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See detailImpacts of the Hara Biosphere Reserve on Livelihood and Welfare in Persian Gulf
Dehghani Pour, Milad; Motiee, Naser; Akbar Barati, Ali et al

in Ecological Economics (2017), 141(November 2017), 7686

Despite the importance of biosphere reserves in Iran's livelihood and welfare, the economic significance of Hara Biosphere Reserve has never been comprehensively studied. This study examines the current ... [more ▼]

Despite the importance of biosphere reserves in Iran's livelihood and welfare, the economic significance of Hara Biosphere Reserve has never been comprehensively studied. This study examines the current importance of Hara Biosphere Reserve (HBR) in local livelihood and welfare. Using a household survey, data were collected through a questionnaire, key informant interviews and direct observations. Two hundred and forty-four households were randomly selected from 10 villages through proportional sampling. Results showed that non-environmental income was the first driver of the total income, poverty alleviation and narrowing income inequality gap. Park income was the second. The results also showed that excluding park income from total income would significantly increase headcount poverty, widen the poverty gap, and raise the Gini coefficient. Wealthier households had the greatest absolute income from the environment, including forest, fishing and fodder. However, the poorest group had smallest absolute income from these sources. Thus, the study demonstrated that wealthier households are responsible for the overharvesting of environmental resources. Interestingly, the study showed that wealthier households are more dependent on profitable environmental incomes sources while the poorest are more dependent on non-profitable ones. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution of land use-change modeling: routes of different schools of knowledge
Azadi, Hossein; Barati, Ali Akbar; Rafiaani, Parisa et al

in Landscape and Ecological Engineering (2016), (12 (December 2016)), 1-14

Although much has been published on land use-change models (LUCMs), no study has comprehensively dealt with the evolution of land use models based on schools of knowledge. The primary objective of this ... [more ▼]

Although much has been published on land use-change models (LUCMs), no study has comprehensively dealt with the evolution of land use models based on schools of knowledge. The primary objective of this paper is an explanation of the progress and growth of LUCMs concerning their main ontological, epistemological, and methodological origins. Five main paradigms, i.e., positivism, post-positivism, constructivism, participatory, and pragmatism approaches, are discussed in order to assess the current orientations of LUCMs. Given the complexities of LUCM components, the study concludes that one paradigm cannot adequately address all methodological aspects. Accordingly, it is necessary to combine quantitative and qualitative paradigms to create mixed-method approaches within a systemic framework. Such systemic approaches could shape the most probable future generations of LUCMs, which would be able to cope with the complexity of various subsystems, including biophysical and socioeconomic ones. [less ▲]

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See detailLand rights as an engine of growth ? An analysis of Cambodian land grabs in the context of development theory
Rudi, Lisa-Marie; Azadi, Hossein ULg; Witlox, Frank et al

in Land Use Policy (2014), (38), 564-572

Forceful evictions have become a serious problem in Cambodia with an increasing number of fami-lies being deprived of their land, homes and livelihoods without compensation. This article analysesCambodian ... [more ▼]

Forceful evictions have become a serious problem in Cambodia with an increasing number of fami-lies being deprived of their land, homes and livelihoods without compensation. This article analysesCambodian land rights in the context of economic development theory. It assesses whether increas-ing economic inequalities, stemming from forceful evictions, can be categorized as an impediment toCambodian economic growth. The Cambodian case illustrates that a lack of good governance due tocorruption leads to the unequal distribution of land which, in turn, causes inequitable economic devel-opment. The paper concludes that Cambodia is trapped in a vicious cycle of inequality, which is upheld byelites who benefit from evictions and land concessions while evictees become trapped in poverty. Giventhat the population is growing angrier, the article warns of potential for a violent revolution that couldhave disastrous consequences for the Cambodian kingdom, a country that recently emerged from yearsof civil conflicts and is still in the process of rebuilding its social fabric. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainability and change in the institutionalized commute in Belgium: exploring regional differences
Dujardin, Sébastien; Boussauw, Kobe; Brévers, Florence et al

in Applied Geography (2012), 35

This paper examines regional differences in commute-energy performance in Belgium, and explores their relationships with spatial characteristics such as the distribution of population and housing, the ... [more ▼]

This paper examines regional differences in commute-energy performance in Belgium, and explores their relationships with spatial characteristics such as the distribution of population and housing, the metropolitan influence of the Brussels agglomeration, and the compactness of cities and towns. We also investigate contradictions between Belgian state-wide commute policy and regional differences in average commuting distance and mode choice. Against a background of long-term federal measures that traditionally encourage long-distance commuting in Belgium, we find striking discrepancies between the structure and the development of commuting patterns in the three administrative regions of Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels. Residents of Brussels show the most sustainable commuting patterns, due to the metropolitan spatial structure. Residents of Wallonia represent the least sustainable commute. Given the rather weak regional economy of Wallonia compared with Flanders, commuters must frequently seek employment far from their residence. Population changes and consequent developments in the housing market seem to exacerbate this competitive disadvantage, since most growth occurs in relatively remote rural areas that are nevertheless within reach of the main employment centres. [less ▲]

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See detailHome-to-work commuting, spatial structure and energy consumption: A comparative analysis of Wallonia and Flanders, Belgium
Dujardin, Sébastien ULg; Boussauw, Kobe; Brévers, Florence ULg et al

in Cornelis, Eric (Ed.) Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Day 2011 (2011)

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See detailSome theoretical reflections on the relationship between city and business
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg; Witlox, Frank

in Yzewyn Dirk and De Brabander Guido (Ed.) City and Business (1993)

Analysis in three parts : - Trends in yhe location of economic activities in cities; - The economic activities in the ex-urbanisation and the urban re-integratio process; - A location in the city centre ... [more ▼]

Analysis in three parts : - Trends in yhe location of economic activities in cities; - The economic activities in the ex-urbanisation and the urban re-integratio process; - A location in the city centre : what benefits? [less ▲]

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