Study of the activities of PBP3/PBP1b from Escherichia coli and the effect of the immediate divisome partners.
; Derouaux, Adeline ; Terrak, Mohammed
Poster (2013, September 23)Detailed reference viewed: 1 (0 ULg)
The crystal structure of the cell division amidase AmiC reveals the fold of the AMIN domain, a new peptidoglycan binding domain.
; ; Sauvage, Eric et al
in Molecular microbiology (2013)
Binary fission is the ultimate step of the prokaryotic cell cycle. In Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, this step implies the invagination of three biological layers (cytoplasmic membrane ... [more ▼]
Binary fission is the ultimate step of the prokaryotic cell cycle. In Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, this step implies the invagination of three biological layers (cytoplasmic membrane, peptidoglycan and outer membrane), biosynthesis of the new poles and eventually, daughter cells separation. The latter requires the coordinated action of the N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidases AmiA/B/C and their LytM activators EnvC and NlpD to cleave the septal peptidoglycan. We present here the 2.5 A crystal structure of AmiC which includes the first report of an AMIN domain structure, a beta-sandwich of two symmetrical four-stranded beta-sheets exposing highly conserved motifs on the two outer faces. We show that this N-terminal domain, involved in the localization of AmiC at the division site, is a new peptidoglycan-binding domain. The C-terminal catalytic domain shows an auto-inhibitory alpha helix obstructing the active site. AmiC lacking this helix exhibits by itself an activity comparable to that of the wild type AmiC activated by NlpD. We also demonstrate the interaction between AmiC and NlpD by microscale thermophoresis and confirm the importance of the active site blocking alpha helix in the regulation of the amidase activity. [less ▲]
Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase substrate mimics as templates for the design of new antibacterial drugs.
Derouaux, Adeline ; Sauvage, Eric ; Terrak, Mohammed
in Frontiers in immunology (2013), 4
Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential net-like macromolecule that surrounds bacteria, gives them their shape, and protects them against their own high osmotic pressure. PG synthesis inhibition leads to ... [more ▼]
Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential net-like macromolecule that surrounds bacteria, gives them their shape, and protects them against their own high osmotic pressure. PG synthesis inhibition leads to bacterial cell lysis, making it an important target for many antibiotics. The final two reactions in PG synthesis are performed by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Their glycosyltransferase (GT) activity uses the lipid II precursor to synthesize glycan chains and their transpeptidase (TP) activity catalyzes the cross-linking of two glycan chains via the peptide side chains. Inhibition of either of these two reactions leads to bacterial cell death. beta-lactam antibiotics target the transpeptidation reaction while antibiotic therapy based on inhibition of the GTs remains to be developed. Ongoing research is trying to fill this gap by studying the interactions of GTs with inhibitors and substrate mimics and utilizing the latter as templates for the design of new antibiotics. In this review we present an updated overview on the GTs and describe the structure-activity relationship of recently developed synthetic ligands. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (3 ULg)
Synthesis of Modified Peptidoglycan Precursor Analogues for the Inhibition of Glycosyltransferase.
; Derouaux, Adeline ; et al
in Journal of the American Chemical Society (2012)
The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (GTs) are essential enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glycan chains of the bacterial cell wall from lipid II and thus constitute a validated antibacterial ... [more ▼]
The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (GTs) are essential enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glycan chains of the bacterial cell wall from lipid II and thus constitute a validated antibacterial target. Their enzymatic cavity is composed of a donor site for the growing glycan chain (where the inhibitor moenomycin binds) and an acceptor site for lipid II substrate. In order to find lead inhibitors able to fill this large active site, we have synthesized a series of substrate analogues of lipid I and lipid II with variations in the lipid, the pyrophosphate, and the peptide moieties and evaluated their biological effect on the GT activity of E. coli PBP1b and their antibacterial potential. We found several compounds able to inhibit the GT activity in vitro and cause growth defect in Bacillus subtilis . The more active was C16-phosphoglycerate-MurNAc-(l-Ala-d-Glu)-GlcNAc, which also showed antibacterial activity. These molecules are promising leads for the design of new antibacterial GT inhibitors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (5 ULg)
Cooperativity of peptidoglycan synthases active in bacterial cell elongation.
; ; Terrak, Mohammed et al
in Molecular Microbiology (2012), 85(1), 179-94
Growth of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan sacculus requires the co-ordinated activities of peptidoglycan synthases, hydrolases and cell morphogenesis proteins, but the details of these interactions ... [more ▼]
Growth of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan sacculus requires the co-ordinated activities of peptidoglycan synthases, hydrolases and cell morphogenesis proteins, but the details of these interactions are largely unknown. We now show that the Escherichia coli peptidoglycan glycosyltrasferase-transpeptidase PBP1A interacts with the cell elongation-specific transpeptidase PBP2 in vitro and in the cell. Cells lacking PBP1A are thinner and initiate cell division later in the cell cycle. PBP1A localizes mainly to the cylindrical wall of the cell, supporting its role in cell elongation. Our in vitro peptidoglycan synthesis assays provide novel insights into the cooperativity of peptidoglycan synthases with different activities. PBP2 stimulates the glycosyltransferase activity of PBP1A, and PBP1A and PBP2 cooperate to attach newly synthesized peptidoglycan to sacculi. PBP2 has peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity in the presence of active PBP1A. Our data also provide a possible explanation for the depletion of lipid II precursors in penicillin-treated cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
Specificity of E. coli PBP1b for the substrate and inhibition of its GT activity.
Terrak, Mohammed ; ;
Conference (2011, September 29)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (3 ULg)
Small molecule inhibitors of peptidoglycan synthesis targeting the lipid II precursor.
Derouaux, Adeline ; ; et al
in Biochemical Pharmacology (2011), 81(9), 1098-105
Bacterial peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (GTs) of family 51 catalyze the polymerization of the lipid II precursor into linear peptidoglycan strands. This activity is essential to bacteria and ... [more ▼]
Bacterial peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases (GTs) of family 51 catalyze the polymerization of the lipid II precursor into linear peptidoglycan strands. This activity is essential to bacteria and represents a validated target for the development of new antibacterials. Application of structure-based virtual screening to the National Cancer Institute library using eHits program and the structure of the glycosyltransferase domain of the Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-binding protein 2 resulted in the identification of two small molecules analogues 5, a 2-[1-[(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-2-methyl-5-methylsulfanylindol-3-yl]ethanamine and 5b, a 2-[1-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)methyl]-2-methyl-5-methylsulfanylindol-3-yl]ethanamine that exhibit antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive bacteria but were less active on Gram-negative bacteria. The two compounds inhibit the activity of five GTs in the micromolar range. Investigation of the mechanism of action shows that the compounds specifically target peptidoglycan synthesis. Unexpectedly, despite the fact that the compounds were predicted to bind to the GT active site, compound 5b was found to interact with the lipid II substrate via the pyrophosphate motif. In addition, this compound showed a negatively charged phospholipid-dependent membrane depolarization and disruption activity. These small molecules are promising leads for the development of more active and specific compounds to target the essential GT step in cell wall synthesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (14 ULg)
Monofunctional transglycosylases are not essential for Staphylococcus aureus cell wall synthesis.
; ; et al
in Journal of Bacteriology (2011), 193(10), 2549-56
The polymerization of peptidoglycan is the result of two types of enzymatic activities: transglycosylation, the formation of linear glycan chains, and transpeptidation, the formation of peptide cross ... [more ▼]
The polymerization of peptidoglycan is the result of two types of enzymatic activities: transglycosylation, the formation of linear glycan chains, and transpeptidation, the formation of peptide cross-bridges between the glycan strands. Staphylococcus aureus has four penicillin binding proteins (PBP1 to PBP4) with transpeptidation activity, one of which, PBP2, is a bifunctional enzyme that is also capable of catalyzing transglycosylation reactions. Additionally, two monofunctional transglycosylases have been reported in S. aureus: MGT, which has been shown to have in vitro transglycosylase activity, and a second putative transglycosylase, SgtA, identified only by sequence analysis. We have now shown that purified SgtA has in vitro transglycosylase activity and that both MGT and SgtA are not essential in S. aureus. However, in the absence of PBP2 transglycosylase activity, MGT but not SgtA becomes essential for cell viability. This indicates that S. aureus cells require one transglycosylase for survival, either PBP2 or MGT, both of which can act as the sole synthetic transglycosylase for cell wall synthesis. We have also shown that both MGT and SgtA interact with PBP2 and other enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis in a bacterial two-hybrid assay, suggesting that these enzymes may work in collaboration as part of a larger, as-yet-uncharacterized cell wall-synthetic complex. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (18 ULg)
Optimization of conditions for the glycosyltransferase activity of penicillin-binding protein 1a from Thermotoga maritima.
; Terrak, Mohammed ; Derouaux, Adeline et al
in FEBS Journal (2010), 277(20), 4290-8
Cell wall biosynthesis is a key target for antibacterial drugs. The major constituent of the bacterial wall, peptidoglycan, is a netlike polymer responsible for the size and shape of the cell and for ... [more ▼]
Cell wall biosynthesis is a key target for antibacterial drugs. The major constituent of the bacterial wall, peptidoglycan, is a netlike polymer responsible for the size and shape of the cell and for resisting osmotic pressure. It consists of glycan chains of repeating disaccharide units cross-linked through short peptide chains. Peptidoglycan assembly is catalyzed by the periplasmic domain of bifunctional class A penicillin-binding proteins. Cross-linking of the peptide chains is catalyzed by their transpeptidase module, which can be inhibited by the most widely used antibiotics, the beta-lactams. In contrast, no drug in clinical use inhibits the polymerization of the glycan chains, catalyzed by their glycosyltransferase module, although it is an obvious target. We report here the purification of the ectodomain of the class A penicillin-binding protein 1a from Thermotoga maritima (Tm-1a*), expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli. A detergent screen showed that detergents with shorter aliphatic chains were better solubilizers. Cyclohexyl-hexyl-beta-D-maltoside-purified Tm-1a* was found to be monomeric and to have improved thermal stability. A miniaturized, multiwell continuous fluorescence assay of the glycosyltransferase activity was used to screen for optimal reaction conditions. Tm-1a* was active as a glycosyltransferase, catalyzing the formation of glycan chains up to 16 disaccharide units long. Our results emphasize the importance of the detergent in preparing a stable monomeric ectodomain of a class A penicillin-binding protein. Our assay could be used to screen collections of compounds for inhibitors of peptidoglycan glycosyltransferases that could serve as the basis for the development of novel antibiotics. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (13 ULg)
Identification and characterization of novel peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase inhibitors with antibacterial activity
Derouaux, Adeline ; ; et al
Poster (2009, November)Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg)
The Monofunctional Glycosyltransferase of Escherichia Coli Localizes to the Cell Division Site and Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 3, FtsW, and FtsN
Derouaux, Adeline ; Wolf, Benoît ; Fraipont, Claudine et al
in Journal of Bacteriology (2008), 190(5), 1831-4
The monofunctional peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (MtgA) catalyzes glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. Here we show that MtgA localizes at the division site of Escherichia coli cells ... [more ▼]
The monofunctional peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (MtgA) catalyzes glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. Here we show that MtgA localizes at the division site of Escherichia coli cells that are deficient in PBP1b and produce a thermosensitive PBP1a and is able to interact with three constituents of the divisome, PBP3, FtsW, and FtsN, suggesting that MtgA may play a role in peptidoglycan assembly during the cell cycle in collaboration with other proteins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (10 ULg)
The Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Structure and Role in Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis
Sauvage, Eric ; Kerff, Frédéric ; Terrak, Mohammed et al
in FEMS Microbiology Reviews (2008), 32(2), 234-58
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) have been scrutinized for over 40 years. Recent structural information on PBPs together with the ongoing long-term biochemical experimental investigations, and results ... [more ▼]
Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) have been scrutinized for over 40 years. Recent structural information on PBPs together with the ongoing long-term biochemical experimental investigations, and results from more recent techniques such as protein localization by green fluorescent protein-fusion immunofluorescence or double-hybrid assay, have brought our understanding of the last stages of the peptidoglycan biosynthesis to an outstanding level that allows a broad outlook on the properties of these enzymes. Details are emerging regarding the interaction between the peptidoglycan-synthesizing PBPs and the peptidoglycan, their mesh net-like product that surrounds and protects bacteria. This review focuses on the detailed structure of PBPs and their implication in peptidoglycan synthesis, maturation and recycling. An overview of the content in PBPs of some bacteria is provided with an emphasis on comparing the biochemical properties of homologous PBPs (orthologues) belonging to different bacteria. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 57 (18 ULg)
Peptidoglycan Glycosyltransferase Inhibition: New Perspectives for An Old Target.
in Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2008)Detailed reference viewed: 50 (11 ULg)
Importance of the conserved residues in the peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase module of the class A penicillin-binding protein 1b of Escherichia coli.
Terrak, Mohammed ; Sauvage, Eric ; Derouaux, Adeline et al
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2008), 283(42), 28464-70
The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs catalyze glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. These enzymes belong to ... [more ▼]
The peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs catalyze glycan chain elongation of the bacterial cell wall. These enzymes belong to the GT51 family, are characterized by five conserved motifs, and have some fold similarity with the phage lambda lysozyme. In this work, we have systematically modified all the conserved amino acid residues of the GT module of Escherichia coli class A PBP1b by site-directed mutagenesis and determined their importance for the in vivo and in vitro activity and the thermostability of the protein. To get an insight into the GT active site of this paradigm enzyme, a model of PBP1b GT domain was constructed based on the available crystal structures (PDB codes 2OLV and 2OLU). The data show that in addition to the essential glutamate residues Glu233 of motif 1 and Glu290 of motif 3, the residues Phe237 and His240 of motif 1 and Gly264, Thr267, Gln271, and Lys274 of motif 2, all located in the catalytic cavity of the GT domain, are essential for the in vitro enzymatic activity of the PBP1b and for its in vivo functioning. Thus, the first three conserved motifs contain most of the residues that are required for the GT activity of the PBP1b. The residues Asp234, Phe237, His240, Thr267, and Gln271 are proposed to maintain the structure of the active site and the positioning of the catalytic Glu233. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 70 (13 ULg)
The essential cell division protein FtsN interacts with the murein (peptidoglycan) synthase PBP1B in Escherichia coli
; ; et al
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(50), 36394-36402
Bacterial cell division requires the coordinated action of cell division proteins and murein (peptidoglycan) synthases. Interactions involving the essential cell division protein FtsN and murein synthases ... [more ▼]
Bacterial cell division requires the coordinated action of cell division proteins and murein (peptidoglycan) synthases. Interactions involving the essential cell division protein FtsN and murein synthases were studied by affinity chromatography with membrane fraction. The murein synthases PBP1A, PBP1B, and PBP3 had an affinity to immobilized FtsN. FtsN and PBP3, but not PBP1A, showed an affinity to immobilized PBP1B. The direct interaction between FtsN and PBP1B was confirmed by pulldown experiments and surface plasmon resonance. The interaction was also detected by bacterial two-hybrid analysis. FtsN and PBP1B could be cross-linked in intact cells of the wild type and in cells depleted of PBP3 or FtsW. FtsN stimulated the in vitro murein synthesis activities of PBP1B. Thus, FtsN could have a role in controlling or modulating the activity of PBP1B during cell division in Escherichia coli. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (9 ULg)
Kinetic characterization of the monofunctional glycosyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus
Terrak, Mohammed ;
in Journal of Bacteriology (2006), 188(7), 2528-2532
The glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs (MGTs) belong to the GT51 family in the sequence-based classification of GTs. They both possess ... [more ▼]
The glycosyltransferase (GT) module of class A penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and monofunctional GTs (MGTs) belong to the GT51 family in the sequence-based classification of GTs. They both possess five conserved motifs and use lipid II precursor (undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate-N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramoyl- pentapeptide) to synthesize the glycan chain of the bacterial wall peptidoglycan. MGTs appear to be dispensable for growth of some bacteria in vitro. However, new evidence shows that they may be essential for the infection process and development of pathogenic bacteria in their hosts. Only a small number of class A PBPs have been characterized so far, and no kinetic data are available on MGTs. In this study, we present the principal enzymatic properties of the Staphylococcus aureus MGT. The enzyme catalyzes glycan chain polymerization with an efficiency of similar to 5,800 M-1 s(-1) and has a pH optimum of 7.5, and its activity requires metal ions with a maximum observed in the presence of Mn2+. The properties of S. aureus MGT are distinct from those of S. aureus PBP2 and Escherichia coli MGT, but they are similar to those of E. coli PBP1b. We examined the role of the conserved Glu100 of S. aureus MGT (equivalent to the proposed catalytic Glu233 of E. coli PBP1b) by site-directed mutagenesis. The Glu100Gln mutation results in a drastic loss of GT activity. This shows that Glu100 is also critical for catalysis in S. aureus MGT and confirms that the conserved glutamate of the first motif EDXXFXX(H/N)X(G/A) is likely the key catalytic residue in the GT51 active site. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Characterization of the bifunctional glycosyltransferase/acyltransferase penicillin-binding protein 4 of Listeria monocytogenes
; ; et al
in Journal of Bacteriology (2006), 188(5), 1875-1881
Multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are essential enzymes responsible for bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) assembly. Their glycosyltransferase activity catalyzes glycan chain elongation ... [more ▼]
Multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are essential enzymes responsible for bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) assembly. Their glycosyltransferase activity catalyzes glycan chain elongation from lipid II substrate (undecaprenyl-pyrophosphoryi-N-acetylglucosamine-N-acetylmuramic acid-pentapeptide), and their transpeptidase activity catalyzes cross-linking between peptides carried by two adjacent glycan chains. Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen which exerts its virulence through secreted and cell wall PG-associated virulence factors. This bacterium has five PBPs, including two bifunctional glycosyltransferase/transpeptidase class A PBPs, namely, PBP1 and PBP4. We have expressed and purified the latter and have shown that it binds penicillin and catalyzes in vitro glycan chain polymerization with an efficiency of 1,400 M-1 s(-1) from Escherichia coli lipid II substrate. PBP4 also catalyzes the aminolysis (D-Ala as acceptor) and hydrolysis of the thiolester donor substrate benzoyl-Gly-thioglycolate, indicating that PBP4 possesses both transpeptidase and carboxyeptidase activities. Disruption of the gene lmo2229 encoding PBP4 in L. monocytogenes EGD did not. p have any significant effect on growth rate, peptidoglycan composition, cell morphology, or sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics but did increase the resistance of the mutant to moenomycin. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (6 ULg)
Structure of the light chain-binding domain of myosin V.
Terrak, Mohammed ; ; et al
in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2005), 102(36), 12718-23
Myosin V is a double-headed molecular motor involved in organelle transport. Two distinctive features of this motor, processivity and the ability to take extended linear steps of approximately 36 nm along ... [more ▼]
Myosin V is a double-headed molecular motor involved in organelle transport. Two distinctive features of this motor, processivity and the ability to take extended linear steps of approximately 36 nm along the actin helical track, depend on its unusually long light chain-binding domain (LCBD). The LCBD of myosin V consists of six tandem IQ motifs, which constitute the binding sites for calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-like light chains. Here, we report the 2-A resolution crystal structure of myosin light chain 1 (Mlc1p) bound to the IQ2-IQ3 fragment of Myo2p, a myosin V from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This structure, combined with FRET distance measurements between probes in various CaM-IQ complexes, comparative sequence analysis, and the previously determined structures of Mlc1p-IQ2 and Mlc1p-IQ4, allowed building a model of the LCBD of myosin V. The IQs of myosin V are distributed into three pairs. There appear to be specific cooperative interactions between light chains within each IQ pair, but little or no interaction between pairs, providing flexibility at their junctions. The second and third IQ pairs each present a light chain, whether CaM or a CaM-related molecule, bound in a noncanonical extended conformation in which the N-lobe does not interact with the IQ motif. The resulting free N-lobes may engage in protein-protein interactions. The extended conformation is characteristic of the single IQ of myosin VI and is common throughout the myosin superfamily. The model points to a prominent role of the LCBD in the function, regulation, and molecular interactions of myosin V. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (9 ULg)
The Iq motif defines the conformation of the interacting calmodullin
; Terrak, Mohammed ; et al
in Biophysical Journal (2004, January), 86Detailed reference viewed: 8 (5 ULg)