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See detailMolecular Biology of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 4
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Bublot, M.; Dubuisson, J. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1992), 33(1-4), 79-92

Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) is a ubiquitous virus of cattle. Its genome is a 144 +/- 6 kb double-stranded DNA consisting of a unique central part (L-DNA) flanked at both ends by tandem repeats ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) is a ubiquitous virus of cattle. Its genome is a 144 +/- 6 kb double-stranded DNA consisting of a unique central part (L-DNA) flanked at both ends by tandem repeats called polyrepetitive DNA (prDNA or H-DNA). The overall arrangement of genes has been obtained by the analysis of homologies between short BHV-4 DNA sequences and corresponding genes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpesvirus saimiri (HVS). The gene expression is temporally regulated. Glycoprotein precursor p (gp10/gp17) is expressed as gamma 1 polypeptide. Glycoproteins gp1, gp8, gp11 and their precursors are gamma 2 proteins. The analysis of strain variations allows the definition of two types of strains, based on the DNA patterns: the Movar 33/63-like and the DN 599-like strains. Only the M40 strain, isolated in India, fails to fit this classification. The genomic variations have been compiled to build a dendrogram showing three levels of divergence between BHV-4 strains or isolates. The available molecular data indicate that the BHV-4 genome shares much similarity with the DNA of EBV and HVS, two representative members of the gammaherpesvirinae. BHV-4 may therefore be classified in the subfamily gammaherpesvirinae. [less ▲]

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See detailFailure to Infect Cats with Bovine Herpesvirus Type-4 Strain Movar 33/63
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Chappuis, G.; Bublot, M. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1991), 128(26), 614-5

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See detailAntigenic and Genomic Identity between Simian Herpesvirus Aotus Type 2 and Bovine Herpesvirus Type 4
Bublot, M.; Dubuisson, J.; Van Bressem, M. F. et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (1991), 72((Pt 3)), 715-9

Herpesvirus aotus type 2 (HVA-2) was isolated from a culture of kidney cells from a healthy owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) is frequently isolated from diseased and even ... [more ▼]

Herpesvirus aotus type 2 (HVA-2) was isolated from a culture of kidney cells from a healthy owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) is frequently isolated from diseased and even healthy cattle and occasionally from sheep, wild ruminants and cats. The two viruses are related antigenically, as was revealed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test using polyclonal antisera from experimentally infected rabbits or monoclonal antibodies raised against six BHV-4 proteins, three of which were glycosylated. The genome structures of the two viruses consist of a unique central sequence flanked at both ends by G + C-rich tandem repeats. Restriction maps (produced using EcoRI, BamHI and HindIII) of these two viruses were nearly identical but the unique sequence of the HVA-2 genome possessed two additional BamHI sites. Four genomic regions of variable size were detected, two located in the unique part, one in the repetitive part and one in the left junction between the unique and the repeated part of the genome; these slight variations were similar to those observed between various BHV-4 isolates. These results suggest that HVA-2 and BHV-4 belong to the same virus species; HVA-2 could be either a BHV-4 contaminant of owl monkey kidney cell cultures or an isolate from an owl monkey accidentally infected with BHV-4. [less ▲]

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See detailLa biologie des infections par morbillivirus
Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULg; Van Bressem, M. F.; Diallo, A. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1991), 135

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See detailGenomic Diversity among Bovine Herpesvirus 4 Field Isolates
Bublot, M.; Wellemans, G.; Van Bressem, M. F. et al

in Archives of Virology (1991), 116(1-4), 1-18

Twenty-eight Belgian field isolates of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) coming from a variety of clinical diseases have been studied by restriction analysis and Southern blot hybridization. The unique central ... [more ▼]

Twenty-eight Belgian field isolates of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) coming from a variety of clinical diseases have been studied by restriction analysis and Southern blot hybridization. The unique central part of the genome was very well conserved among strains; only one variation in a restriction site was detected in 3 isolates which contain an additional EcoRI site also present in the LVR 140 strain; three regions in the unique part of the genome varied in size, one of these was highly variable. The polyrepetitive fragments (prDNAs) situated in tandem at both genomic ends were also variable in size; most of the isolates exhibited prDNA units of one size (major prDNA) and some of them also contained prDNA units having a different size and present in a lower amount (minor prDNA) than the major prDNA. Other isolates possessed two major prDNAs of different sizes which were both present in the same genome. The left junction fragment between the unique and the repeated sequences was also highly variable. No relationship could be established between the restriction pattern and the origin of the isolates; patterns of isolates coming from the same herd were similar except in one case. This study provides a view of the genome variability existing between BHV-4 field isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact des biotechnologies en santé animale
Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULg; Thiry, Etienne ULg; Brochier, B. et al

Report (1990)

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See detailThe Biology of Bovine Herpesvirus-4 Infection of Cattle
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Dubuisson, J.; Bublot, M. et al

in Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift (1990), 97(2), 72-7

The biology of bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) infection of cattle is reviewed. The infection is distributed worldwide. Most of isolated viruses are non-pathogenic in cattle; some of them are able to produce ... [more ▼]

The biology of bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) infection of cattle is reviewed. The infection is distributed worldwide. Most of isolated viruses are non-pathogenic in cattle; some of them are able to produce a genital disease. Twenty-nine structural polypeptides were described; ten of them are glycosylated. Two major glycoproteins were characterized by monoclonal antibodies. Restriction maps of BHV-4 DNA are available for the enzymes EcoRI, BamHi and HindIII. The strain variations studied by restriction analysis are very weak. The virus is able to persist in a latent state after primary infection. The identified sites of latency are nervous ganglia and mononuclear blood cells. The immune response of cattle after BHV-4 infection is characterized by low or undetectable levels of neutralizing antibodies. Four envelope proteins are recognized by convalescent sera and are the main antigenic components. Skin test remains negative in immunized cattle. Bovine herpesvirus-4 is not strictly species-specific: infection was proved in American bison (Bison bison), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sheep and probably cat, because feline herpesvirus-2 is in fact a BHV-4 strain. Finally BHV-4 shares antigenic and genomic relationships with alcelaphine herpesvirus-1, the causal agent of the African form of malignant catarrhal fever. [less ▲]

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See detailBovine Herpesvirus 4 Genome: Cloning, Mapping and Strain Variation Analysis
Bublot, M.; Van Bressem, M. F.; Thiry, Etienne ULg et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (1990), 71((Pt 1)), 133-42

The restriction map of the bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) genome (V. Test strain) was established for the restriction enzymes EcoRI, BamHI and HindIII by analysis of clones from a lambda library (Sau3AI ... [more ▼]

The restriction map of the bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) genome (V. Test strain) was established for the restriction enzymes EcoRI, BamHI and HindIII by analysis of clones from a lambda library (Sau3AI partial digestion) and from a plasmid library (EcoRI fragments). One genome unit was defined as the length of the unique central part, flanked at both ends by one of the terminal tandem repeats called polyrepetitive DNA (prDNA) and was estimated to be 113 +/- 2 kbp. A restriction map of the prDNA of the V. Test strain showed internal 200 bp tandem repeats of different sequences. This region in the prDNA was highly polymorphic between BHV-4 strains, even in a viral DNA preparation from a plaque-purified strain. The right junction between the repeated and the unique sequence of the genome occurred at an almost constant site, but the left junction contained a modified prDNA and was variable between BHV-4 strains. The unique central part of the genome was very similar in the four strains under consideration, with a few variations due to the presence or absence of a restriction site and four length variations were observed, located at positions 0.006 to 0.034 (left end), 0.211 to 0.225, 0.864 to 0.881 and 0.962 to 0.984 (right end). The total length variation of 1 genome unit does not exceed 1 kbp. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Infection of Bulls with a Genital Isolate of Bovine Herpesvirus-4 and Reactivation of Latent Virus with Dexamethasone
Dubuisson, J.; Thiry, Etienne ULg; Bublot, M. et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (1989), 21(2), 97-114

Five 13- to 18-month old Belgian Blue bulls were used in this experiment. Four bulls (Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5) were inoculated intratesticularly with 10(5) plaque-forming units of bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4 ... [more ▼]

Five 13- to 18-month old Belgian Blue bulls were used in this experiment. Four bulls (Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5) were inoculated intratesticularly with 10(5) plaque-forming units of bovine herpesvirus-4 (BHV-4) in each testicle (Day 0). The challenge BHV-4 strain was previously isolated from testicle cells of a bull exhibiting orchitis and azoospermia. The fifth bull (No. 1) was used as a control and received the same volume of uninfected cell culture supernatant. For 5 days, beginning on Day 51 post-infection, two bulls (Nos. 4 and 5) and the control bull (No. 1) received 0.1 mg kg-1 of dexamethasone. Unilateral castrations were then performed at regular intervals for viral examination. Treatment with dexamethasone reactivated latent BHV-4, but no clinical signs were observed in treated bulls until the end of the experiment (Day 93). Only Bull 3 showed conjunctivitis and temporary azoospermia. The virus was recovered from various samples showing that: (i) BHV-4 can be present in a latent state in the testicles and mononuclear blood cells; (ii) dexamethasone reactivates the virus; (iii) the virus is excreted by nasal and ocular routes. Each infected bull seroconverted and a booster antibody response appeared after dexamethasone treatment as shown by immunofluorescence. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in each bull by complement-dependent neutralization test with titres higher than those obtained by a classical neutralization test. No booster response of neutralizing antibodies was observed after dexamethasone treatment. The antigenically relevant envelope BHV-4 proteins were identified by Western blotting using sera samples from the animals. DNA restriction endonuclease profiles of viruses reisolated after primary infection and reactivation showed only small differences. [less ▲]

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