References of "Vanopdenbosch, E"
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See detailDétection des protéines animales transformées : expérience et perspectives européennes
Plouvier, B; Baeten, V; Maudoux, JP et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique / Office International des Epizooties = Revista Cientifica y Tecnica / Officina Internacional de Epizootias = Scientific and Technical Review / International Office of Epizootics (2012), 31(3), 1011-1031

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See detailCurrent status of scrapie. CAB review for Perspectives in Agriculture
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Vanopdenbosch, E.; Berkvens, D.

in CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources (2007), 2(027),

Despite being controlled in many developed countries, scrapie remains endemic in many parts of the world. Economic losses result from mortality and culling of small ruminants and from market restrictions ... [more ▼]

Despite being controlled in many developed countries, scrapie remains endemic in many parts of the world. Economic losses result from mortality and culling of small ruminants and from market restrictions. Moreover, it is difficult to develop all-inclusive guidelines that could establish a scrapie-free status for a country. Unfortunately, the global picture remains incomplete because in many countries confusion still remains regarding the clinical picture of scrapie and information is not available owing to the absence of adequate epidemiosurveillance networks. Currently, the predominant theory is that PrPSc is the infectious agent where host genetic factors play a central role. The precise transmission routes of scrapie and their relative contributions to the overall transmission intensity remain poorly documented and the physiopathology is not fully understood. However, it is evident that the purchase of female sheep from scrapie flocks, sharing pastures with scrapie flocks, sharing breeding rams and genetic host susceptibility are the main risk factors for the spread of the disease. A better understanding of the epidemiology of scrapie would greatly aid the development and evaluation of control and eradication strategies that were mainly based on selective depopulation of infected animals and genetically susceptible and/or related animals and also on the biosecurity and the use of selective genetic breeding programmes in healthy flocks. Some numbers of a new transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) form in small ruminants (atypical scrapie) have meanwhile been identified by TSE rapid testing using an assay, which also recognizes comparatively less proteinase K-resistant PrPSc. Uncertainties remain regarding the pathogenesis of this new TSE form, as well as regarding its potential transmissibility within the affected species and to other species. Thus far, no bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases have been confirmed in sheep under natural conditions (a report of vertical transmission after experimental infection merits attention), but two historical cases of BSE in goats born in the 1990s have been identified. Currently BSE must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of scrapie. The development of prevention and control programmes should be assisted by new scientific findings. [less ▲]

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See detailActualisation et validation interne d’un outil d’aide à la décision clinique de l’encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine en Belgique
Plouvier, Bénédicte ULg; Berkvens, D.; Mennens, K. et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2006), 50

The use of regression and classification trees is a usual decision support tool for diseases with low prevalence as well for diseases which diagnosis test not exist actually (emerging diseases). These ... [more ▼]

The use of regression and classification trees is a usual decision support tool for diseases with low prevalence as well for diseases which diagnosis test not exist actually (emerging diseases). These trees make it possible to classify observations (clinical and other) on the basis of a set of predictive variables (categorical or continuous). New data concerning the clinical suspicions of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy were collected in Belgium from November, 2002 until January, 2005. These data make it possible to update and estimate of previous performance characteristics of regression and classification trees. Several modifications of regression and classification tress are proposed and discussed in order to improve epidemiological passive network in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailTrends in age-at-detection in Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy cases: a useful indicator of the epidemic curve
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Speybroeck, N.; Vanopdenbosch, E. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2006), 159

There were 118 cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Belgium before January 1, 2004. Trends in their age at detection were analysed and attempts were made to use this parameter as a predictor ... [more ▼]

There were 118 cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Belgium before January 1, 2004. Trends in their age at detection were analysed and attempts were made to use this parameter as a predictor of the current status of the BSE epidemic in the country. The following variables were considered: date of birth, breed, date of detection, mode of detection, and the number and age of animals slaughtered and rendered each month. Age at detection as a function of date of birth was a very poor epidemiological indicator. It was concluded that the increasing age of BSE cases when they were detected was due to the depletion of cases, as a result of there being no new infections, and that it is a reliable indicator of a decrease in the epidemic curve in Belgium. By means of a simulation it is shown how age distribution at the time of detection closely follows the epidemic curve and data from Great Britain are used to illustrate the point. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst chronic wasting disease surveillance of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in North part of Belgium
De Bosschere, H.; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Neukermans, A. et al

in Veterinary Quarterly (The) (2006), 28

Cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild cervids have yet not been reported in Europe, whereas the disease is considered enzootic in free-ranging mule deer, Rocky mountain elk and white-tailed deer ... [more ▼]

Cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild cervids have yet not been reported in Europe, whereas the disease is considered enzootic in free-ranging mule deer, Rocky mountain elk and white-tailed deer in the area of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. New foci of CWD continue to be detected in other parts of the United States. However, no large-scale active epidemiosurveillance of European wild cervids is yet installed in Europe. In accordance with the opinion of the European Scientific Steering Committee, a preliminary (active) surveillance scheme was installed, in order to improve the knowledge of the CWD status of wild cervids (roe deer) in the Northern part of Belgium. Spleen samples (n=206) and brain samples (n=222) of roe deer collected in the Northern part of Belgium, were examined for CWD using the antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) of IDEXX. Afterwards, the EIA was systematically confirmed by immunohistochemistry using three antibodies, namely R524, 2G11 and 12F10. There were no indications on the occurrence of TSE in any of the samples. A Bayesian framework was used for the estimation of the true prevalence of CWD in the Northern part of Belgium that was estimated to have a median value of zero with a 95th percentile value of 0.0049 and 0.0045 for spleen and brain samples respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailPopulation-level retrospective study of neurologically expressed disorders in ruminants before the onset of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Belgium, a BSE risk III country.
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Berkvens, D.; Claes, L. et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2005), 43(2), 862-9

A retrospective epidemiological study (n = 7,875) of neurologically expressed disorders (NED) in ruminants before the onset of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic (years studied, 1980 to 1997 ... [more ▼]

A retrospective epidemiological study (n = 7,875) of neurologically expressed disorders (NED) in ruminants before the onset of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic (years studied, 1980 to 1997) was carried out in Belgium. The archives of all veterinary laboratories and rabies and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) epidemiosurveillance networks were consulted. For all species, a significantly higher number of NED with virological causes (rabies) was reported south of the Sambre-Meuse Valley. During the period 1992 to 1997, for which the data were complete, (i) the predicted annual incidence of NED varied significantly as a function of species and area (higher numbers in areas where rabies was present) but was always above 100 cases per million, and (ii) the mean incidence of suspected TSE cases and, among them, those investigated by histopathological examination varied significantly as a function of species and area. The positive predictive value of a presumptive clinical diagnosis of NED ranged from 0.13 (game) to 0.63 (sheep). Knowledge of the positive predictive value permits the definition of a reference point before certain actions (e.g., awareness and training campaigns) are undertaken. It also shows the usefulness of a systematic necropsy or complementary laboratory tests to establish an etiological diagnosis. TSE analysis of a small, targeted historical sampling (n = 48) permitted the confirmation of one case and uncovered another case of scrapie. The results of the present study help to develop and maintain the quality of the worldwide clinical epidemiological networks for TSE, especially in countries that in the past imported live animals, animal products, and feedstuffs from countries with TSE cases. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection des bovins atteints d’encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine (ESB) : un indicateur utile du stade de la courbe épidémique d’un pays
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Speybroeck, N.; Vanopdenbosch, E. et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2005), 47

En Belgique, 118 cas d’ESB ont été recensés avant le 1erjanvier 2004. L’évolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection des bovins atteints d’ESB a été analysée. Ce paramètre a été utilisé entant qu’outil ... [more ▼]

En Belgique, 118 cas d’ESB ont été recensés avant le 1erjanvier 2004. L’évolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection des bovins atteints d’ESB a été analysée. Ce paramètre a été utilisé entant qu’outil de prédiction du stade épidémique de l’ESB dans un pays. Les variables indicatricessuivantes ont été considérées : la date de naissance, la race, la date de détection, le mode dedétection, le nombre mensuel et l’âge des bovins abattus et destinés au clos d’équarrissage. L’évolution de l’âge des bovins au moment de la détection en fonction de la date de naissance deceux-ci est un très pauvre indicateur épidémiologique. L’augmentation de l’âge moyen lors de ladétection des bovins atteints d’ESB est due à la diminution du nombre de cas d’ESB qui sont plus âgés. Il s’agit d’un indicateur épidémiologique qui signe le début du déclin de la courbe épidémique enBelgique. A l’aide de simulations réalisées sur des jeux de données fictives puis sur un jeu dedonnées réelles issu de la Grande-Bretagne, une relation entre l’évolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection des bovins atteints d’ESB et le stade de la courbe épidémique a été mise en évidence.L’évolution de l’âge moyen lors de la détection peut être utilisée dans des situations où le nombreabsolu de cas d’ESB ne peut pas être déterminé avec exactitude ; c’est ce qui constitue l’originalité de cet indicateur épidémiologique. [less ▲]

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See detailDecision support tools for clinical diagnosis of disease in cows with suspected bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Speybroeck, N.; Roels, S. et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2004), 42(1), 172-8

Reporting of clinically suspected cattle is currently the most common method for detecting cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Improvement of clinical diagnosis and decision-making remains ... [more ▼]

Reporting of clinically suspected cattle is currently the most common method for detecting cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Improvement of clinical diagnosis and decision-making remains crucial. A comparison of clinical patterns, consisting of 25 signs, was made between all 30 BSE cases, confirmed in Belgium before October 2002, and 272 suspected cases that were subsequently determined to be histologically, immunohistochemically, and scrapie-associated-fiber negative. Seasonality in reporting suspected cases was observed, with more cases being reported during wintertime when animals were kept indoors. The median duration of illness was 30 days. The 10 most relevant signs of BSE were kicking in the milking parlor, hypersensitivity to touch and/or sound, head shyness, panic-stricken response, reluctance to enter in the milking parlor, abnormal ear movement or carriage, increased alertness behavior, reduced milk yield, teeth grinding, and temperament change. Ataxia did not appear to be a specific sign of BSE. A classification and regression tree was constructed by using the following four features: age of the animal, year of birth, number of relevant BSE signs noted, and number of clinical signs, typical for listeriosis, noted. The model had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85%. This approach allows the use of an interactive decision-support tool, based entirely on odds ratios, a statistic independent of disease prevalence. [less ▲]

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See detailDeux protocoles d’hyperimmunisation au moyen de vaccins marqués réduisent l’incidence de séroconversion envers l’herpèsvirus bovin 1 en cheptels laitiers : résultats d’une étude sur le terrain
Dispas, M.; Lemaire, Mylène; Speybroeck, N. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 47-61

A 28 months long cohort study was organized in dairy herds in Belgium, to assess the efficacy of hyperimmunisation as a tool for the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Two protocols of ... [more ▼]

A 28 months long cohort study was organized in dairy herds in Belgium, to assess the efficacy of hyperimmunisation as a tool for the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Two protocols of hyperimmunisation in which glycoprotein-E deleted marker vaccines were repeatedly administered were compared to a positive control group in which the usual vaccination protocols were authorised. The two hyperimmunisation protocols differed in the primovaccination : the first group was treated with an attenuated vaccine firstly given intra-nasally then by intramuscular route whereas the second group was given an inactivated vaccine by subcutaneous injection. Afterwards, booster vaccinations were the same in both groups : an inactivated vaccine was administered by subcutaneous route every 6 months. In the control group, as a rule, part of the herd was vaccinated annually. For each group, 6 half-yearly reports specify : 1. the evolution of the population, categorized by birth half-year, 2. the incidence of seroconversion against gE in the cohorts and 3. the evolution of the gE seroprevalence. The survival curves of the hyperimmunised groups show a significantly higher proportion (P < 0,001) of animals remaining seronegative against glycoprotein- E compared to the positive control group. No significant difference was shown between the two protocols of hyperimmunisation. Both of them could then be used as tools for the control of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of a glycoprotein E-deleted bovine herpesvirus type 1 strain in the field
Dispas, M.; Schynts, F.; Lemaire, Mylène et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2003), 153(7), 209-212

During a field trial to evaluate the efficacy of repeated vaccinations with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) marker vaccines, a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative BHV-1 strain was isolated from the nasal ... [more ▼]

During a field trial to evaluate the efficacy of repeated vaccinations with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) marker vaccines, a glycoprotein E (gE)-negative BHV-1 strain was isolated from the nasal secretions of two cows, eight months after vaccination with a gE-negative live-attenuated vaccine, initially given intranasally, then intramuscularly. The strain isolated was characterised using immunofluorescence, restriction analysis and PCR. All the techniques used identified the isolated virus as a gE-negative BHV-1 phenotypically and genotypically identical to the Za strain used as a control. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential diagnosis of neurologically expressed disorders in Western European cattle
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Claes, L.; Dewaele, Albert et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) (2003), 22(1), 83-102

A classification of neurological or neurologically expressed disorders that occur in Western European cattle aged 12 month and over has been established on the basis of aetiology, frequency and conditions ... [more ▼]

A classification of neurological or neurologically expressed disorders that occur in Western European cattle aged 12 month and over has been established on the basis of aetiology, frequency and conditions of appearance, age and type of animals concerned and the main clinical signs observed. Neurologically expressed disorders have been classified according to different groups of causes: biological, non-biological and non-specific or unknown. Differential diagnosis of neurologically expressed disorders is an essential element in the clinical epidemiological surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. A growing number of aetiologies are described in the scientific literature. The identification and centralised management of neurological disorders will make it possible, one the one hand, to take account of the inherent variability in the clinical forms encountered and in the diagnostic approaches of the observers and, on the other hand, to identify new risk factors in order to control them. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic différentiel des troubles à expression nerveuse dans l’espèce bovine en Europe occidentale
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Claes, L.; Dewaele, A. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics) (2003), 22(1), 61-82

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See detailAmélioration de la détection d’une maladie émergente : exemple de l’ encépahlopathie spongiforme bovine
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Berkvens, D.; Speybroeck, N. et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (2003), 44

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See detailMycobacterium bovis meningitis in a cow with clinical signs of BSE.
Roels, S.; Walravens, K.; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2003), 152(26), 807-8

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See detailLe diagnostic immunologique rapide des encéphalopathies spongiformes transmissibles
Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULg; Gouffaux, M.; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

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See detailEpdémiosurveillance de l'encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine en Belgique : bilan de l'année 1999
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Dechamps, P.; Roels, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

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See detailNatural case of bovine herpesvirus 1 meningoencephalitis in an adult cow.
Roels, S.; Charlier, G.; Letellier, C. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2000), 146(20), 586-8

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See detailEpidemiologische bewaking van boviene spongiforme encefalopathie in Belgïe: Jaaroverzicht voor 1998
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Dechamps, P.; Vanopdenbosch, E. et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift (2000), 69

In 1998 werden 6 runderen tussen de 54 en 71 maanden ouderdom, afkomstig van de provincies West-Vlaanderen (3 gevallen), Oost-Vlaanderen (2 gevallen) en Luik (1 geval), gediagnostiseerd als gevallen van ... [more ▼]

In 1998 werden 6 runderen tussen de 54 en 71 maanden ouderdom, afkomstig van de provincies West-Vlaanderen (3 gevallen), Oost-Vlaanderen (2 gevallen) en Luik (1 geval), gediagnostiseerd als gevallen van boviene spongiforme encephalopathie (BSE). De hypotheses betreffende de oorsprong van de infectie op zijn de volgende : het optreden van sporadische gevallen zonder duidelijk definieerbare oorzaak; de mogelijke kruiscontaminatie tussen voeder voor monogastrische dieren met daarin dierlijk meel en voeder voor herkauwers waarin geen dierlijk meel is verwerkt en dit tijdens het fabricatieproces, de stockage, het transport of de distributie; het gebruik van dierlijk beendermeel in het voeder voor runderen geproduceerd voor de ban (van kracht vanaf 27/7/1994). Algemeen kan men dus stellen dat in België de aanwezigheid van gecontamineerd diermeel als risicofactor voor BSE niet kan worden uitgesloten. De oorsprong van deze diermelen kon nog niet gedetermineerd worden. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude rétrospective de l'incidence des troubles nereux rapportés et suspects d'encéphalopathie spongiforme transmissible chez les bovins en Belgique
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Claes, M.; Vanopdenbosch, E. et al

in Epidémiologie et Santé Animale (1999), 35

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See detailEpidémiosurveillance de l'encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine en Belgique : bilan de l'année 1998
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Dechamps, P.; Vanopdenbosch, E. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1999), 143

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