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See detailEdible cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira: actual state of the art in cultivation methods, genetics and application in medicine
Furmaniak, Magda; Misztak, Agnieszka; Franczuk, Martyna et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (in press)

The cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira appears very conserved and has been divided into five main genetic clusters on the basis of molecular taxonomy markers. Genetic studies of seven Arthrospira strains ... [more ▼]

The cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira appears very conserved and has been divided into five main genetic clusters on the basis of molecular taxonomy markers. Genetic studies of seven Arthrospira strains, including genome sequencing of seven strains, have enabled a better understanding of those photosynthetic prokaryotes. Even though genetic manipulations have not yet been performed with success, many genomic and proteomic features such as stress adaptation, nitrogen fixation or biofuel production have been characterized. Many of above-mentioned studies aimed to optimize the cultivation conditions. Factors like the light intensity and quality, the nitrogen source or different modes of growth (auto-, hetero- or mixotrophic) have been studied in detail. The scaling-up of the biomass production using photobioreactors, either closed or open, was also investigated to increase the production of useful compounds.. The richness of nutrients contained in the genus Arthrospira can be used for promising applications in the biomedical domain. Ingredients such as the calcium spirulan, immulina, C‐phycocyanin and γ‐linolenic acid (GLA) show a strong biological activity. Recently, its use in the fight against cancer cells was documented in many publications. The health-promoting action of 'Spirulina' has been demonstrated in the case of cardiovascular diseases and age-related conditions. Some compounds also have potent immunomodulatory properties, promoting the growth of beneficial gut microflora, acting as antimicrobial and antiviral. Products derived from Arthrospira were shown to successfully replace biomaterial scaffolds in regenerative medicine. Supplementation with the cyanobacterium also improves the health of livestock and quality of the products of animal origin. They were also used in cosmetic preparations. [less ▲]

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See detailElucidation of the gas vesicle gene clusters in cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Oscillatoriales, Cyanophyta) and correlation with ITS phylogeny
Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Waleron, Malgorzata; Morin, Nicolas et al

in European Journal of Phycology (2012), 47

The genus Arthrospira comprises filamentous cyanobacteria in which the trichomes form an open helix and contain gas vacuoles. The gas vesicle gene cluster of five Arthrospira strains was amplified by PCR ... [more ▼]

The genus Arthrospira comprises filamentous cyanobacteria in which the trichomes form an open helix and contain gas vacuoles. The gas vesicle gene cluster of five Arthrospira strains was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The genes are organized in one operon, in the order gvpA1–gvpC1–gvpA2–gvpC2–gvpA3–gvpC3–gvpN. In Arthrospira sp. strain PCC 8005, the genes gvpJ, gvpK, gvpV and gvpW were also identified. Each of the three copies of gvpA encodes a protein of 71 amino acids. In the case of gvpC, there are two different length variants. Each of the two shorter genes, gvpC1 and gvpC2, encodes a putative protein of 151 amino acids, while the longer one, gvpC3, codes for a putative protein of 284 residues. The amino acid sequences of GvpC1 and GvpC2 are identical to the N-terminal part of GvpC3. In spite of the presence of stop codons downstream of gvpC1 and gvpC2, the deduced amino acid sequences in these regions are highly similar to the C-terminal part of GvpC3 (residues 160 to 229). The GvpC1, GvpC2 and GvpC3 proteins contain contiguous repeats of 33 amino acids as previously reported for other cyanobacteria. The sequences of the gvpA1, gvpC1, gvpA2 and gvpC2 genes were not found in the genome data of Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005, A. maxima CS-328, and A. platensis NIES-39 as a result of incomplete assembly. The genes gvpN and gvpJ located downstream of gvpC3, encode putative proteins of 394 and 127 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of gvpK, gvpV and gvpW contain 151, 112 and 227 residues, respectively. The analysis of gvp sequences of five strains of Arthrospira revealed the presence of polymorphic positions, which distinguished the strains in agreement with their previous assignments to ITS clusters I and II. This is the first report of gvp genes in members of the genus Arthrospira. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the Holocene through fossil cyanobacterial sequences from Antarctic lake sediments.
Fernandez Carazo, Rafael ULiege; Waleron, Krzysztof; Hodgson, Dominic et al

Poster (2009, July 27)

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