related to the moisture content of the tissue. Using the silicon image sensor technology, it has recently become possible to measure capacitance at 50 microm intervals on the skin surface. The resulting nonoptical picture corresponds to skin capacitance imaging. This novel tool for dermatologists highlights with precision the hollow skin surface patterns, including dermatoglyphics, the patterns of the shallow skin lines, and wrinkles. The topographic heterogeneity in skin surface hydration is made visible. In addition, the sweat gland and follicular openings are disclosed. Skin disorders induced by surfactants or presenting as hyperkeratotic areas, including some neoplasms, may show typical aspects. It is concluded that skin capacitance imaging brings added value to the clinical assessment performed by dermatologists. [less ▲]

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See detailWeathering of the hairless scalp: a study using skin capacitance imaging and ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Dermatology (2010), 35(1), 83-5

The balding scalp is particularly exposed to sunlight, hence, the overall ageing process modulated by ultraviolet and near-infrared light may be increased at this location. The induced changes are better ... [more ▼]

The balding scalp is particularly exposed to sunlight, hence, the overall ageing process modulated by ultraviolet and near-infrared light may be increased at this location. The induced changes are better revealed under ultraviolet light examination. Any alteration in the epidermal maturation is potentially reflected by stratum corneum changes observed as disturbances on skin-capacitance imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrometric assessment of the effect of a zinc oxide paste in diaper dermatitis.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in International Journal of Cosmetic Science (2009), 31(5), 369-74

Diaper dermatitis affects nearly 50% of infants as well as some bed-ridden adults particularly in the elderly people. This condition is induced by irritation and maceration, and may be further exacerbated ... [more ▼]

Diaper dermatitis affects nearly 50% of infants as well as some bed-ridden adults particularly in the elderly people. This condition is induced by irritation and maceration, and may be further exacerbated by Candida sp. colonization and infection. A key factor in the pathogenesis is the alteration in both the barrier function and the water-holding capacity of the stratum corneum. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an unmedicated zinc oxide-petrolatum paste and to observe for possible shielding and restoring effects on the water-holding capacity of the stratum corneum altered by diaper dermatitis. The paste appeared to load the hollow skin microrelief. It was inferred that this effect was responsible for a reticulated shielding effect. Compared with healthy skin and untreated diaper dermatitis, the application of the anhydrous paste resulted in a trend to normalize electrometric properties of skin reflecting the combination of transepidermal water loss and the water-holding capacity of the stratum corneum. [less ▲]

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See detailBiometrology of physical properties of skin in thyroid dysfunction.
Szepetiuk, Grégory ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg; Betea, Daniela ULg et al

in Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2008), 22(10), 1173-1177

OBJECTIVE: There is ample clinical evidence that skin is responsive to physiopathological levels of circulating thyroid hormones. The aim of the study was to assess some physical changes of the skin in ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: There is ample clinical evidence that skin is responsive to physiopathological levels of circulating thyroid hormones. The aim of the study was to assess some physical changes of the skin in the presence of moderate thyroid dysfunction. SETTING: University Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 119 adults suffering from hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Hormonal dosages (TSH, fT3, fT4) were assessed in the serum. A series of biometrological assessments were also performed on the volar and dorsal aspects of the forearms. These included electrometric assessments (Nova Dermal Phase Meter, Corneometer), evaporimetry (Tewameter)), colorimetry (Mexameter), ultrasound shear wave propagation (Reviscometer) and squamometry X. Correlations were searched between each of the serum hormonal dosages and each of the biometrological parameters. RESULTS: The hormonal changes in the untreated patients with thyroid dysfunction were modest in intensity. A few outlier values with regard to the normal range were found for each biometrological parameter. No correlations were found between fT3 or fT4 and each of the physical parameters. By contrast, significant negative linear correlations were found between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and skin hydration measured by the Corneometer and the Nova DPM. CONCLUSION: This multipronged exploratory study shows that direct or indirect effects of TSH may influence the stratum corneum hydration. This correlation seemed very sensitive, as no other specific biophysical parameter was significantly correlated with the thyroid hormonal concentrations in the serum. However, our findings do not exclude the possibility of some other skin changes supervening in case of more severe thyroid dysfunction. The mechanism by which TSH alters the stratum corneum hydration is yet unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailSkin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil ?
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Macarenko, Elena; Denooz, Raphael ULg et al

in Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology (London, England) (2008), 3

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. METHODS: Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. RESULTS: Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. CONCLUSION: The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum. [less ▲]

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See detailDew point effect of cooled hydrogel pads on human stratum corneum biosurface.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Paquet, Philippe ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2008), 216(1), 37-9

BACKGROUND: Cooled hydrogel pads are used to prevent overheating effects of laser therapy. They do not induce cold injuries to the skin, but their more subtle physiological effects have not been ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Cooled hydrogel pads are used to prevent overheating effects of laser therapy. They do not induce cold injuries to the skin, but their more subtle physiological effects have not been thoroughly studied. PURPOSE: To describe the changes in transepidermal water loss and electrometric properties of the skin surface following application of cooled hydrogel pads. Measurements were performed on normal forearm skin of 27 healthy volunteers and on freshly excised skin from abdominoplasty. METHODS: LaserAid hydrogel pads cooled to 4 degrees C were placed for 15 min on the forearm skin. Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and electrometric properties (Corneometer, Nova DPM 900) were performed before application and after removal of the cooled pads. RESULTS: A consistent increase in corneometer units, dermal phase meter (DPM) values and TEWL were recorded at removal of the cooled hydrogel pads. Both the in vivo and in vitro assessments brought similar information. DISCUSSION: The similar changes disclosed in vitro and in vivo suggest that a common physical process is operating in these conditions. The observed phenomenon is opposite to the predicted events given by the Arrhenius law probably because of the combination of cooling and occlusion by the pads. A dew point effect (air temperature at which relative humidity is maximal) is likely involved in the moisture content of the stratum corneum. Thus, the biological impact of using cooling hydrogel pads during laser therapy is different from the effect of a cryogenic spray cooling procedure. The better preservation of the water balance in the stratum corneum by the cooled hydrogel pads could have a beneficial esthetic effect on laser treated areas. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of various concentrations of glycolic acid at the corneoxenometry and collaxenometry bioassays.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2008), 7(3), 194-8

BACKGROUND: Glycolic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid used as a chemical peeling for more than a quarter century. The primary tissue target is the stratum corneum. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Glycolic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid used as a chemical peeling for more than a quarter century. The primary tissue target is the stratum corneum. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effects of various concentrations of glycolic acid on the stratum corneum and collagen fibers using two selected bioassays. METHODS: Corneoxenometry was performed to test the effects on human stratum corneum. Collaxenometry was similarly designed to quantify the effect on sheets of collagen fibers. Different glycolic acid concentrations ranging from 5% to 70% in alcohol were tested, respectively, for 3- and 10-min exposure times. RESULTS: Both bioassays showed consistent reactivities with a dose-effect relationship when using a 3-min exposure time. By contrast, the tests appeared unreliable or uninformative for the 10-min exposure time. CONCLUSION: Corneoxenometry and collaxenometry appear useful for in vitro testing peeling agents during short exposure times. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetics of moisturizing and firming effects of cosmetic formulations.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Fontaine, K.; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in International Journal of Cosmetic Science (2008), 30(2), 131-8

The assessment of cosmetic efficacy is rarely performed in studies comparing different concentrations of active compounds. The aim of the present study was to determine the skin hydrating and the skin ... [more ▼]

The assessment of cosmetic efficacy is rarely performed in studies comparing different concentrations of active compounds. The aim of the present study was to determine the skin hydrating and the skin firming dose-response effects of cosmetic formulations enriched in compounds derived from algae and fish collagen. A series of factors were studied including the type of formulation (cream or serum), the concentration in active ingredients, the effect of repetitive applications, as well as any residual effect of the formulations after stopping their applications. The serum enriched in marine compounds showed a better moisturizing effect in short term. The cream appeared more active later, particularly following repeat applications. A sustained tensor (firming) effect was observed during treatment with both the lotion and the cream. However, no remnant firming effect was perceived after stopping treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional variability in stratum corneum reactivity to antiseptic formulations.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Contact Dermatitis (2007), 56(5), 271-3

Skin does not react in an identical way to the action of chemicals over all anatomic sites. Accordingly, distinct regional differences have been described in relation to irritancy. The present study ... [more ▼]

Skin does not react in an identical way to the action of chemicals over all anatomic sites. Accordingly, distinct regional differences have been described in relation to irritancy. The present study assesses the regional variations of stratum corneum (SC) reactivity to 3 proprietary antiseptic solutions (povidone iodine (PVP-I), 70 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml, and chlorhexidine digluconate 50 mg/ml) using the corneoxenometry (CXM) bioassay. SC was harvested from the volar forearm, the forehead and the back in 30 young adults. Each SC sample was covered by one of the neat test product or deionized water for 2 hr at 20 degrees C. The intrinsic staining property of each antiseptic on SC was assessed by reflectance colorimetry. For the CXM bioassay, samples were then stained by a toluidine blue-basic fuschin solution in order to show protein denaturation induced by the test products. The colorimetric index of mildness (CIM = L*- Chroma C*) was measured by colorimetry. Data show that PVP-I 100 mg/ml was the least reactive antiseptic to the SC. It was significantly milder than the 2 other antiseptics. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative effect of tacrolimus and betamethasone valerate on the passive sustainable hydration of the stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Thirion, L.; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2007), 214(4), 328-32

BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that the skin barrier function is altered in atopic dermatitis. Little information is available about the effect of topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that the skin barrier function is altered in atopic dermatitis. Little information is available about the effect of topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors on this function. PURPOSE: To assess the water content and its rate of accumulation in the stratum corneum of atopic patients using an indirect electrometric method while on tacrolimus or betamethasone valerate treatment. METHOD: Twenty-one patients with moderate atopic dermatitis affecting both forearms completed this double-blind randomized study. One forearm was treated twice daily for 3 weeks with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment. The other forearm was similarly treated with 0.12% betamethasone valerate ointment. Electrometric measurements were made under continuous occlusion secured by a Nova Dermal Phase Meter sensor probe. Assessments were performed at inclusion, after the 3-week treatment and after a further 3-week follow-up out of treatment. RESULTS: During treatment, both compounds yielded a similar improvement in skin barrier function. Indeed, under probe occlusion, the rate of water accumulation was significantly decreased. This improvement was sustained after stopping the tacrolimus treatment. By contrast, the benefit was in part lost at the site that had been treated by betamethasone valerate. CONCLUSION: The difference in the effect of the 2 compounds may be due to the negative influence of betamethasone valerate on the epidermal metabolism leading to progressive atrophy of the tissue. The better preservation of the skin barrier function after stopping tacrolimus treatment may help retarding relapses of atopic dermatitis. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite...le "mehin" des mains sèches.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2007), 62(3), 129-31

Suffering from dry skin on the hands is a common feature in the general population. This condition is influenced by daily habits and occupational duties. It commonly corresponds to the expression of ... [more ▼]

Suffering from dry skin on the hands is a common feature in the general population. This condition is influenced by daily habits and occupational duties. It commonly corresponds to the expression of irritation dermatitis modulated by climatic and other environmental conditions. Other diseases including allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis and dermatomycosis can also be responsible for a similar clinical presentation. In the common discrete irritative type, a specifically designed cosmetic product may considerably improve the discomfort experienced by the patient. By contrast, the efficacy of most barrier creams remains unconfirmed. The chronic use of topical corticosteroids can lead to dependency and to progressive cutaneous atrophy. [less ▲]

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See detailSkin capacitance imaging of acne lesions.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Skin Research & Technology (2007), 13(1), 9-12

BACKGROUND: Little information is available about specific functional characteristics of skin in acneic patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine a capacitance mapping of lesional skin in acne in order to predict ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Little information is available about specific functional characteristics of skin in acneic patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine a capacitance mapping of lesional skin in acne in order to predict drug affinity according to the hydrophilic-lipophilic characteristics. METHOD: Skin capacitance imaging based on silicon image sensor technology was used with the SkinChip device. RESULTS: The non-optical images obtained by this means clearly identified low capacitance comedones contrasting with a perifollicular rim of high capacitance in inflammatory papules. This method also showed sweating and the follicular pores distributed in a pinpoint pattern. CONCLUSION: The objective mapping of skin surface capacitance showed large differences between acne lesions and the surrounding skin. The low capacitance of comedones contrasted with the high capacitance of the perifollicular area in inflammatory papules. These electrometric characteristics reflecting the corneocyte hydration may influence drug affinity to acne lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailCellulite histopathology and related mechanobiology.
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in International Journal of Cosmetic Science (2006), 28(3), 207-10

Cellulite, sometimes called gynoid lipodystrophy, is much more prevalent in women than in men. There are glaring discrepancies regarding the microanatomical descriptions of this condition in the ... [more ▼]

Cellulite, sometimes called gynoid lipodystrophy, is much more prevalent in women than in men. There are glaring discrepancies regarding the microanatomical descriptions of this condition in the literature. A lumpy aspect of the dermo-hypodermal interface is often cited, but it appears to represent a gender-linked characteristic of the thighs and buttocks without being a specific sign of cellulite. Incipient cellulite recognized by a discrete padded look or 'orange peel' aspect appears correlated with the presence of a network of focally enlarged fibrosclerotic strands partitioning the hypodermis and serving as a physiological buttress limiting the outpouching of fat lobules on pinching the skin. These connective tissue structures might represent a hormonal-dependent reactive process to sustained mechanical tensions caused by the adipocyte lobules. Full blown cellulite is recognized by a lumpy-bumpy and dimpled skin surface. It likely represents subjugation of the hypertrophic response of the hypodermal connective tissue strands when their resistance is overcome by progressive fat accumulation. In these cases, histological aspects reminiscent of striae distensae are identified within the hypodermal connective tissue strands. The mechanical properties of skin involved by cellulite process are altered, but may tend to resume to normal under treatment. These functional changes influence the mechanobiology of connective tissue cells, in particular the Factor XIIIa-positive dermal dendrocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailSkin capacitance mapping of psoriasis.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2006), 20(10), 1261-5

BACKGROUND: The pathobiological dynamics of psoriatic lesions are complex and difficult to perceive by clinical inspection alone. Non-invasive bioengineering methods may prove to be useful in this field ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The pathobiological dynamics of psoriatic lesions are complex and difficult to perceive by clinical inspection alone. Non-invasive bioengineering methods may prove to be useful in this field. OBJECTIVE: To identify some subtle capacitance variations in the stratum corneum of chronic psoriasis lesions. METHOD: The newly developed method of skin capacitance imaging was used to provide non-optical images of the hydration of the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. RESULTS: Compared to the uninvolved skin, psoriatic lesions usually showed an overall lowered capacitance, admixed with foci of moderately higher capacitance. Still other sharply circumscribed blotches with higher capacitance were present. The latter aspect corresponded to inflammatory areas. Sweating appeared markedly impaired inside the lesions. The fingerprint of some patients was altered, thus potentially interfering with the current biometric security procedures using the same method. CONCLUSION: Skin capacitance imaging is a non-invasive, non-optical method that distinguishes three contrasting levels of stratum corneum hydration in psoriatic lesions. The lowest capacitance level probably corresponded to xerotic orthokeratosis. The medium capacitance level presumably identified foci of parakeratosis and clumps of neutrophils. The highest capacitance level suggested exsudation at the site of prominent vessel dilation and dermal inflammation. Impaired sweating in the psoriatic lesions may potentially interfere with body thermoregulation. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite...l'acné de l'adolescent: un algorithme stratégique sans antibiotique.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(10), 667-70

Acne is a multifaceted disorder. Its clinical presentation differs according to the age and gender of the subjects. Acne of the adolescent is a frequent disorder. Some topical and oral antibiotics have ... [more ▼]

Acne is a multifaceted disorder. Its clinical presentation differs according to the age and gender of the subjects. Acne of the adolescent is a frequent disorder. Some topical and oral antibiotics have proven their efficacy. However, the risk of bacterial resistance may be a concern for the clinicians and their patients. Hence, a therapeutic strategy without antibiotics merits to be considered. Retinoids have a place of choice in this therapeutic strategy. Benzoyl peroxide and miconazole are also active and valuable agents in this therapeutic algorithm. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting dandruff.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in International Journal of Cosmetic Science (2006), 28(5), 311-8

Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the postpubertal population of any ethnicity and both genders. It may, however, represent a stubborn esthetical disturbance often source of ... [more ▼]

Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the postpubertal population of any ethnicity and both genders. It may, however, represent a stubborn esthetical disturbance often source of pruritus. Skin biocenosis, in particular the Malassezia spp. flora, plays a key aetiologic role, in combination with the unusual capacity of some corneocytes to be coated by these yeasts. Substantial evidence indicates that keratinocytes play an active role in the generation and expression of immunopathological reactions. This is probably the case in dandruff. Upon stimulation of a critical colonization of corneocytes by Malassezia yeasts, the release of pro-inflammatory mediators is increased. This could lead to the subclinical microinflammation present in dandruff. In seborrheic dermatitis, local deposits of immunoglobulins and the release of lymphokines are responsible for the recruitment and local activation of leukocytes leading to the eventual amplification of the inflammatory reaction. Some ancillary non-microbial causes of dandruff may operate through physical or chemical irritants. Many methods have been described for rating dandruff. Our favourite tools are clinical examination and squamometry. Dandruff can precipitate telogen effluvium and exacerbate androgenic alopecia. Antidandruff formulations exhibiting some direct or indirect anti-inflammatory activity can improve both dandruff and its subsequent hair cycle disturbance. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je previens...une exacerbation de la dermatite atopique.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(7-8), 600-3

Atopic dermatitis is under the influence of series of environmental factors. The contact with unsuited cleaning agents and rough textiles can exacerbate pruritus and inflammation. Preventive and adjuvant ... [more ▼]

Atopic dermatitis is under the influence of series of environmental factors. The contact with unsuited cleaning agents and rough textiles can exacerbate pruritus and inflammation. Preventive and adjuvant measures can thus help the care procedures of the disease. Appropriate hygiene measures and the use of emollients are particularly helpful. Clothing measures are also in place. Undergarments and pyjamas made of knitted natural silk are available. Other measures, sometimes corresponding to anecdotal claims--antihistamines, thermal cures, unconventional medicine, probiotics, chinese herbals, essential fatty acids--have not proven their preventive efficacy in atopic dermatitis. [less ▲]

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See detailL'eau déshydrate : l'antinomie de la xérose.
Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatologie Actualité (2006), 97

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