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See detailPerformance Assessment of Local Mobility Policy-Making Administrations Using the Principles of Total Quality Management in Flanders, Belgium: Expounding the Decision-Making Processes
Tormans, Hans; Miermans, Willy; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in International Journal of Sustainable Transportation (2013), 7(4), 318-346

This article describes a quality assessment of the processes underlying municipal mobility policy-making in Flanders, Belgium. 25 criteria and 176 aspects were queried during 25 interview sessions ... [more ▼]

This article describes a quality assessment of the processes underlying municipal mobility policy-making in Flanders, Belgium. 25 criteria and 176 aspects were queried during 25 interview sessions. Results were aggregated at the level of 7 quality domains of action and suggest that Flemish municipal mobility policy-making is generally fairly frail and of an ad-hoc nature. Four factors are found to be determining for this finding: default of political continuity, internal conflicts between stakeholders, lacking internal expertise, and deficient financial resources. Inter-stakeholder collaboration, residents’ participation, and policy-integration with higher-level programs are the strengths of current mobility policy practices in Flanders. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge of the Concept Light Rail Transit: Determinants of the Cognitive Mismatch between Actual and Perceived Knowledge
Creemers, Lieve; Cools, Mario ULg; Tormans, Hans et al

in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research (2012)

The Flemish public transport company “De Lijn” is planning the development of a new Light Rail network for medium range distance trips (10 to 40km). A challenge exists in the fact that the concept of ... [more ▼]

The Flemish public transport company “De Lijn” is planning the development of a new Light Rail network for medium range distance trips (10 to 40km). A challenge exists in the fact that the concept of Light Rail Transit (LRT) is relatively unknown in Flanders. Therefore this paper explores the knowledge of the concept ‘Light Rail Transit’ among the Flemish population. To investigate the knowledge, two separate binary logit models are estimated to explore the determinants of the overall actual knowledge and the determinants of a cognitive mismatch. The results show that age, sex, public transit use, household size, bicycle ownership and weekly number of shopping activities contribute significantly to the overall actual knowledge of the LRT-concept. Besides, cognitive mismatch is only significantly affected by age and gender. Moreover, the results reveal a serious lack of knowledge of the concept of LRT. Consequently, a successful implementation of the LRT-system in Flanders may be jeopardized and thus it is of crucial importance to raise the level of knowledge. A first option is knowledge acquisition based on experience of the transit network. In this view, it can be a good idea to develop “travel-one-day-for-free” marketing actions. Second, it is important to provide information to the travelers by contriving information campaigns based on the determinants identified by the models. How the campaigns should be constructed from an intrinsic and psychological point of view and deliberating between the methods of communication to reach the various target groups are some important considerations for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying the Determinants of Light Rail Mode Choice for Medium/Long Distance Trips: Results from a Stated Preference Study
Creemers, Lieve; Cools, Mario ULg; Tormans, Hans et al

in Proceedings of the 91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (DVD-ROM) (2012)

The introduction of new public transport systems can influence society in a multitude of ways, ranging from modal choices and the environment to economic growth. This paper examines the determinants of ... [more ▼]

The introduction of new public transport systems can influence society in a multitude of ways, ranging from modal choices and the environment to economic growth. This paper examines the determinants of light rail mode choice for medium/long distance trips (10-40km) for a new light rail system in Flanders, Belgium. To investigate these choices, the effects of various transport system specific factors (i.e. travel cost, in-vehicle travel time, transit punctuality, waiting time, access/egress time, transfers, and the availability of empty seats) as well as the travelers’ personal traits, are analyzed using an alternating logistic regression model, which explicitly takes into account the correlated responses for binary data. The data used for the analysis stem from a stated preference survey which was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. The modeling results yield findings that are in line with literature: most transport system specific factors as well as socio-economic variables, attitudinal factors, perceptions and the frequency of using public transport contribute significantly to the preference of light rail transit. In particular, it is shown that the use of light rail is strongly influenced by travel cost and in-vehicle travel time and to a lesser extent by waiting and access/egress time. It also appeared that seat availability plays a more important role than transfers in the decision process to choose light rail transit. The findings of this paper can be used by policy makers as a frame of reference to make light rail transit more successful. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying the Determinants of Light Rail Mode Choice for Medium- and Long-Distance Trips: Results from a Stated Preference Study
Creemers, Lieve; Cools, Mario ULg; Tormans, Hans et al

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2012), 2275

he introduction of new public transport systems can influence society in a multitude of ways ranging from modal choices and the environment to economic growth. This paper examines the determinants of ... [more ▼]

he introduction of new public transport systems can influence society in a multitude of ways ranging from modal choices and the environment to economic growth. This paper examines the determinants of light rail mode choice for medium- and long-distance trips (10 to 40 km) for a new light rail system in Flanders, Belgium. To investigate these choices, the effects of various transport system-specific factors (i.e., travel cost, in-vehicle travel time, transit punctuality, waiting time, access and egress time, transfers, and availability of seats) as well as the travelers' personal traits were analyzed by using an alternating logistic regression model, which explicitly takes into account the correlated responses for binary data. The data used for the analysis stem from a stated preference survey conducted in Flanders. The modeling results are in line with literature: most transport system-specific factors as well as socioeconomic variables, attitudinal factors, perceptions, and the frequency of using public transport contribute significantly to the preference for light rail transit. In particular, the results indicate that the use of light rail is strongly influenced by travel cost and in-vehicle travel time and to a lesser extent by waiting and access-egress time. Seat availability appeared to play a more important role than did transfers in deciding to choose light rail transit. The findings of this paper can be used by policy makers as a frame of reference to make light rail transit more successful. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing the implementation of policy measures through social acceptance segmentation
Cools, Mario ULg; Brijs, Kris; Tormans, Hans et al

in Transport Policy (2012), 22

This paper proposes Q-methodology as a technique for the identification of more homogeneous subgroups or ‘segments’ within a rather heterogeneous overall population when it comes to social acceptance of ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes Q-methodology as a technique for the identification of more homogeneous subgroups or ‘segments’ within a rather heterogeneous overall population when it comes to social acceptance of demand-restricting policy measures. Identification of such segments would allow policy makers to better tailor their future actions and thereby increase the chance for a successful implementation of the measures they propose. A set of 33 persons, selected in function of age, gender and car ownership evaluated the acceptability of a total number of 42 demand-restricting policy measures. Special care was taken that the final set of statements covered the four classically distinguished demand-restricting strategies, i.e., improved transport options, incentives for the use of alternative transport modes, parking and land-use management, and institutional policy revision. In addition, a balance between both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ and ‘push’ and ‘pull’ measures was strived for. The results indicate that four different segments in terms of social acceptance of demand-restricting policy measures can be distinguished, i.e., travelers in favor of traffic calming, travelers against hard push measures, travelers in favor of demand restriction, and travelers against policy innovations. Besides the differences and similarities between these segments, the practical implications for policy makers are discussed, together with a series of specific recommendations and suggestions for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved Policy Support Through Segmentation Based on Social Acceptance
Cools, Mario ULg; Brijs, Kris; Tormans, Hans et al

in Proceedings of the 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (DVD-ROM) (2011)

This paper proposes Q-methodology as a technique for the identification of more homogeneous subgroups or ‘segments’ within a rather heterogeneous overall population when it comes to social acceptance of ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes Q-methodology as a technique for the identification of more homogeneous subgroups or ‘segments’ within a rather heterogeneous overall population when it comes to social acceptance of demand restricting policy measures. Identification of such segments would allow policy makers to better tailor their future actions and thereby increase the chance for a successful implementation of the measures they propose. A set of 33 persons, selected in function of age, gender and car ownership evaluated the acceptability of a total number of 42 demand restricting policy measures. Special care was taken that the final set of statements covered the four classically distinguished demand restricting strategies, i.e., improved transport options, incentives for the use of alternative transport modes, parking and land-use management, and institutional policy revision. In addition, a balance between both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ and ‘push’ and ‘pull’ measures was strived for. The results indicate that four different segments in terms of social acceptance of demand restricting policy measures, can be distinguished, i.e., travelers in favor of traffic calming, travelers against hard push measures, travelers in favor of demand restriction, and travelers against policy innovations. Besides the differences and similarities between these segments, the practical implications for policy makers are discussed, together with a series of specific recommendations and suggestions for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailThe socio-cognitive links between road pricing acceptability and changes in travel-behavior
Cools, Mario ULg; Brijs, Kris; Tormans, Hans et al

in Transportation Research. Part A : Policy & Practice (2011), 45(8), 779-788

The objective of this study is to examine the effect of road pricing on people’s tendency to adapt their current travel behavior. To this end, the relationship between changes in activity-travel behavior ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study is to examine the effect of road pricing on people’s tendency to adapt their current travel behavior. To this end, the relationship between changes in activity-travel behavior on the one hand and public acceptability and its most important determinants on the other are investigated by means of a stated adaptation experiment. Using a two-stage hierarchical model, it was found that behavioral changes themselves are not dependent on the perceived acceptability of road pricing itself, and that only a small amount of the variability in the behavioral changes were explained by socio-cognitive factors. The lesson for policy makers is that road pricing charges must surpass a minimum threshold in order to entice changes in activity-travel behavior and that the benefits of road pricing should be clearly communicated, taking into account the needs and abilities of different types of travelers. Secondly, earlier findings concerning the acceptability of push measures were validated, supporting transferability of results. In line with other studies, effectiveness, fairness and personal norm all had a significant direct impact on perceived acceptability. Finally, the relevance of using latent factors rather than aggregate indicators was underlined. [less ▲]

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