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See detailPenetration of oxytetracycline into the nasal secretions and relationship between nasal secretions and plasma oxytetracycline concentrations after oral and intramuscular administration in healthy pigs.
Bimazubute, M.; Cambier, Carole ULg; Baert, K. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2011), 34(2), 176-183

The penetration of oxytetracycline (OTC) in plasma and nasal secretions of healthy pigs was evaluated during the first study, in response to oral dose of 20 mg of OTC per kg of body weight (bwt) per day ... [more ▼]

The penetration of oxytetracycline (OTC) in plasma and nasal secretions of healthy pigs was evaluated during the first study, in response to oral dose of 20 mg of OTC per kg of body weight (bwt) per day as a 400 mg/kg feed medication (n = 5) and to intramuscular (i.m.)-administered formulations at 10 mg/kg bwt (n = 5), 20 mg/kg bwt (n = 5), 40 mg/kg bwt (n = 5). Concentrations of OTC in plasma and nasal secretions were determined by a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography associated to tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC/MS/MS). The objectives were to select the efficacy treatment and to evaluate the possibility to predict nasal secretions concentrations from those determined in plasma. The animals were housed together in each experiment. In each group, the treatment was administered once daily during 6 consecutive days, and nasal secretions and plasma were collected after 4 and 24 h at day 2 and day 6. For oral administration, only one medicated feed was prepared and distributed to all the animals together and was consumed in approximately 1 h. To meet recommendations of efficacy for OTC in nasal secretions, only the i.m. of 40 mg/kg bwt associated to an inter-dosing interval of 24 h provides and maintains concentrations in nasal secretions >/=1 mug/mL, appropriate to the MIC 50 and 90 of Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica, respectively, the main pathological strains in nasal secretions. It has been demonstrated that, using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), OTC in the nasal secretions (mug/mL) can be predicted taking into account the OTC concentrations in plasma (mug/mL), according to the following equation: OTC(nasal secretions) = 0.28 OTC(plasma) -1.49. In a second study, the pharmacokinetic behaviour of OTC in plasma and nasal secretions of healthy pigs was investigated, after single-dose i.m. of 40 mg/kg bwt of the drug. Blood samples and nasal secretions were collected at predetermined times after drug administration. The data collected in 10 pigs for OTC were subjected to non-compartmental analysis. In plasma, the maximum concentration of drug (C(max) ), the time at which this maximum concentration of drug (T(max) ) was reached, the elimination half-life (t(1/2)) and the area under the concentration vs. time curve (AUC) were, respectively, 19.4 mug/mL, 4.0, 5.1 h and 150 mug.h/mL. In nasal secretions, C(max) , T(max) , t(1/2) and AUC were, respectively, 6.29 mug/mL, 4.0, 6.6 h and 51.1 mug.h/mL. [less ▲]

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See detailLack of efficacy of low-dose spironolactone as adjunct treatment to conventional congestive heart failure treatment in dogs
Schuller, S.; Van Israël, N.; Vanbelle, S. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2011)

Aldosterone plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Aldosterone receptor blockade has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in human patients with advanced congestive left ... [more ▼]

Aldosterone plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure. Aldosterone receptor blockade has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in human patients with advanced congestive left ventricular heart failure. This study was designed to assess the efficacy and tolerance of long-term low-dose spironolactone when added to conventional heart failure treatment in dogs with advanced heart failure. Eighteen client-owned dogs with advanced congestive heart failure due to either degenerative valve disease (n=11) or dilated cardiomyopathy (n=7) were included in this prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical study. After initial stabilization including furosemide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, pimobendan and digoxin, spironolactone at a median dose of 0.52 mg/kg (range 0.49-0.8 mg/kg) once daily (n=9) or placebo (n=9) was added to the treatment, and the dogs were reassessed 3 and 6 months later. Clinical scoring, echocardiography, electrocardiogram, systolic blood pressure measurement, thoracic radiography, sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aldosterone and aminoterminal atrial natriuretic propeptide were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Survival times were not significantly different between the two treatment groups. Spironolactone was well tolerated when combined with conventional heart failure treatment. [less ▲]

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