References of "Taminiau, Bernard"
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See detailDetection, isolation and characterization of Fusobacterium gastrosuis sp. nov. colonizing the stomach of pigs
De Witte, C.; Flahou, B.; Ducatelle, R. et al

in Systematic & Applied Microbiology (in press)

Nine strains of a novel Fusobacterium sp. were isolated from the stomach of 6-8 months old and adult pigs. The isolates were obligately anaerobic, although they endured 2 hours exposure to air ... [more ▼]

Nine strains of a novel Fusobacterium sp. were isolated from the stomach of 6-8 months old and adult pigs. The isolates were obligately anaerobic, although they endured 2 hours exposure to air. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrase B genes demonstrated that the isolates showed high sequence similarity with Fusobacterium mortiferum, Fusobacterium ulcerans, Fusobacterium varium, Fusobacterium russii and Fusobacterium necrogenes, but formed a distinct lineage in the genus Fusobacterium. Comparative analysis of the genome of the type strain of this novel Fusobacterium sp. confirmed that it is different from other recognized Fusobacterium spp. DNA-DNA hybridization, fingerprinting and genomic %GC determination further supported the conclusion that the isolates belong to a new, distinct species. The isolates were also distinguishable from these and other Fusobacterium spp. by phenotypical characterization. The strains produced indole and exhibited proline arylamidase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activity. They did not hydrolyse esculin, did not exhibit pyroglutamic acid arylamidase, valine arylamidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, β-galactosidase-6-phosphate or α-glucosidase activity nor produced acid from cellobiose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, maltose, raffinose, saccharose, salicin or trehalose. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The name Fusobacterium gastrosuis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel isolates with the type strain CDW1(T) (= DSM 101753(T) = LMG 29236(T)). We also demonstrated that Clostridium rectum and Fusobacterium mortiferum represent the same species, with nomenclatural priority for the latter. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of bacterial superficial contamination in classical or ritually slaughtered cattle using metagenetics and microbiological analysis
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Hupperts, Caroline et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (in press)

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs. Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the slaughter technique (Halal vs. Classical slaughter) on the superficial contamination of cattle carcasses, by using traditional microbiological procedures and 16S rDNA metagenetics. The purpose was also to investigate the neck area to identify bacteria originating from the digestive or the respiratory tract. Twenty bovine carcasses (10 from each group) were swabbed at the slaughterhouse, where both slaughtering methods are practiced. Two swabbing areas were chosen: one “legal” zone of 1,600 cm2 (composed of zones from rump, flank, brisket and forelimb) and locally on the neck area (200 cm2). Samples were submitted to classical microbiology for aerobic Total Viable Counts (TVC) at 30°C and Enterobacteriaceae counts, while metagenetic analysis was performed on the same samples. The classical microbiological results revealed no significant differences between both slaughtering practices; with values between 3.95 and 4.87 log CFU/100 cm2 and 0.49 and 1.94 log CFU/100 cm2, for TVC and Enterobacteriaceae respectively. Analysis of pyrosequencing data showed that differences in the bacterial population abundance between slaughtering methods were mainly observed in the “legal” swabbing zone compared to the neck area. Bacterial genera belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum were more abundant in the “legal” swabbing zone in “Halal” samples, while Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium were encountered more in “Halal” samples, in all swabbing areas. This was also the case for Firmicutes bacterial populations (families of Aerococcaceae, Planococcaceae). Except for Planococcoceae, the analysis of Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) abundances of bacteria from the digestive or respiratory tract revealed no differences between groups. In conclusion, the slaughtering method does not influence the superficial microbiological pattern in terms of specific microbiological markers of the digestive or respiratory tract. However, precise analysis of taxonomy at the genus level taxonomy highlights differences between swabbing areas. Although not clearly proven in this study, differences in hygiene practices used during both slaughtering protocols could explain the differences in contamination between carcasses from both slaughtering groups. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-throughput sequencing analysis reveals the genetic diversity of different regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro replication
Mauroy, Axel ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Nezer, Carine et al

in Archives of Virology (in press)

In this study, we report the genetic diversity and nucleotide mutation rates of five representative regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro passages. The mutation rates were similar in ... [more ▼]

In this study, we report the genetic diversity and nucleotide mutation rates of five representative regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro passages. The mutation rates were similar in genomic regions encompassing partial coding sequences for non-structural (NS) 1-2, NS5, NS6, NS7 proteins within open reading frame (ORF) 1. In a region encoding a portion of the major capsid protein (VP1) within ORF2 (also including the ORF4 region) and a portion of the minor structural protein (VP2), the mutation rates were estimated to be at least one order of magnitude higher. The VP2 coding region was found to have the highest mutation rate. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a metagenetic approach to monitor the bacterial microbiota of “Tomme d’Orchies” cheese during the ripening process
Ceugniez, Alexandre; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Coucheney, Françoise et al

in International Journal of Food Microbiology (in press)

The study of microbial ecosystems in artisanal foodstuffs is important to complete in order to unveil its diversity. The number of studies performed on dairy products has increased during the last decade ... [more ▼]

The study of microbial ecosystems in artisanal foodstuffs is important to complete in order to unveil its diversity. The number of studies performed on dairy products has increased during the last decade, particularly those performed on milk and cheese derivative products. In this work, we investigated the bacterial content of "Tomme d'Orchies" cheese, an artisanal pressed and uncooked French cheese. To this end, a metagenetic analysis, using Illumina technology, was utilized on samples taken from the surface and core of the cheese at 0, 1, 3, 14 and 21 days of ripening process. In addition to the classical microbiota found in cheese, various strains likely from environmental origin were identified. A large difference between the surface and the core content was observed within samples withdrawn during the ripening process. The main species encountered in the core of the cheese were Lactococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp., with an inversion of this ratio during the ripening process. Less than 2.5% of the whole population was composed of strains issued from environmental origin, as Lactobacillales, Corynebacterium and Brevibacterium. In the core, about 85% of the microbiota was attributed to the starters used for the cheese making. In turn, the microbiota of the surface contained less than 30% of these starters and interestingly displayed more diversity. The predominant genus was Corynebacterium sp., likely originating from the environment. The less abundant microbiota of the surface was composed of Bifidobacteria, Brevibacterium and Micrococcales. To summarize, the “Tomme d’Orchies” cheese displayed a high diversity of bacterial species, especially on the surface, and this diversity is assumed to arise from the production environment and subsequent ripening process. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of bacterial strains isolated from the traditional date product "Btana" produced in south regions of Algeria
Abekhti, Abdelkader; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Kihal, Mabrouk et al

in Folia Microbiologica (in press)

Eleven samples of the traditional date product " Btana" prepared by direct (DBM) and indirect method (UBM) were analysed to characterize their bacterial diversity. A total of 42 representative isolates ... [more ▼]

Eleven samples of the traditional date product " Btana" prepared by direct (DBM) and indirect method (UBM) were analysed to characterize their bacterial diversity. A total of 42 representative isolates have been chosen for molecular identification. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the presence of 20 species within 30.9% belonged to the genus Bacillus, 28.6% of the Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus genus. Within the minority represented species, two isolates were identified as Paenibacillus (isolated from UBM exclusively), Streptococci salivarius, Lactobacillus sakei and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Preliminary results indicate that IBM is more selective for spore former bacilli contrary to DBM that show more diversity in the bacterial flora with a prevalence of Enterococcus. API ZYM test showed that the bacilli species have a weak hydrolase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailLooking for phosphate-accumulating bacteria in activated sludge processes : a multidisciplinary approach
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Delepierre, Anissa ULg et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2017)

Over the past decades, an increasing need in renewable resources has progressively appeared. This trend concerns not only fossil fuels but also mineral resources. Wastewater and sewage sludge contain ... [more ▼]

Over the past decades, an increasing need in renewable resources has progressively appeared. This trend concerns not only fossil fuels but also mineral resources. Wastewater and sewage sludge contain significant concentrations in phosphate and can be considered as a fertilizer source of the utmost importance. In wastewater treatment plants, the biological uptake of phosphate is performed by a specific microbiota: the phosphate-accumulating organisms. These microorganisms are recovered in sewage sludge. Here, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of phosphate accumulators in four wastewater treatment plants. A 16S metagenetic analysis identified the main bacterial phyla extracted from the aerobic treatment: α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. An enrichment stage was performed to stimulate the specific growth of phosphate-accumulating bacteria in an acetate medium. An analysis of metabolic activities of sulfur and phosphorus highlighted strong modifications related to phosphorus and much less distinguishable effects with sulfur. A solid acetate medium containing 5-Br-4-Cl-3-indolyl phosphate was used to select potential phosphate-accumulating bacteria from the enriched consortia. The positive strains have been found to belong in the genera Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, and Pseudomonas. Finally, electron microscopy was applied to the strains and allowed to confirm the presence of polyphosphate granules. Some of these bacteria contained granules the size of which exceeded 100 nm. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative analysis of the respiratory microbiota of healthy dogs and dogs with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Roels, Elodie ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Darnis, Elodie ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2016, September)

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See detailStudy of the microbial diversity of microbial ring trials by metagenomic analysis : Quantification of alive bacteria by exclusion of dead bacteria
Fall, P.A.; Burteau, S.; Detry, E. et al

Poster (2016, July 19)

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See detailMetagenetics and predictive microbiology: a new tool to understand the kinetics of microbial subpopulations in Belgian white pudding
Cauchie, Emilie ULg; Gand, Mathieu; Kergourlay, Gilles et al

Poster (2016, July 18)

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See detailEffects of protein source and cooking procedure on intestinal microbiota and on fermentation end-products in rats
POELAERT, Christine ULg; Despret, Xavier; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

Poster (2016, June)

Animal and plant proteins are major proteins sources in the human diet. After their enzymatic degradation in the upper gastro-intestinal tract, the undigested fraction of these proteins is available for ... [more ▼]

Animal and plant proteins are major proteins sources in the human diet. After their enzymatic degradation in the upper gastro-intestinal tract, the undigested fraction of these proteins is available for fermentation by the microbiota of the large intestine leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), ammonia, biogenic amines, sulphur metabolites, phenols and indoles. As some of these compounds have genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, protein fermentation is considered as detrimental to the host’s epithelial health. BCFA are usually used as a marker of intestinal protein fermentation. We studied in vivo the impact of proteins from animal and plant origin, raw or after a cooking procedure, on the composition of gut microbiota and on fermentation end-products. Weanling rats were used as models of the human gut microbiota. Eight experimental diets were formulated with beef meat (Longissimus dorsi), chicken meat (Pectoralis major), white pea beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), soybeans (Glycine max), used raw and cooked, as sole source of protein in the diet. One casein diet was used as control. All diets, formulated to contain 15% of raw protein, were given to seven rats for four weeks. After euthanasia, caecal contents were collected. Pyrosequencing analyses (Roche 454 GS Junior Genome Sequencer) were performed to study the microbial composition. SCFA and BCFA were measured using HPLC (Waters 2690). Microbial composition in the caecum is associated to the type of dietary protein and to the cooking procedure applied. The proportion of BCFA in the caecal content is mainly affected by the type of protein. So BCFA represent respectively 04-06% and 35-44% of total SCFA with diets based on plant and on animal proteins. In conclusion, both the type of protein and the cooking procedure could impact the gut microbiota in terms of composition and of fermentative capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailLaboratory identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated on Clostridium difficile selective medium
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Warszawski, Nathalie; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg et al

in Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica (2016)

Despite increasing interest in the bacterium, the methodology for Clostridium difficile recovery has not yet been standardised. Cycloserine cefoxitin fructose taurocholate (CCFT) has historically been the ... [more ▼]

Despite increasing interest in the bacterium, the methodology for Clostridium difficile recovery has not yet been standardised. Cycloserine cefoxitin fructose taurocholate (CCFT) has historically been the most used medium for C. difficile isolation from human, animal, environmental and food samples, and presumptive identification is usually based on colony morphologies. However, CCFT is not totally selective. This study describes the recovery of 24 bacteria species belonging to 10 different genera other than C. difficile, present in the environment and foods of a retirement establishment that were not inhibited in the C. difficile selective medium. These findings provide insight for further environmental and food studies as well as for isolation of C. difficile on supplemented CCFT. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of Targeted metagenomic analysis and classical microbiology for Clostridium difficile detection and microbial ecosystem mapping of surfaces hands and foodstuffs in a meat processing plant
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Oukbir, Meriem; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2016, May 11)

INTRODUCTION Zoonoses are infectious that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION Zoonoses are infectious that can be transmitted between animals and humans through direct contact, close proximity or the environment. Since domestic and food animals frequently test positive for the bacterium, it seems plausible that C. difficile could be zoonotic. PURPOSE This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the epidemiology of C. difficile in cattle farms and the possible spread of the bacterium among animals and farmers. METHODS A total of 176 faecal samples of cattle were collected from 5 different Belgian farms. A stool sample of each farmer was also requested. Detection of C. difficile was performed by classical culture on C. difficile selective medium (cycloserine cefoxitin fructose cholate). Isolates were characterised by PCR-ribotyping and Genotype Cdiff test (Hain Lifescience), which allows the detection of all toxin genes, mutations in gyrA gene and the deletion in the regulator gene tcdC. RESULTS C. difficile was detected in 14/178 (7.9%) animal samples. Isolates were grouped into five different types, including PCR-ribotype 015. All of them were identified as toxigenic. In contrast, none of the 5 farmers studied were positive for the bacterium. SIGNIFICANCE Results obtained indicate that PCR-ribotypes commonly isolated from hospitalised patients are also present in cattle, indicating an animal reservoir. However, a zoonotic transmission could be not demonstrated in the farms studied. [less ▲]

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