Prognostic Value of Serologic and Histologic Markers on Clinical Relapse in Ulcerative Colitis Patients With Mucosal Healing
; ; et al
in American Journal of Gastroenterology (2012, November), 11(107), 1684-92Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg)
Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
; ; et al
in Nature (2012), 491(7422), 119-24
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome ... [more ▼]
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (20 ULg)
Management of inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy.
; ; et al
in Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis [=JCC] (2012), 6(8), 811-23
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease affecting mainly young people in their reproductive years. IBD therefore has a major impact on patients' family planning ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease affecting mainly young people in their reproductive years. IBD therefore has a major impact on patients' family planning decisions. Management of IBD in pregnancy requires a challenging balance between optimal disease control and drug safety considerations. This article aims to provide a framework for clinical decision making in IBD based on review of the literature on pregnancy-related topics. METHODS: Medline searches with search terms 'IBD', 'Crohn's disease' or 'ulcerative colitis' in combination with keywords for the topics fertility, pregnancy, congenital abnormalities and drugs names of drugs used for treatment of IBD. RESULTS: IBD patients have normal fertility, except for women after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) and men under sulfasalazine treatment. Achieving and maintaining disease remission is a key factor for successful pregnancy outcomes in this population, as active disease at conception carries an increased risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight. Clinicians should discuss the need for drug therapy to maintain remission with their patients in order to ensure therapy compliance. Most IBD drugs are compatible with pregnancy, except for methotrexate and thalidomide. If possible, anti-TNF therapy should be stopped by the end of the second trimester and the choice of delivery route should be discussed with the patient. CONCLUSIONS: Disease control prior to conception and throughout pregnancy is the cornerstone of successful pregnancy management in IBD patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (4 ULg)
Rheumatoid arthritis and pregnancy: evolution of disease activity and pathophysiological considerations for drug use
; ; Geenen, Vincent et al
in Rheumatology (2011)
It has long been known that pregnancy and childbirth have a profound effect on the disease activity of rheumatic diseases. For clinicians, the management of patients with RA wishing to become pregnant ... [more ▼]
It has long been known that pregnancy and childbirth have a profound effect on the disease activity of rheumatic diseases. For clinicians, the management of patients with RA wishing to become pregnant involves the challenge of keeping disease activity under control and adequately adapting drug therapy during pregnancy and post-partum. This article aims to summarize the current evidence on the evolution of RA disease activity during and after pregnancy and the use of anti-rheumatic drugs around this period. Of recent interest is the potential use of anti-TNF compounds in the preconception period and during pregnancy. Accumulating experience with anti-TNF therapy in other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, provides useful insights for the use of TNF blockade in pregnant women with RA, or RA patients wishing to become pregnant. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (3 ULg)
Meta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47.
; ; et al
in Nature Genetics (2011), 43(3), 246-52
Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association ... [more ▼]
Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of six ulcerative colitis genome-wide association study datasets, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed up the top association signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29 additional risk loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)), increasing the number of ulcerative colitis-associated loci to 47. After annotating associated regions using GRAIL, expression quantitative trait loci data and correlations with non-synonymous SNPs, we identified many candidate genes that provide potentially important insights into disease pathogenesis, including IL1R2, IL8RA-IL8RB, IL7R, IL12B, DAP, PRDM1, JAK2, IRF5, GNA12 and LSP1. The total number of confirmed inflammatory bowel disease risk loci is now 99, including a minimum of 28 shared association signals between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (5 ULg)
Mucosal gene expression of cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease before and after infliximab treatment.
; ; et al
in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2011), 106(4), 748-61
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a continuous influx of leukocytes into the gut wall. This migration is regulated by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and selective ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a continuous influx of leukocytes into the gut wall. This migration is regulated by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and selective antimigration therapies have been developed. This study investigated the effect of infliximab therapy on the mucosal gene expression of CAMs in IBD. METHODS: Mucosal gene expression of 69 leukocyte/endothelial CAMs and E-cadherin was investigated in 61 IBD patients before and after first infliximab infusion and in 12 normal controls, using Affymetrix gene expression microarrays. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and western blotting were used to confirm the microarray data. RESULTS: When compared with control colons, the colonic mucosal gene expression of most leukocyte/endothelial adhesion molecules was upregulated and E-cadherin gene expression was downregulated in active colonic IBD (IBDc) before therapy, with no significant colonic gene expression differences between ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease. Infliximab therapy restored the upregulations of leukocyte CAMs in IBDc responders to infliximab that paralleled the disappearance of the inflammatory cells from the colonic lamina propria. Also, the colonic gene expression of endothelial CAMs and of most chemokines/chemokine receptors returned to normal after therapy in IBDc responders, and only CCL20 and CXCL1-2 expression remained increased after therapy in IBDc responders vs. control colons. When compared with control ileums, the ileal gene expression of MADCAM1, THY1, PECAM1, CCL28, CXCL1, -2, -5, -6, and -11, and IL8 was increased and CD58 expression was decreased in active ileal Crohn's disease (CDi) before therapy, and none of the genes remained dysregulated after therapy in CDi responders vs. control ileums. This microarray study identified a number of interesting targets for antiadhesion therapy including PECAM1, IL8, and CCL20, besides the currently studied alpha4beta7 integrin-MADCAM1 axis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that many leukocyte/endothelial CAMs and chemokines/chemokine receptors are upregulated in inflamed IBD mucosa. Controlling the inflammation with infliximab restores most of these dysregulations in IBD. These results show that at least part of the mechanism of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy goes through downregulation of certain adhesion molecules. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (9 ULg)
Mucosal gene expression of cell adhesion molecules, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease before and after infliximab treatment.
; ; et al
in American Journal of Gastroenterology (2011)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (9 ULg)
Genetic variation in the autophagy gene ULK1 and risk of Crohn's disease
; ; et al
in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2011), 17(6), 1392-1397Detailed reference viewed: 22 (5 ULg)
Outcome of pregnancy in women with inflammatory bowel disease treated with antitumor necrosis factor therapy.
Schnitzler, François ; ; Boukerroucha, Meriem et al
in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2011), 17(9), 1846-1854
BACKGROUND:: Infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA) are attractive treatment options in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also during pregnancy but there is still limited data on the benefit ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND:: Infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA) are attractive treatment options in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also during pregnancy but there is still limited data on the benefit/risk profile of IFX and ADA during pregnancy. METHODS:: This observational study assessed pregnancy outcomes in 212 women with IBD under antitumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) treatment at our IBD unit. Pregnancy outcomes in 42 pregnancies with direct exposure to anti-TNF treatment (35 IFX, 7 ADA) were compared with that in 23 pregnancies prior to IBD diagnosis, 78 pregnancies before start of IFX, 53 pregnancies with indirect exposure to IFX, and 56 matched pregnancies in healthy women. RESULTS:: Thirty-two of the 42 pregnancies ended in live births with a median gestational age of 38 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 37-39). There were seven premature deliveries, six children had low birth weight, and there was one stillbirth. One boy weighed 1640 g delivered at week 33, died at age of 13 days because of necrotizing enterocolitis. A total of eight abortions (one patient wish) occurred in seven women. Trisomy 18 was diagnosed in one fetus of a mother with CD at age 37 under ADA treatment (40 mg weekly) and pregnancy was terminated. Pregnancy outcomes after direct exposure to anti-TNF treatment were not different from those in pregnancies before anti-TNF treatment or with indirect exposure to anti-TNF treatment but outcomes were worse than in pregnancies before IBD diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:: Direct exposure to anti-TNF treatment during pregnancy was not related to a higher incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes than IBD overall. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011;). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (24 ULg)
Resequencing of positional candidates identifies low frequency IL23R coding variants protecting against inflammatory bowel disease.
Momozawa, Yukihide ; Mni, Myriam ; Nakamura, Kayo et al
in Nature Genetics (2011), 43(1), 43-7
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of risk loci for many complex disorders, including Crohn's disease. However, common disease-associated SNPs explain at most approximately 20 ... [more ▼]
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified dozens of risk loci for many complex disorders, including Crohn's disease. However, common disease-associated SNPs explain at most approximately 20% of the genetic variance for Crohn's disease. Several factors may account for this unexplained heritability, including rare risk variants not adequately tagged thus far in GWAS. That rare susceptibility variants indeed contribute to variation in multifactorial phenotypes has been demonstrated for colorectal cancer, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, blood pressure, type 1 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and, in the case of Crohn's disease, for NOD2 (refs. 14,15). Here we describe the use of high-throughput resequencing of DNA pools to search for rare coding variants influencing susceptibility to Crohn's disease in 63 GWAS-identified positional candidate genes. We identify low frequency coding variants conferring protection against inflammatory bowel disease in IL23R, but we conclude that rare coding variants in positional candidates do not make a large contribution to inherited predisposition to Crohn's disease. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 76 (30 ULg)
Tolerability of shortened infliximab infusion times in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: a single-center cohort study.
; ; et al
in American Journal of Gastroenterology (2011), 106(4), 778-85
OBJECTIVES: Scheduled maintenance therapy with infliximab decreases the risk of infusion reactions. Many centers have accelerated infusion times to 1 h in selected patients who tolerate 5 mg/kg infliximab ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVES: Scheduled maintenance therapy with infliximab decreases the risk of infusion reactions. Many centers have accelerated infusion times to 1 h in selected patients who tolerate 5 mg/kg infliximab infusions. The aim of this study was to compare the tolerability of 1-h and 2-h infliximab infusions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a large single-center cohort. The primary end point was the incidence of infusion reactions in both groups. METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis of all IBD patients treated with infliximab was performed. Infusions in scheduled maintenance for at least 6 months from December 1994 until March 2009 were included. All patients were treated at the infusion unit or during hospitalization under standard operating procedures. Infusion parameters were prospectively recorded. From 2004, in patients tolerating at least four 2-h infusions, infusions were given over 1 h. RESULTS: As of March 2009, 953 patients with IBD (77.6% Crohn's disease, 22.4% ulcerative colitis) had been treated with infliximab. A total of 474 patients met the criteria of scheduled maintenance therapy. In total, 9,155 maintenance infusions were administered (4,307 over 1 h). No severe infusion reactions were documented. Mild acute reactions occurred in 0.6% (27/4,307) of the 1-h-infusion group and in 1.7% (80/4848) of the 2-h infusion group (P=0.0034). Delayed infusion reactions occurred in 0.2% of 1-h and 0.5% of 2-h infusion group patients (P=0.277). Loss of tolerability due to infusion reactions (1-h group 2.9% versus 2-h group 4.1%) was evenly distributed (P=0.34). None of the prespecified variables were predictive of infusion reactions in a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with IBD tolerating 2-h infusions of infliximab scheduled maintenance therapy, the infusion time can be shortened to 1 h with good tolerability. No severe reactions were observed and no predictors of infusion reactions were identified. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (9 ULg)
High-throughput method for comparative analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles from human fecal samples reveals significant increases in two bifidobacterial species after inulin-type prebiotic intake.
; ; Van Steen, Kristel et al
in FEMS Microbiology Ecology (2011), 75(2), 343-9
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is one of the most commonly used molecular tools to study complex microbial communities. Despite its widespread use, meaningful interpretative analysis ... [more ▼]
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is one of the most commonly used molecular tools to study complex microbial communities. Despite its widespread use, meaningful interpretative analysis remains a major drawback of this method. We evaluated the combination of computer-assisted band-matching with nonparametric statistics for comparative analysis of DGGE banding patterns. Fecal samples from 17 healthy volunteers who consumed 20 g of the prebiotic compound oligofructose-enriched inulin (OF-IN) for 4 weeks were analyzed before and after treatment. DGGE fingerprinting profiles were analyzed using bionumerics software version 4.6., which resulted in a data matrix that was used for statistical analysis. When comparing DGGE profiles before and after OF-IN intake with a Wilcoxon nonparametric test for paired data, two band-classes increased significantly after OF-IN intake (P<0.003 and <0.02). These two band-classes could be assigned to the species Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis by band-sequencing analysis, and their significant increase was quantitatively confirmed with real-time PCR using species-specific primers (respectively P<0.012 and <0.010). Therefore, the nonparametric analysis of a data matrix obtained by computer-assisted band-matching of complex profiles facilitated the interpretative analysis of these profiles and provided an objective and high-throughput method for the detection of significant taxonomic differences in larger numbers of complex profiles. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (4 ULg)
Levels of C-reactive protein are associated with response to infliximab therapy in patients with Crohn's disease.
; Mahachie John, Jestinah ; et al
in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of The American Gastroenterological Association (2011), 9(5), 421-71
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Infliximab is an antibody against tumor necrosis factor-alpha that is used to treat patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD). C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker used to ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Infliximab is an antibody against tumor necrosis factor-alpha that is used to treat patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD). C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker used to identify and follow individuals with CD. We analyzed changes in levels of CRP in a large cohort of patients with CD undergoing treatment with infliximab. METHODS: Serial levels of CRP were analyzed in 718 CD patients. Blood was collected before each infusion; a total of 8845 CRP levels were available for analysis. The correlations between CRP levels and need for dose adjustment, outcomes, and mucosal healing (based on endoscopic analysis of 253 patients) were evaluated. Therapy adjustment was considered successful if therapy continued without need for change. Subgroup analysis was performed by using data from 268 patients who received 8 weeks of maintenance therapy. RESULTS: More patients with high baseline levels of CRP responded to infliximab than patients with normal levels (90.8% vs 82.6%; P = .014). Early normalization of CRP levels correlated with sustained long-term response (P < .001). CRP levels remained significantly higher among patients who lost their response to infliximab, compared with those with a sustained response (P = .001). At time of loss of response, CRP levels were significantly increased (median, 11.2 mg/L) and did not return to baseline levels (median, 18.2 mg/L; P = .039). CRP correlated with mucosal healing (P = .033). CONCLUSIONS: CRP is a good marker of disease activity in patients treated with infliximab. Increased levels of CRP indicate mucosal inflammation and a likelihood of clinical relapse. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Identification of a novel autoantigen in inflammatory bowel disease by protein microarray.
; ; et al
in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2011), 17(6), 1291-300
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) display immunoreactivity to self-antigens and microbial antigens. We used a protein microarray approach to identify novel autoantigens in IBD ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) display immunoreactivity to self-antigens and microbial antigens. We used a protein microarray approach to identify novel autoantigens in IBD. METHODS: ProtoArray Human Protein Microarray v4.0 containing 8268 human proteins from Invitrogen (La Jolla, CA) was used. RESULTS: Twenty-five IBD patients and five healthy controls were screened for candidate autoantigens. For 256 antigens, IBD patients had a higher seroreactivity than controls. Twenty antigens were selected for further evaluation in a larger cohort (60 ulcerative colitis [UC] patients, 60 Crohn's disease [CD] patients, 60 healthy controls, and 60 gastrointestinal-diseased controls) by means of a customized protein microarray. Out of these 20 antigens, one antigen, family with sequence similarity 84 member A (FAM84A), was identified as a target antigen in IBD. Antibodies to FAM84A were significantly more prevalent in IBD patients (19%) than in gastrointestinal-diseased controls (1.7%) (P = 0.0008) and healthy controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Anti-FAM84A antibodies were found in 26.6% of UC patients and in 11.7% of CD patients. FAM84A was confirmed as target antigen in IBD by means of Western blotting in a large independent cohort (100 UC patients, 106 CD patients, 102 healthy controls, and 100 gastrointestinal-diseased controls). Antibodies to FAM84A were significantly more prevalent in IBD patients (20%) than in gastrointestinal-diseased controls (5%) (P = 0.0004) and healthy controls (0%) (P < 0.0001). Anti-FAM84A antibodies were found in 18% of UC patients and in 22% of CD patients. CONCLUSIONS: We identified FAM84A as a novel autoantigen in IBD. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011;). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (3 ULg)
Familial aggregation and antimicrobial response dose-dependently affect the risk for Crohn's disease.
; Van Steen, Kristel ; et al
in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2010), 16(1), 58-67
BACKGROUND:: An increased risk of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported consistently in first-degree relatives of patients. Our aim was to test whether a combination of CD-associated genes involved in ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND:: An increased risk of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported consistently in first-degree relatives of patients. Our aim was to test whether a combination of CD-associated genes involved in innate immunity and/or antibody responses to microbial antigens may be valuable in identifying healthy relatives at risk. METHODS:: We investigated 86 families from Belgium and northern France, 45 with at least 3 first-degree relatives with CD, 24 with a single case, and 17 control families without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The cohort consisted of 186 CD patients, 290 healthy relatives, and 142 controls (total 618). Genetic (NOD2, NOD1, TLR4, CARD8) and serologic markers (ASCA, ACMA, ALCA, ACCA, ASigmaMA, OmpC, CBir1, I2) were determined in all subjects. All Belgian families were prospectively followed up for 54 months. RESULTS:: In multiple-affected families, an increment of affected first-degree relatives and of positive antibodies were additive risks factors for CD (P < 0.0001), independent of NOD2 mutations. When comparing subjects from multiple-affected families, having 3 additional first-degree relatives with CD and 1 additional positive antibody increased the odds for CD to 9.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.07-20.80). After a follow-up of 54 months among all Belgian families, a total of 4 new diagnoses of IBD were confirmed in the multiple-affected families only, resulting in a 57-fold increase in incidence within multiple-affected families compared to the known incidence of IBD in our region. CONCLUSIONS:: We found an additive risk increment for CD in subjects from multicase families per additional affected relative and per additional positive antibody, independent of NOD2. Furthermore, a very high disease incidence was observed in these multiple-affected families. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (3 ULg)
Genome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn's disease susceptibility loci.
; ; et al
in Nature Genetics (2010), 42(12), 1118-25
We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohn's disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in ... [more ▼]
We undertook a meta-analysis of six Crohn's disease genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 6,333 affected individuals (cases) and 15,056 controls and followed up the top association signals in 15,694 cases, 14,026 controls and 414 parent-offspring trios. We identified 30 new susceptibility loci meeting genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10). A series of in silico analyses highlighted particular genes within these loci and, together with manual curation, implicated functionally interesting candidate genes including SMAD3, ERAP2, IL10, IL2RA, TYK2, FUT2, DNMT3A, DENND1B, BACH2 and TAGAP. Combined with previously confirmed loci, these results identify 71 distinct loci with genome-wide significant evidence for association with Crohn's disease. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (9 ULg)
Predictive value of epithelial gene expression profiles for response to infliximab in Crohn’s disease
; ; et al
in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2010), 16(12), 2090-2098Detailed reference viewed: 23 (7 ULg)
Intestinal mucosal gene expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in patients with inflammatory bowel disease before and after first infliximab treatment.
; ; et al
in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2010)Detailed reference viewed: 24 (12 ULg)
Report of the ECCO pathogenesis workshop on anti-TNF therapy failures in inflammatory bowel diseases: definitions, frequency and pharmacological aspects.
; ; Louis, Edouard et al
in Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis [=JCC] (2010), 4(4), 355-66
The first ECCO pathogenesis workshop focused on anti-TNF therapy failures in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The overall objective was to better understand and explore primary non response and loss of ... [more ▼]
The first ECCO pathogenesis workshop focused on anti-TNF therapy failures in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The overall objective was to better understand and explore primary non response and loss of response to anti-TNF agents in IBD. The outcome of this workshop is presented into two parts. This first section addresses definitions, frequency and pharmacological aspects of anti-TNF therapy failure, including pharmacokinetics of anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies and immune and non-immune mediated clearance of anti-TNF mAbs. The second section concerns the biological roles of TNF and TNF antagonists, including mechanisms of action of anti-TNF agents, and discuss hypothesis regarding their failures and phenomenon of paradoxical inflammation, including the potential role of TNF independent inflammatory pathways. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg)
Intestinal mucosal gene expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and the impact of infliximab therapy.
; ; et al
in Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis [=JCC] (2010)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (12 ULg)