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See detailDifferent modes of food restriction and compensatory growth in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls: plasma metabolites and hormones
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Kerrour, M.; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg et al

in Animal Science (2003), 77

The effects of different sequences of food restriction and fattening have been studied on plasma metabolites and hormones in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls. Twenty animals were divided into five groups ... [more ▼]

The effects of different sequences of food restriction and fattening have been studied on plasma metabolites and hormones in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls. Twenty animals were divided into five groups. The first group (control, CG) was given, ad libitum, a fattening diet based on sugar-beet pulp. In G2 and G3, fattening was interrupted after 103 and 187 days, respectively, by a period of food restriction lasting about 2 months during which the animals received a maintenance ration. They were finished with the same diet as CG. The last two groups, G4 and G5, received a limited amount of the restriction diet to support 0.5 and 0 kg gain per day, respectively, for 4 months, before being fattened as CG. Plasma glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, thyroxine (T4), 3, 3', 5'-tri-iodothyroxine (T3), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured in blood samples taken every 2 weeks. Plasma GH and insulin profiles were measured in serial blood samples obtained at three different times during growth. Animals that showed compensatory growth had lower plasma urea, associated with high levels of T3, T4 and IGF-1. Animals from G2 and G3 failed to show compensatory growth. In Belgian Blue bulls, compensatory growth is markedly affected when food restriction is severe or fattening interrupted. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction de viande: la femelle de réforme Blanc-Bleu Belge cularde
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg et al

Book published by Ministère des Classes moyennes et de l'Agriculture, Service Développement Production animale (2002)

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See detailA homologous radioimmunoassay for quantification of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 in blood from cattle.
Vleurick, Lieve; Renaville, Robert ULg; VandeHaar, M. et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2000), 83(3), 452-8

Insulin-like growth factor-I and -II (IGF-I, IGF-II) circulate in biological fluids bound to six different IGF-binding proteins that regulate IGF bioactivity. The IGF-binding protein-2 is regulated by ... [more ▼]

Insulin-like growth factor-I and -II (IGF-I, IGF-II) circulate in biological fluids bound to six different IGF-binding proteins that regulate IGF bioactivity. The IGF-binding protein-2 is regulated by growth hormones, and its concentration depends on nutrition and physiological state. Specific antibodies directed against bovine IGF-binding protein-2 were produced, and IGF-binding protein-2 levels in bovine blood samples were quantified by radioimmunoassay. Parallel displacement curves showed strong cross-reactivity with bovine and ovine plasma, were low with porcine plasma, and no cross-reactivity with rat or chicken plasma. Addition of IGF-I or -II to a control pool of bovine plasma did not significantly alter control IGF-binding protein-2 values in a radioimmunoassay. Six nycthemeral periods, determined for three young bulls bled on two occasions, showed that IGF-binding protein-2 plasma levels were stable throughout the day; two or three samples were sufficient to characterize the animal. Cows treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) had significantly lower serum levels of IGF-binding protein-2 than did control cows. Furthermore, IGF-binding protein-2 levels were dramatically increased at the onset of lactation. This radioimmunoassay for bovine IGF-binding protein-2, which enables quantitative assessment of IGF-binding protein-2 concentration in cattle, confirmed that IGF-binding protein-2 concentrations are depressed by administration of bST, enhanced after calving, and showed absence of diurnal variation. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of reduced and compensatory growth.
Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Gerard, O. et al

in Domestic Animal Endocrinology (2000), 19(2), 121-32

Growth is an integrated process, resulting from the response of cells dependent on the endocrine status and nutrient availability. During feed restriction, the production and secretion of growth hormone ... [more ▼]

Growth is an integrated process, resulting from the response of cells dependent on the endocrine status and nutrient availability. During feed restriction, the production and secretion of growth hormone (GH) by the pituitary gland are enhanced, but the number of GH receptors decreases. Changes of GH binding proteins induce GH resistance and are followed by reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. On the other hand, high circulating levels of GH enhance the mobilization of fatty acids, which are used to support energy requirements. Thus, when feed restriction in growing animals is moderate, there is mainly protein but barely fat accretion. By contrast, a severe feed restriction enhances the release of catabolic hormones and stimulates, from muscle cells, the liberation of amino acids, which are used by hepatocytes for gluconeogenesis. During refeeding and compensatory growth, the secretion of insulin is sharply enhanced and plasma GH concentrations remain high. This situation probably allows more nutrients to be used for growth processes. The role of plasma IGF-I during compensatory growth is not clear and must be explained in connection with changes of its binding proteins. Thyroxin and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine seem to have a permissive effect on growth. The simultaneous occurrence of puberty with refeeding can exert a synergistic effect on growth. Initially, compensatory growth is characterized by the deposition of very lean tissue, similar as during feed restriction. This lasts for some weeks. Then, protein synthesis decreases and high feed intake leads to increased fat deposition. [less ▲]

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See detailFeed restriction in young bulls alters the onset of puberty in relationship with plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins.
Renaville, Robert ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Breier, B. H. et al

in Domestic Animal Endocrinology (2000), 18(2), 165-76

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of feed restriction and re-alimentation on the onset of puberty and IGF status in peripubertal male calves and to compare the radioimmunoassay (RIA ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of feed restriction and re-alimentation on the onset of puberty and IGF status in peripubertal male calves and to compare the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and western ligand blotting (WLB) methods for bovine IGFBP-2. Twelve prepubertal 290 d-old Belgian Blue bulls (mean weight: +/- 290 kg) were randomly assigned in three groups: a control group (NG; n = 4) receiving a classic fattening diet to induce "normal" growth (1.48 kg/d), a feed restricted group (RG; n = 4) to obtain reduced growth (0.50 kg/d) and, a severely restricted group (SG; n = 4) to nearly stop growth (0.08 kg/d). The feed restriction period was maintained over a period of 114 d. After the period of differential feeding, all animals received the control feed regime over a period of 100 d. Blood samples were collected at fortnightly intervals. Circulating IGF-I was measured by RIA whereas plasma IGFBPs was evaluated by WLB; IGFBP-2 was additionally quantified by RIA procedure. At the beginning of the trial, IGF-I levels were low (<100 ng/ml) and similar in the three groups in accordance with prepubertal status. In the NG group, a progressive rise in IGF-I was observed from Day 42 to Day 142 whereas in the RG and SG groups, IGF-I levels did not change until the experimental restriction period ended. The delay of the rise in plasma IGF-I was longer for the SG group, IGF-I remained low until 2 wk after the end of the period of restricted feeding. Surprisingly, although differences were detected for IGF-I levels between the three groups, the IGFBP-2 and -3 data, evaluated by WLB could only discriminate between NG and SG group and not between NG and RG. However, by using a RIA method, an IGFBP-2 decrease was observed in the NG group coincident with increasing IGF-I levels. For both RG and SG groups, IGFBP-2 levels remained high throughout the feed restriction period whereas plasma IGFBP-2 levels declined upon feeding in both groups. During this feed restriction period, IGFBP-2 was significantly lower in NG than in RG or SG groups. Moreover, SG group animals had higher levels in plasma IGFBP-2 than RG animals. In conclusion, puberty is characterized by developmental changes in plasma IGF-I and IGFBPs that were altered by feed restriction. Moreover, RIA evaluation of plasma IGFBP-2 is able to better reflect group differences than WLB. [less ▲]

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See detailGrazing managements with Belgian blue growing bulls before an indoors finishing
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Book of Abstract of the 50th Annual Meeting of the European Association for ANimal Production (1999)

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See detailDifferent periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth in Belgian Blue bulls: II. Plasma metabolites and hormones
Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Diez, Marianne ULg et al

in Journal of Animal Science (1998), 76(1), 260-271

Plasma metabolites and hormones were studied in 16 double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls maintained at low growth (.5 kg/d) for 114 (G2), 243 (G3), or 419 (G4) d (low growth period, LGP) before fattening ... [more ▼]

Plasma metabolites and hormones were studied in 16 double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls maintained at low growth (.5 kg/d) for 114 (G2), 243 (G3), or 419 (G4) d (low growth period, LGP) before fattening (rapid growth period, RGP). Animals from the control group (CG) were fed a diet high in energy and protein. The animals from G2, G3, and G4 were fed a restricted amount of a diet low in energy and protein during LGP and the same diet as CG during RGP. Plasma glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN), NEFA, urea, creatinine, thyroxine (T4), 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (T3), and IGF-I were measured in blood samples taken fortnightly. Plasma GH and insulin (I) profiles were measured in serial blood samples obtained at three times during growth. The RGP was characterized by an initial compensatory growth, by higher plasma glucose, AAN, and urea levels, and by lower plasma NEFA and creatinine levels. Plasma GH concentration decreased after refeeding. Plasma T4 increased linearly during refeeding, as opposed to T3, which showed a different profile in each group. Plasma IGF-I showed a curvilinear increase during RGP and reached a plateau after 3 mo in each compensating group. In G4, changes of plasma metabolites and hormones differed often distinctly from G2 or G3. During refeeding, higher nutrient supply improved the functionality of the somatotropic axis and increased the concentration of anabolic hormones, allowing rapid muscle deposition. However, animals underfed the longest period behaved differently from the other groups, possibly because they reached a more complete sexual maturity. [less ▲]

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See detailCompensatory growth in Belgian Blue bulls previously maintained at two growing rates on pasture: animal performance and meat characteristics
Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Raskin, Pascale; Clinquart, Antoine ULg et al

in Animal Science (1998), 67(3), 427-434

A comparison was made between finishing systems with Belgian Blue bulls of the double-muscle type, in order to assess the response in terms of compensatory growth when bulls were grazed at a high stocking ... [more ▼]

A comparison was made between finishing systems with Belgian Blue bulls of the double-muscle type, in order to assess the response in terms of compensatory growth when bulls were grazed at a high stocking rate. Two groups of 8 bulls (256.5 kg liveweight) were grazed on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens pasture during an initial period of 135 days (period I). One group grazed at a stocking rate of 6/ha allowing for normal growth at pasture (NGP); the other group grazed at a stocking rate of 10/ha (low growth at pasture, LGP). Both groups were then finished indoors (period II) with a concentrate based on dried sugarbeet pulp. Eight control bulls were also finished indoors on the concentrate diet during periods I and II (CG). Bulls were slaughtered according to a similar finishing state. Liveweight gains were 1.47, 1.10 and 0.52 kg daily (P<0.001) during period I in CG, NGP and LGP groups respectively. Corresponding liveweight gains during period II were 1.22, 1.37 and 1.50 kg daily. The LGP group had lower feed conversion ratios, slaughter weights (P<0.05) and dressing proportions (P<0.01). The meat from the grazed bulls had lower cooking losses (P<0.05) and tended to have lower drip losses and higher tenderness. It also had a higher cholesterol (P<0.05) content. Large differences were observed in the fatty acid composition according to fat location (subcutaneous, intermuscular or intramuscular). The proportions of mono and polyunsaturated acids increased in the adipose tissue of those previously grazed. [less ▲]

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See detailFeed restriction in young bulls alters the onset of puberty in relationship with plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins
Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Massart, Serge; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (1998), 2(special issue), 70

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See detailInfluence du caractere culard sur la production et la qualité de la viande des bovins Blanc Bleu Belge
Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg et al

in Productions Animales (1998), 11(4), 285-297

When compared to animals of the dual purpose type in the same breed, Belgian Blue double muscled bulls exhibit, at least, similar average daily gain with lower feed intake. The higher feed efficiency in ... [more ▼]

When compared to animals of the dual purpose type in the same breed, Belgian Blue double muscled bulls exhibit, at least, similar average daily gain with lower feed intake. The higher feed efficiency in the double muscled type is mainly explained by the composition of the weight gains, the muscle content is minimum 60 kg higher and the fat content 30 kg lower than in the dual purpose type when slaughtered at a similar liveweight. In both types, the dressing percentage and the lean meat proportion in the carcass increase with final liveweight.The chemical composition and the sensory characteristics of meat are also influenced by double muscling. The fat content is reduced and the polyunsaturated fatty acids proportion is increased in the double muscled type, resulting in a nutritional advantage. The difference in sensory characteristics could be, only partially, explained by the faster post mortem pH drop. The paler meat is mainly related to the myoglobin content. The advantage of the double muscled type in terms of tenderness, due to a low collagen content, is not exhibited in a "choice" cut of the carcass with a low level of collagen. Finally, according to most of the available data, the water holding capacity of meat of double muscled animals seems not very different.The concentrations of several blood metabolites indicate a partition of the absorbed nutrients propitious to protein deposition and unpropitious to fat deposition in double muscled animals. During the fattening period, this specific partition can be related to endocrine characteristics, mainly growth hormone and insulin. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of a dietary vitamin E supplementation on performance and meat characteristics in fattening bulls from the Belgian Blue breed
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Marche, Christian; Clinquart, Antoine ULg et al

in Livestock Production Science (1998), 65(1/2), 197-201

An experiment was conducted to study effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on animal performance, slaughter characteristics and meat quality traits in Belgian Blue double-muscled bulls. Two groups ... [more ▼]

An experiment was conducted to study effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation on animal performance, slaughter characteristics and meat quality traits in Belgian Blue double-muscled bulls. Two groups of six bulls each (404 kg) were offered (close to ad libitum) a fattening diet based on sugar beet pulp for 154 days, at which time they were slaughtered. The diet given to the control group (CG) contained 12.5 mg vitamin E/kg concentrate. The vitamin E-treated group (VG) received the same concentrate plus a supplement of 1000 mg vitamin E per bull daily. Steaks from m. longissimus thoracis were used to determine meat quality characteristics, α tocopherol concentration and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content (TBARS), an indicator of oxidation rancidity. Supplementation had no influence on performance or carcass characteristics. The main findings were that vitamin E doubled the muscle alpha tocopherol level (1.9 vs. 0.9 mg/kg; P<0.001), lipid oxidation was suppressed as indicated by TBARS values (P<0.01 at days 7, 9, 11 and 14 after slaughter), but muscle colour was not significantly affected although a* (redness) tended to be higher for VG. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of sugar-beet fibre, guar gum and inulin on nutrient digestibility, water consumption and plasma metabolites in healthy Beagle dogs.
Diez, Marianne ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Baldwin, Paule ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1998), 64(2), 91-6

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three fibres (sugar-beet fibre, guar gum and inulin) incorporated in the basal diet of healthy dogs at 7 per cent of dry matter (DM). Parameters ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three fibres (sugar-beet fibre, guar gum and inulin) incorporated in the basal diet of healthy dogs at 7 per cent of dry matter (DM). Parameters examined included stool output, water consumption, nutrient digestibility and fasting and postprandial plasma metabolites. All fibres increased wet faecal output; an increase in faecal DM output being observed with sugar-beet fibre only. Sugar-beet fibre and inulin increased daily water consumption. Sugar-beet fibre and guar gum decreased DM digestibility. The three fibres diminished organic matter and crude protein digestibility while ether extract digestibility was decreased by guar gum and inulin. Guar gum induced lower postprandial insulin, alpha-amino-nitrogen and urea plasma concentrations. Guar gum also lowered fasting cholesterolaemia. Sugar-beet fibre and inulin showed no metabolic effects. These physiological properties suggest that guar gum would be a suitable ingredient for dietary therapy of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidaemia in the dog. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of energy under- and protein overnutrition on meat deposition in cull cows
Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Raskin, Pascale et al

in Book of abstracts of the 49th annual meeting of the European association for animal production (1998)

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See detailEffect of age, feeding level and supplementation with methionine on plasma GH, IGF-1, T3 and T4 concentrations in Belgian Blue double muscled fattening females
Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Evrard, Pierre et al

in Symposium on growth in ruminants: basic aspects, theory and practice for the future (1998)

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See detailEngraissement du taurillon Blanc Bleu Belge culard. Enseignements pratiques
Raskin, Pascale; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Minet, Vincent et al

Book published by Ministère des Classes Moyennes et de l'Agriculture - 1ère édition, mai 1997 (1997)

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See detailVetmesting van jonge Belgische witblauwe dikbilstieren. Praktische informatie
Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Raskin, Pascale; Minet, Vincent et al

Book published by Ministerie van Middenstand en Landbouw - 1ste uitgave, mei 1997 (1997)

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