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See detailAnalysing hypoglycin A, methylenecyclopropylacetic acid conjugates and acylcarnitines in blood to confirm the diagnosis and improve our understanding of atypical myopathy
Votion, Dominique ULg

in Equine Veterinary Education (2016), doi: 10.1111/eve.12617

Owing to recent methodological validation studies, we have now the opportunity to determine hypoglycin A, methylenecyclopropylacetic acid–carnitine and acylcarnitines concentrations in equine serum. These ... [more ▼]

Owing to recent methodological validation studies, we have now the opportunity to determine hypoglycin A, methylenecyclopropylacetic acid–carnitine and acylcarnitines concentrations in equine serum. These analytes are essential to confirm the diagnosis of atypical myopathy but also to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. In particular, they might help elucidate why some horses seem more resistant to hypoglycin A poisoning. [less ▲]

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See detailMaladie de l'herbe (Dysautonomie Equine ou Equine Grass Sickness ) : une nouvelle étude dans le cadre du RESPE
Tritz, Pierre; Laugier, Claire; Trapprest, Jackie et al

Learning material (2016)

La maladie de l’herbe (MH) (dysautonomie équine, Equine Grass Sickness) est une polyneuropathie qui atteint le système nerveux central et périphérique chez le cheval. Cette maladie d’étiologie inconnue ... [more ▼]

La maladie de l’herbe (MH) (dysautonomie équine, Equine Grass Sickness) est une polyneuropathie qui atteint le système nerveux central et périphérique chez le cheval. Cette maladie d’étiologie inconnue atteint presque exclusivement les chevaux à l’herbe qui développent des symptômes caractéristiques en relation avec une dégénérescence neuronale dans le système nerveux autonome et dans l'innervation intestinale. Les formes aiguës et subaiguës de la maladie sont presque toujours fatales. La maladie est essentiellement décrite dans les iles britanniques et n’a fait l’objet que de très rares études et publications en France dont une étude de la commission maladies infectieuses de l’AVEF. Quelques cas ont été recensés par le RESPE, qui est alerté régulièrement par des vétérinaires ou des propriétaires inquiets, ce qui a conduit le Conseil Scientifique et Technique (CST) du RESPE à relancer une nouvelle étude épidémiologique sur cette maladie en France en collaboration avec le laboratoire de pathologie équine de l’ANSES et l’institut Pasteur (unité des toxines et pathogénie bactériennes, zone anaérobie). [less ▲]

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See detailAtypical myopathy: an update
Votion, Dominique ULg

in In Practice (2016), 38(5), 241-246

This article gives an overview of atypical myopathy, discussing the mechanism involved, its aetiology and the clinical signs and management (therapeutic and prevention).

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See detailMitochondrial function is altered in horse atypical myopathy
Lemieux, Hélène; BOEMER, François ULg; van Galen, Gaby et al

in Mitochondrion (2016), 30

Equine atypical myopathy in Europe is a fatal rhabdomyolysis syndrome that results from the ingestion of hypoglycin A contained in seeds and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus. The hallmark of atypical ... [more ▼]

Equine atypical myopathy in Europe is a fatal rhabdomyolysis syndrome that results from the ingestion of hypoglycin A contained in seeds and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus. The hallmark of atypical myopathy consists of a severe alteration in the energy metabolism including a severe impairment in muscle mitochondrial respiration that could contribute to its high death rate [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 2nd FARAH-Day / Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (University of Liege - Belgium)
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l’Université de Liège (2015)

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See detailLe syndrome coup de sang
Courouce-Malblanc, Anne; Daix, Charlène; Ferry, Bénédicte et al

E-print/Working paper (2015)

Le coup de sang est un terme utilisé pour nommer une myopathie brutale consécutive à un exercice qui se manifeste cliniquement par des crampes douloureuses et une urine de couleur anormalement foncée du ... [more ▼]

Le coup de sang est un terme utilisé pour nommer une myopathie brutale consécutive à un exercice qui se manifeste cliniquement par des crampes douloureuses et une urine de couleur anormalement foncée du fait de l’élimination de la myoglobine des cellules musculaires détruites (myoglobinurie). [less ▲]

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See detailMyopathie atypique
Votion, Dominique ULg

in Richard, Eric (Ed.) Maladies des chevaux: diagnostic, traitement, prévention. (2015)

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See detailThe cause of atypical myopathy has been discovered – what should we do now?
Votion, Dominique ULg

in Pferdeheilkunde (2015), 31(6), 241-246

This review chronicles the events that led to the discovery of the cause of atypical myopathy (AM). This review answers the question, “How do horses get poisoned in the spring?” and raises the possible ... [more ▼]

This review chronicles the events that led to the discovery of the cause of atypical myopathy (AM). This review answers the question, “How do horses get poisoned in the spring?” and raises the possible role of humidity or other trees in the disease induction. Recent findings that might be of importance to prevent and/or cure AM are also summarised. The paper concludes with the necessity to continue the recording of cases to help horses’ owners prevent AM. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of hypoglycin A in the seeds of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) and box elder (A. negundo) in New Zealand; the toxin associated with cases of equine atypical myopathy.
McKenzie, R. K.; Hill, F. I.; Habyarimana, Jean ULg et al

in New Zealand veterinary journal (2015)

CASE HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: During April and May 2014 four horses aged between 5 months and 9 years, located in the Canterbury, Marlborough and Southland regions, presented with a variety of ... [more ▼]

CASE HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: During April and May 2014 four horses aged between 5 months and 9 years, located in the Canterbury, Marlborough and Southland regions, presented with a variety of clinical signs including recumbency, stiffness, lethargy, dehydration, depression, and myoglobinuria suggestive of acute muscle damage. Two horses were subjected to euthanasia and two recovered. In all cases seeds of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) or box elder (A. negundo) were present in the area where the horse had been grazing. LABORATORY INVESTIGATION: The samaras (seeds) of some Acer spp. may contain hypoglycin A, that has been associated with cases of atypical myopathy in Europe and North America. To determine if hypoglycin A is present in the samaras of Acer spp. in New Zealand, samples were collected from trees throughout the country that were associated with historical and/or current cases of atypical myopathy, and analysed for hypoglycin A. Serum samples from the four cases and four unaffected horses were analysed for the presence of hypoglycin A, profiles of acylcarnitines (the definitive diagnosis for atypical myopathy) and activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase. Markedly elevated serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and increased concentrations of selected acylcarnitines were found in the case horses. Hypoglycin A was detected in the serum of those horses but not in the healthy controls. Hypoglycin A was detected in 10/15 samples of samaras from sycamore maple and box elder from throughout New Zealand. DIAGNOSIS: Cases of atypical myopathy were diagnosed on properties where samaras containing hypoglycin A were also found. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Sycamore and box elder trees in New Zealand are a source of hypoglycin A associated with the development of atypical myopathy. If pastured horses present with clinical and biochemical signs of severe muscle damage then the environment should be checked for the presence of these trees. Horses should be prevented from grazing samaras from Acer spp. in the autumn. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of hypoglycin A in serum using aTRAQ((R)) assay.
BOEMER, François ULg; DEBERG, Michelle ULg; SCHOOS, Roland ULg et al

in Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences (2015), 997

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycin A has been recently identified has the causal agent of atypical myopathy (AM) in horses. Its identification and quantification in equine's biological fluids is thus a major concern ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycin A has been recently identified has the causal agent of atypical myopathy (AM) in horses. Its identification and quantification in equine's biological fluids is thus a major concern to confirm maple poisoning and to provide insight into the poorly understood mechanism of hypoglycin A intoxication. METHODS: Quantification of hypoglycin A has been achieved with the aTRAQ kit for amino acid analysis of physiological fluids (AB Sciex). Acquisition method on mass spectrometer has been updated to record the hypoglycin A specific MRM transition. RESULTS: Outlined accuracy profiles demonstrated very reliable data. A good linearity was observed from 0.09 to 50mumol/L and precision was very good with coefficient of variation below 8%. Fifty-five samples collected from 25 confirmed AM horses revealed significant hypoglycin A concentrations, while toxin was not found in serum of 8 control animals. CONCLUSIONS: The described aTRAQ variant method has been analytically and clinically validated. The reliability of our approach is thus demonstrated into the workup of atypical myopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity in Standardbred racehorses as an aid to predicting exertional rhabdomyolysis
Houben, Rosa ULg; Leleu, Claire; Fraipont, Audrey ULg et al

in Mitochondrion (2015), 24

This prospective cohort study evaluated the potential of high-resolution respirometry applied to permeabilized muscle fibers for fitness evaluation in French Standardbred racehorses. Fitness evaluation by ... [more ▼]

This prospective cohort study evaluated the potential of high-resolution respirometry applied to permeabilized muscle fibers for fitness evaluation in French Standardbred racehorses. Fitness evaluation by means of respirometric parameters did not correlate with racing performance registered over the following racing season. However, altered mitochondrial energy metabolism was associated with higher risk of developing exertional rhabdomyolysis, a common cause of exercise intolerance in racehorses. These data represent a first step towards establishing reference values for muscle OXPHOS capacity in this breed. [less ▲]

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See detailLes nouveaux outils de diagnostic et de pronostic de la myopathie atypique
Habyarimana, Jean ULg; BOEMER, François ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Proceeding de la 41ème Journée de la Recherche équine (2015)

In equines, ingestion of hypoglycin A, a toxin produced in the seeds (samaras) of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) tree alters the energetic metabolism of muscle cells and results in atypical myopathy ... [more ▼]

In equines, ingestion of hypoglycin A, a toxin produced in the seeds (samaras) of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) tree alters the energetic metabolism of muscle cells and results in atypical myopathy (AM). This alterations leads to a characteristic biochemical profile of acylcarnitines (AC) that enables to confirm the diagnosis of AM. This study aims at validating a methodology for the dosage of hypoglycin A in vegetal extracts but also in blood. In addition, the biochemical profile in AC has been determined in AM cases (5 survivors and 13 deceased) and in 5 horses suffering from exercise-induced myopathy. The AC profiles of these horses have been compared to the one of healthy horses (n = 35). This study showed that hypoglycin A was present in seeds and spring seedlings of sycamore and also in blood of AM cases horses. In addition, the establishment of AC profile contributes to the diagnostic and helps to assess the prognosis of AM cases. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 1st FARAH-Day Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (University of Liege - Belgium)
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l’Université de Liège (2014)

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See detailEtiologie de la myopathie atypique : conditions de toxicité de l’agent causal – étude préliminaire
Patarin; van Galen, Gaby; Dopagne, Claude ULg et al

in 40ème journée de la recherche équine (2014, March 18)

Recently it has been shown that atypical myopathy in Europe results from hypoglycin A ingestion, a toxin produced in the seeds (samares) of some trees of the genus Acer. Grasslands of 12 cases of atypical ... [more ▼]

Recently it has been shown that atypical myopathy in Europe results from hypoglycin A ingestion, a toxin produced in the seeds (samares) of some trees of the genus Acer. Grasslands of 12 cases of atypical myopathy for whom the toxic metabolite of hypoglycin A was found in the blood were visited by two experienced botanists in order to establish the list of the different species of trees found in or around these pastures. For all visited pastures, horses had the opportunity to ingest samaras from various maple species. The sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) was the only common tree in all pastures visited (n = 12 /12). Other trees with samaras were also found near or around the pastures. Since June 2013, a study is conducted to define the conditions of toxicity of several species of trees via the sampling, at regular intervals, of samaras and leaves. The study of the seasonal evolution of the toxicity of these trees in relation to weather conditions and specific biotopes will aim [less ▲]

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See detailTödliche Vergiftung. Atopische Weidemyopathie, eine umweltbedingte Erkrankung.
Antys Becker, Martine; Votion, Dominique ULg

in hundkatzepferd vet (2014), 6

Die atypische Weidemyopathie (AM) ist eine zumeist tödlich verlaufende Vergiftung, die durch die Aufnahme des Bergahornsamens hervorgerufen wird. Diese Vergiftung führt zu einer schweren lokalen ... [more ▼]

Die atypische Weidemyopathie (AM) ist eine zumeist tödlich verlaufende Vergiftung, die durch die Aufnahme des Bergahornsamens hervorgerufen wird. Diese Vergiftung führt zu einer schweren lokalen Rhabdomyolyse (Auflösung der quer gestreiften Muskelfasern) hauptsächlich in Haltungs-, Atemwegs- und Herzmuskulatur [less ▲]

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See detailAltered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in horses suffering from polysaccharide storage myopathy
Tosi, Irène ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (2014), 46(Suppl 46), 9

Introduction: Exertional myopathies are a common cause of exercise intolerance in the equine athlete, and Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described muscular disease. It is characterized ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Exertional myopathies are a common cause of exercise intolerance in the equine athlete, and Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described muscular disease. It is characterized by an accumulation of abnormal glycogen in myofibers due to a genetic defect in the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) enzyme. We hypothesized that energy production through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in muscular mitochondria might be impaired in type-1 PSSM-affected horses. Methods: Eight horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis were tested for the GYS1 mutation. Muscle biopsies were collected and used for histological analysis and high resolution respirometry (HRR). HRR values from 3 groups of horses (5 PSSM-positive horses, 3 horses with a history of myopathy but PSSM-negative and 16 healthy controls) were compared using a linear mixed model to take into account repeated (2–3 times) measurements made for each horse. Results: In 5/8 horses histology revealed an accumulation of abnormal glycogen in myofibers. These 5 horses also tested positive for the GYS1 mutation. A severe depression of maximal OXPHOS capacitywas observed by HRR in 7/8 horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with lower values in PSSM-positive cases (4/5). Conclusions: Our study shows a severely decreased OXPHOS capacity in PSSM-affected horses. PSSM is considered primarily a defect in glycogen synthesis but altered OXPHOS might play a central role in its pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailMyopathie atypique : la recherche continue
Votion, Dominique ULg

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2014), 46(182), 22-24

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See detailEditorial : La myopathie atypique.
Votion, Dominique ULg

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2014), 46(182), 5

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See detailGestion des cas, traitement et prévention chez les compagnons de pâture lors de myopathie atypique
van Galen, Gaby; Votion, Dominique ULg

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2014), 46(182), 16-21

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