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See detailComparison of a commercial bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein ELISA test and a pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radiomimmunoassay test for early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle.
Karen, Aly; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Animal reproduction science (2015), 159

The present study aimed to compare the accuracy of a commercial PAG-ELISA test (Bovine Preg Test 29) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radioimmunoassay (PAG-RIA) for diagnosing pregnancy at Day ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to compare the accuracy of a commercial PAG-ELISA test (Bovine Preg Test 29) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radioimmunoassay (PAG-RIA) for diagnosing pregnancy at Day 28 after insemination in dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was performed in 100 Holstein-Friesian cows at Day 28 after artificial insemination (AI; Day 0) to diagnose pregnancy. After TRUS examination, blood sample was collected from the coccygeal vessels of each cow to measure the concentrations of bPAGs by PAG-RIA test and Bovine Preg Test 29. Milk samples were collected at Days 0, 21 and 28 for measurement of progesterone (P4) by ELISA test. The cows were re-examined by TRUS at Day 42 to confirm the pregnancy diagnoses. The actual gold standard was based on TRUS outcomes at Day 28 that agreed with the outcomes of PAG-RIA test or PAG-ELISA test. If the outcomes of TRUS at Day 28 and PAG-RIA test and PAG-ELISA test did not agree, the gold standard was based on the outcome of TRUS at Day 42. Out of 100 inseminated cows, 41 were confirmed pregnant at Day 28 after AI. Based on the actual gold standard, the sensitivity of TRUS, PAG-ELISA and PAG-RIA tests for diagnosing pregnant cows at Day 28 were 92.7%, 90.2% and 100%, while the specificity of the three tests for diagnosing non-pregnant cows were 91.5%, 98.3% and 94.4%, respectively. The overall accuracy of the three tests were 92%, 95% and 97%, respectively. The degree of agreement (Kappa+/-S.E.) between PAG-RIA and PAG-ELISA test was 0.90 +/-0.04. The degrees of agreement between PAG-RIA and PAG-ELISA and TRUS at Day 28 were 0.80+/-0.05 and 0.76+/-0.06, respectively. In conclusion, the commercial PAG-ELISA test is a highly accurate method for diagnosing early pregnancy in dairy cows on Day 28 after AI and may be used as an alternative method to the TRUS and the PAG-RIA test. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy of diagnosing double corpora lutea and twin pregnancy by measuring serum progesterone and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 in the first trimester of gestation in dairy cows
Szelenyi, Zoltan; Répási, Attila; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg et al

in Theriogenology (2015), 84(1), 76-81

Progesterone (P4) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG-1) concentrations during gestation are dependent on the number of CL and fetuses, respectively. The objective of this present study ... [more ▼]

Progesterone (P4) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG-1) concentrations during gestation are dependent on the number of CL and fetuses, respectively. The objective of this present study was to measure and evaluate the usefulness of measuring the P4 and bPAG-1 concentrations in cases of single versus twin pregnancies and one versus two CL at the first 4 months of gestation. We hypothesized that both the number of the CL and the number of fetus might have an effect on P4 and pregnancy protein concentrations, and we can set up clinically useful threshold levels to predict twin gestations. Eighty-four Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were enrolled in this prospective observational clinical trial. Blood was collected at time point 1: between Days 29 and 42, time point 2: between Days 57 and 70, time point 3: between Days 85 and 98, and time point 4: between Days 113 and 126 of gestation, and bPAG-1 and P4 concentrations were measured. Binary logistic regression analyzing serum P4 concentrations differed at time point 2 compared with baseline level, but the area under the curve (AUC) had low sensitivity. The bPAG-1 concentrations were statistically different at each time point of gestation. The AUC cutoff values of serum bPAG-1 concentrations were sufficiently sensitive to differentiate between twin gestations from singleton ones. At time points 3 (cutoff value of 3.4 ng/mL) and 4 (cutoff value of 56.5 ng/mL), statistically significant differences with low sensitivity, high specificity, and a high AUC were found. On the basis of these results, the diagnosis of twin pregnancy using pregnancy protein measurements is clinically insufficient before Day 85 of gestation; however, the ability to confirm the early twin pregnancy diagnosis with bPAG-1 measurements appears to be promising. To achieve high sensitivity, further studies are required. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins (PAGs) in prolific (Boujaâd x D’man) and non- prolific (Boujaâd) Moroccan sheep by means of four radio-immunoassays
El Amiri, Bouchra; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; El Abbadi, N et al

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Hungarian Association for Buiatrics (2013)

The aim of the present study was: i) to investigate the use of PAGs for pregnancy follow up in Boujaâd non prolific (n=8) vs. Boujaâd x D’man a prolific sheep (n=20), ii) to study whether the boPAG tracer ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was: i) to investigate the use of PAGs for pregnancy follow up in Boujaâd non prolific (n=8) vs. Boujaâd x D’man a prolific sheep (n=20), ii) to study whether the boPAG tracer (daily available at the laboratory of physiology of reproduction, Liège, could be used in RIA without affecting the results, iii) to prospect the possibility of transferring the technique to a Moroccan laboratory. The blood samples were weekly collected from the first week of gestation till the 4 week after lambing. The RIA1, RIA2, RIA3 and RIA4 were all based on ovPAG standard, while the tracer and antiserum changed according to the system. The RIA1, RIA3 and RIA4 were performed in Belgium while the RIA2 was carried out in Morocco. The results showed that the highest correlation was obtained between the RIA3 and RIA4 (R2 = 0.83) while the lowest was recorded between the RIA2 and RIA4 (R2 = 0.69). The lowest concentrations derived from the RIA2. The highest concentrations were recorded before lambing (279.29; 88.21; 268.75; 152.67 ng/ml respectively for RIAs 1, 2, 3 and 4). To conclude, the profiles of ovPAG showed that it is possible to flow-up with success using the four systems. In addition, the RIA1 using boPAG as tracer could be a good alternative to the homologous one and finally, it is possible to set up routinely the RIA technique for PAG detection in Moroccan laboratories. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy-associated glycoproteins in sheep: breeds, techniques and achievements
El Amiri, Bouchra; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Szenci, Otto et al

in Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Hungarian Association for Buiatrics (2013)

The aim of the present review is to summarize the achievements on pregnancy-associated glycoproteins in sheep during the last 20 years on terms of results obtained after purifications, molecular biology ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present review is to summarize the achievements on pregnancy-associated glycoproteins in sheep during the last 20 years on terms of results obtained after purifications, molecular biology, radio-immunoassays (RIA), enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), double radial immune-diffusion (Ouchterlony) and Western blot techniques. The analysis of documented papers that concerned these attempts showed that the animal genetic material used was composed of variable breeds from north Africa, Europe and USA (the Aragonesa, Ouled Djellal, Laucaun drairy sheep, Berrichone, Texel x Norvegian crossed ewes, Awassi x Merino, Blackheaded Moutton sheep x Blackheaded German Mutton sheep (BGM), Rhoen sheep crosses of BGM with Dorper sheep, Assaf, Chura, Merino, Texel, Suffolk, Boujaâd Moroccan breed). The RIA represents the wildspread technique used (54%) while Oucherlony and Western blot had been limited in use (4% each). From 1990 to 2000 only 27% of the achievements being available today were realized. The main data, profiles and studies were performed from 2000 to now (63%). To conclude, this review allows summarizing and updating the knowledge about the PAG in sheep. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma urea nitrogen in relation to pregnancy rate in dairy sheep
Karen, Aly; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg et al

in Animal reproduction science (2011), 124(1-2), 69-72

The aim of this field study was to investigate the relationship of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) with the pregnancy rate in lactating AwassixMerino ewes. One hundred and eighty-five AwassixMerino ewes were ... [more ▼]

The aim of this field study was to investigate the relationship of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) with the pregnancy rate in lactating AwassixMerino ewes. One hundred and eighty-five AwassixMerino ewes were used in the present study. Ewes were fed a diet containing 17.4% crude protein and were milked twice a day by the milking machine. The ewes were synchronized for estrus by insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 30mg flurogestone acetate for 14 days. At the time of sponge removal each ewe was administered eCG (600IU). All ewes were inseminated twice with fresh semen into the external os of the cervix at 48 and 56h after sponge removal. The day of insemination was considered as Day 0 for calculating the gestational period. Blood samples were collected from each ewe at Days 0, 18 for measurement of PUN concentrations and at Day 22 after AI for measurement of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Thirty-eight ewes (20.5%) were confirmed pregnant by PAG-RIA test at Day 22 and by ultrasonography at Day 80. The mean (+/-S.D.) concentration of PUN in all ewes at Day 0 was 12.7+/-4.6mmol/L. There were non-significant differences in the level of PUN between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes at Days 0 (12.2+/-4.2mmol/L vs. 12.8+/-4.7mmol/L, respectively) and 18 (9.6+/-2.9mmol/L vs. 10.4+/-4.0mmol/L, respectively) after AI. Mean PUN concentrations decreased significantly from Day 0 to Day 18 after AI in both pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. By using logistic regression analysis, there was no effect of PUN concentrations on the probability of pregnancy occurrence in the studied ewes (odds ratio: 0.97; 95% confidence interval: 0.9-1.05; P=0.45). In conclusion, there was no evidence of a relationship between PUN concentration and pregnancy rate for lactating AwassixMerino ewes in the present study because of low pregnancy rate observed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of exogenous circulating anti-bPL antibodies on bovine placental lactogen measurements in foetal samples.
Alvarez Oxiley, Andrea Vivian ULg; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica (2010), 52

BACKGROUND: The involvement of placental lactogen (PL) in the regulation of foetal growth has been investigated in different species by in vivo immunomodulation techniques. However, when circulating ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The involvement of placental lactogen (PL) in the regulation of foetal growth has been investigated in different species by in vivo immunomodulation techniques. However, when circulating antibodies are present together with the hormone, the procedure for hormonal measurement becomes considerably complex. The aim of this study was the immunoneutralization of bovine placental lactogen (bPL) concentrations in bovine foetal circulation by direct infusion of rabbit anti-bPL purified immunoglobulins (IgG) via a foetal catheter (in vivo study). The ability of a RIA based on guinea pig anti-bPL antiserum, for the measurement of bPL concentrations in samples containing exogenous rabbit anti-bPL immunoglobulins, was also analyzed in in vitro and in vivo conditions. METHODS: Six bovine foetuses were chronic cannulated on the aorta via the medial tarsal artery. Infusion of rabbit anti-bPL IgG was performed during late gestation. Pooled rabbit anti-bPL antisera had a maximal neutralization capacity of 25 microg bPL/mL of immunoglobulin. Interference of rabbit anti-bPL immunoglobulin with radioimmunoassay measurement using guinea pig anti-bPL as primary antibody was first evaluated in vitro. Polyclonal anti-bPL antibodies raised in rabbit were added in foetal sera to produce 100 samples with known antibodies titers (dilutions ranging from 1:2,500 till 1:1,280,000). RESULT(S): Assessment of the interference of rabbit anti-bPL antibody showed that bPL concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in samples added with dilutions of rabbit antiserum lower than 1:80,000 (one foetus) or 1:10,000 (four foetuses). It was also shown that the recovery of added bPL (12 ng/mL) was markedly reduced in those samples in which exogenous rabbit anti-bPL were added at dilutions lower than 1:20,000. Concentrations of foetal bPL were determined in samples from cannulated foetuses. In foetuses 1 and 6, bPL concentrations remained almost unchanged (<5 ng/mL) during the whole experimental period. In Foetus 3, bPL concentrations decreased immediately after IgG infusion and thereafter, they increased until parturition. CONCLUSION(S): The use of a bPL RIA using a guinea pig anti-bPL as primary antiserum allowed for the measurement of bPL concentrations in foetal plasma in presence of rabbit anti-bPL IgG into the foetal circulation. Long-term foetal catheterization allowed for the study of the influence of direct infusion of anti-bPL IgG on peripheral bPL concentrations in bovine foetuses. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy-associated Glycoprotein Profile during the First Trimester of Pregnancy in Egyptian Buffalo Cows.
El-Battawy, K. A.; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Szenci, Otto et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2009), 44(2), 161166

Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations were measured in buffalo cows starting from day 28 after breeding. Oestrus was synchronized in 10 buffaloes using two injections of 25 mg ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations were measured in buffalo cows starting from day 28 after breeding. Oestrus was synchronized in 10 buffaloes using two injections of 25 mg prostraglandin (PG)F(2alpha) (Lutalyse((R))) at a 11-day interval. Blood sampling was conducted nearly twice weekly. Results indicated that plasma PAG concentrations in non-pregnant buffaloes were low (<0.20 ng/ml) during the whole experimental period (day 28 to 103), while in pregnant animals plasma PAG levels increased from day 28 (4.48 +/- 0.92 ng/ml) until day 41 (27.27 +/- 6.74 ng/ml), remaining high (20.71 +/- 9.20 ng/ml) until day 103. Progesterone levels were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in pregnant (3.51-4.80 ng/ml) than in non-pregnant buffaloes (0.28-1.52 ng/ml). A significant difference (p < 0.0001) in plasma PAG concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant animals starting at day 28 after breeding suggests that PAG-radioimmunoassay could be suitable for pregnancy diagnosis in buffaloes during this period. In conclusion, PAG test offers the advantages that it requires a single plasma sample for early pregnancy diagnosis as well as the accuracy of the test for the detection of pregnancy as early as day 28. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring certain endocrine parameters for predicting stillbirth in dairy cows
Szenci, Otto; Bajcsy, A Cs; Brydl, E. et al

in Proceedings: XVII International congress of mediterranean federation of health and production of ruminants (2009)

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See detailCannulation of bovine fetuses for a long period blood collection: the chirurgical approach
Touati, Kamal ULg; Melo de Sousa, Noelita ULg; Van der Weijden, G. C. et al

in Proceedings: 24th World Buiatrics Congress (2006)

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See detailEvaluation of GnRH treatment 12 days after AI in the reproductive performance of dairy cows
Szenci, Otto; Takacs, Edit; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Theriogenology (2006), 66(8), 1811-1815

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of GnRH administered at Day 12 post-AI on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 103) on a large Hungarian ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of GnRH administered at Day 12 post-AI on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 103) on a large Hungarian dairy farm were allocated randomly to treated (n = 54) or control (n = 49) groups. Twelve days after AI, treated cows received a GnRH agonist i.m., while the control group received a placebo (physiological saline). Progesterone radioimmunoassay was used to determine the correct timing of artificial insemination (Day 0) and the incidence of luteal insufficiency on Day 12. Ultrasonography and radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-associated glycoprotein were used to detect pregnancy and late embryonic/fetal mortality between Days 32 and 55 after AI. Three cows from each group were inseminated when progesterone concentrations were > 1.0 ng/mL, and six cows (four from the treated and two from the control group) had luteal insufficiency (progesterone < 1.0 ng/mL) on Day 12. Late embryonic/fetal mortality occurred in three treated cows and in two control cows. When these cows were removed from the model, calving rates after first service were 59.6% (28/47) and 59.1% (26/44) for treated and control cows, respectively (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between treated and control cows when they were inseminated before or after Day 100 from calving. In summary, administration of a GnRH agonist on Day 12 after AI did not improve reproductive performance in dairy cows. However, our approach may be used for the field evaluation of different treatment protocols. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonographic appearance of the conceptus, fetal heart rate and profiles of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) and prostaglandin F-2 alpha-metabolite (PGF(2 alpha)-metabolite) after induction of fetal death with aglepristone during early gestation in cattle
Breukelman, S. P.; Szenci, Otto; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Theriogenology (2005), 64(4), 917-933

A higher incidence of fetal losses, especially after the use of artificial reproduction techniques, asks for more intensive monitoring of bovine pregnancies. In this study, a model for fetal death (FD ... [more ▼]

A higher incidence of fetal losses, especially after the use of artificial reproduction techniques, asks for more intensive monitoring of bovine pregnancies. In this study, a model for fetal death (FD) was created by administering the antiprogesterone aglepristone twice, at Day 47 and 48 of gestation (n = 5). Control heifers received the solvent (n = 5). The temporal relationships between changes in ultrasonographic appearance of fetal fluids and membranes, fetal heart rate (FHR) and peripheral plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) and PGF2 alpha-metabolite as determined by radioimmunoassay associated with FD were monitored at eight hour intervals around treatment. For the analysis of plasma levels the period under study was divided into five epochs (T I: before injection of aglepristone/solvent; T2: from first to second injection; T3: from second injection to FD; T4: from diagnosis of FD to 56 h later; T5: from 56 It to 104 h after diagnosis of FD). Control heifers produced healthy calves at term, but in treated heifers, FD occurred on average at 58 (range 48-80) h after first injection of aglepristone. Fetal death was always preceded by a visible reduction of the amount of allantoic fluid and by segregation of the allantochorionic membrane from the endometrium. FHR remained rather constant in both groups, but a (non-significant) drop in FHR around 8 h before FD was diagnosed in four of five treated animals. All fetuses were expulsed after FD. Levels of PAG remained constant or even slightly increased in controls, but decreased in treated animals from T2 onward: levels during T4 and T5 significantly differed from those during T1 and from values in controls during T4 and T5 (P < 0.01). PGF2 alpha-metabolite levels did not change in the controls, but in the treated group they were significantly higher during T3 when compared to T1 (P < 0.05). After this increase, a sharp decrease in PGF2 alpha -metabolite level occur-red, reaching a significantly lower level at T5 when compared to control animals (P = 0.01). It is concluded, that FD induced by aglepristone is preceded by ultrasonographic visible changes in fetal membranes and fluids and a rise in PGF2 alpha-metabolite and is followed by a drop in PAG and PGF2 alpha-metabolite [less ▲]

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See detailEarly pregnancy detection in sheep. Secondary communication
Karen, Aly; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

Poster (2005)

A szerzők a juhok vemhességének korai megállapítására összehasonlították a progeszteron- (P4) és a vemhességi fehérje (PAG) RIA-tesztek megbízhatóságát. A PAG-teszttel a nem vemhes állatok nagyobb ... [more ▼]

A szerzők a juhok vemhességének korai megállapítására összehasonlították a progeszteron- (P4) és a vemhességi fehérje (PAG) RIA-tesztek megbízhatóságát. A PAG-teszttel a nem vemhes állatok nagyobb biztonsággal voltak felismerhetők. Nagyszámú állaton (n=949 és 764) végzett rectalis ultrahangvizsgálattal a vemhességet pontosabban tudták megállapítani, ha az állatokat 12 óráig koplaltatták és vizsgálat közben a hasfalat a tőgy előtt felemelték. Az ultrahangvizsgálat és a PAG-teszt eredményeinek összehasonlításával megállapították, hogy az utóbbi megbízhatóbb eredményt ad. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the type and number of prostaglandin treatments on corpus luteum, the largest follicle and progesterone concentration in dairy cows
Repasi, A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2005), 40(5), 436-442

Lactating dairy cows (n = 72) with a mature corpus luteum (CL) (diameter of >= 17 mm) determined by ultrasonography and having a follicle with a diameter of >= 10 min were randomly assigned to four groups ... [more ▼]

Lactating dairy cows (n = 72) with a mature corpus luteum (CL) (diameter of >= 17 mm) determined by ultrasonography and having a follicle with a diameter of >= 10 min were randomly assigned to four groups. Cows were treated with cloprostenol i.m. once or twice, or with dinoprost i.m. once or twice with an 8-h interval. The ovaries of each cow were scanned daily by transrectal ultrasonography to measure the changes in the areas of CL and the largest follicle and to determine the occurrence of ovulation. Oestrus was verified twice daily. In addition, blood sample was withdrawn from each cow daily for measuring progesterone (P4) concentrations. Significant decreases in the percentage changes relative to areas of CL and P4 concentrations or increases in the percentage changes in the area of the largest follicle on day 0 were detected in each group during the experiment. However, the type of the drug and the number of the treatments had no significant effect on those parameters. Cows ovulated with or without showing oestrus (group A) and cows exhibiting no oestrus and ovulation (group 13) were also evaluated. In contrast to the mean area of the CL and the mean concentration of P4 on day 0, the mean area of the largest follicles between, the two groups on day 0 differed significantly Significant decreases in the percentage changes relative to the area of the CL and P4 concentration or increases in the percentage changes relative to the area of the largest follicle during the experiment were detected in both groups; however, there were no group differences. Treatment of dairy cows with two injections of prostaglandins (cloprostenol or dinoprost) at an 8-h interval resulted in more cows being, observed in oestrus within 5 days after treatment and having significantly higher pregnancy rate than those treated with a single prostaglandin injection. [less ▲]

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See detailAccuracy of transrectal ultrasonography for determination of pregnancy in sheep: effect of fasting and handling of the animals
Karen, Aly; Szabados, K.; Reiczigel, J. et al

in Theriogenology (2004), 61(7-8), 1291-1298

The present study was performed to investigate the effect of previous fasting and lifting of the abdomen of the ewes during transrectal ultrasonographic scanning on the results of early pregnancy ... [more ▼]

The present study was performed to investigate the effect of previous fasting and lifting of the abdomen of the ewes during transrectal ultrasonographic scanning on the results of early pregnancy diagnosis. Ewes of four flocks (A, B, C and D; all Awassi x Merino ewes, n = 1247) aged 0.7-10 years were used in this study. These ewes were estrus synchronized and artificially inseminated. From 2 weeks later onwards, fertile rams were kept with the ewes of flocks A, B and C (n = 949) for natural breeding, while ewes of flock D (n = 298) were re-inseminated 17 days later. Transrectal ultrasonography (5 MHz) was carried out in ewes of flocks A, B and C on four separate occasions but only once in ewes of flock D. For final analysis, animals were divided over two groups: ewes of Group 1 (n = 949 scans) were scanned in a standing position within the milking parlor. Animals of Group 2 (n = 764 scans) were scanned by the same operator and with the same scanning technique, but these ewes were fasted for 12 h prior to scanning and the abdominal wall was lifted, just in front of the udder during scanning. The sensitivity of the test for diagnosing pregnancy at Days 18-24, 25-30, 31-40 and 41-50 was 21.8, 32.3, 63.3 and 50% in Group 1, and 46, 92.5, 92.3 and 96.8% in Group 2, respectively. Only within Group 1, the sensitivity of the test was higher in young ewes (0.7-2 years) than in older ones (>2-10 years). Significant differences were observed at scan periods Days 18-24 and Days 4150 of gestation. It is concluded that, fasting prior to scanning and lifting the abdomen during scanning significantly improve the accuracy of transrectal ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis in Awassi x Merino ewes. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of plasma urea-N concentration on fertility in a Holstein-Friesian dairy herd
Szenci, Otto; Simonsen, I.; Bajcsy, C. A. et al

in Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja = Hungarian Veterinary Journal (2003), 125(8), 458-464

The objectives of this study were to relate the concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (UN) to pregnancy rate in dairy cows. The cows were grouped, according to their production level and feed rations ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to relate the concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (UN) to pregnancy rate in dairy cows. The cows were grouped, according to their production level and feed rations according to the NRC recommendations for essential nutrients, Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=103), randomly selected, were inseminated between Days 39 and 410 after calving. The cows were separated into two groups, where Group 1, was treated with GnRH i.m. injection on Day 12 after At. Group 2, was not treated and served as a control group. Heparinized blood samples were taken from the tall vein, immediately taken after artificial insemination (Day 0) and subsequently on Days 12, 21, 32 and 55 after Al, respectively. Diagnosis of pregnancy and late embryonic mortality was made by ultrasonography and the measurement of pregnancy proteins (PAG) between Days 32 and 55 after Al. Changes in plasma UN concentrations were studied using multivariate repeated ANOVA procedures. Three cows in each group were insemineted in the lutheal phase therefore their data were not used in the calculation. There were no significant differences between the UN concentrations of the pregnant and non-pregnant cows within the groups. However, the time of sampling had a significant effect on the UN concentrations in both the control and the treated groups. The UN concentrations, in pregnant and non pregnant cows of both groups, were significantly decreasing from Day 0 to Day 32. Concentrations of UN (on Day 0) less than 5,8 mmol/l were associated with increased pregnancy rates (53.6%). The pregnancy rates for cows with UN concentrations within the ranges of 5,7-6,75 mmol/l and 6,76-7,82 mmol/l were 47.8% and 46.7%, respectively. The rate of late embryonic mortality was similar in the two groups (treated group: n=2, control group: n=3). [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the germinal cells to the newborn animal: The transmission of genes and life through the generations
Drion, Pierre ULg; Szenci, Otto; Ectors, Fabien ULg et al

in Acta Veterinaria Hungarica (2003), 51(3), 371-384

The technology of reproduction progressed considerably during the last decade, leading to a certain availability of in vitro methods for fertilisation, oocyte maturation and embryo culture. The most ... [more ▼]

The technology of reproduction progressed considerably during the last decade, leading to a certain availability of in vitro methods for fertilisation, oocyte maturation and embryo culture. The most spectacular manipulations are cloning and transgenesis. This review focuses on the early appearance of germinal cell precursors and the long-standing fate of gametes in mammals. The evident complexity and long-term programming of events in gametes and early embryos explain part of the difficulties encountered during the development of in vitro and in vivo methods such as multiple Ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), oestrus synchronisation, ovulation induction, superovulation, in vitro maturation and fertilisation, cryopreservation, transgenesis, nuclear transfer and cloning) and the occurrence of unexpected alterations of development, e.g. embryonic or fetal mortality, large-weight newborn syndrome and other dysregulations ill imprinting or DNA transmission. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy in sheep: reality and perspectives
El Amiri, Bouchra; Karen, Aly; Cognié, Yves et al

in Productions Animales (2003), 16(2), 79-90

The present review aims at presenting different methods for pregnancy diagnosis. Since these methods are to be used in the herds, precocity, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy to predict pregnant and non ... [more ▼]

The present review aims at presenting different methods for pregnancy diagnosis. Since these methods are to be used in the herds, precocity, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy to predict pregnant and non-pregnant ewes, and the possibility to determine fetal numbers are carefully analysed. The progesterone assay is accurate as early as day 17th after fecundation; but the fertilization day must be precisely known. The pregnancy specific or associated glycoproteins (PSPB/PAG) assay is highly sensitive and specific at day 22 in blood and at day 32 in milk samples. However, this assay does not allow to predict the fetal number. The ultrasonography B-mode used on 30 days of gestation gives very good or excellent performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity depending on the practitioner. The method is also able to predict the real time fetal number. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of induction of late embryonic mortality on plasma profiles of pregnancy associated glycoprotein 1 in heifers
Szenci, Otto; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2003), 165(3), 307-313

Inoculation with Actinomyces pyogenes and administration of prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha were used to induce late embryonic mortality (LEM) in heifers (n = 8) on Days 30-38 of pregnancy in order to compare ... [more ▼]

Inoculation with Actinomyces pyogenes and administration of prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha were used to induce late embryonic mortality (LEM) in heifers (n = 8) on Days 30-38 of pregnancy in order to compare the profile for bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG1), progesterone and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PGFM). Two pregnant heifers were used as controls. Inoculation into the uterine body caused LEM, as established by ultrasonography in each heifer within 24 h of treatment. When the inoculum was injected into the first part of the cervix, LEM occurred in one of two heifers (Heifer A) between 48 and 72 h after treatment. Similarly, PGF(2alpha) treatment caused LEM in three of four heifers. In six of eight heifers, PAG1 started to decrease steadily when it was accompanied by the subsequent death of the embryo. Inoculation through the cervix caused luteolysis in three of four heifers within 6-10 days after induction. After induction of LEM, PGFM concentrations showed a two to 3.8 fold increase in three of four heifers during the following six days, and from that time changed within normal ranges. The results of this study indicate that a PAG1 assay may provide an alternative method to ultrasonography for determining LEM in the cow. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of different doses of prostaglandin on the area of corpus luteum, the largest follicle and progesterone concentration in the dairy cow
Repasi, A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2003), 38(6), 423-428

Lactating dairy cows with a mature corpus luteum (CL) (diameter of greater than or equal to17 mm determined by ultrasonography) and having a follicle with a diameter of 10 mm (n = 49) were randomly ... [more ▼]

Lactating dairy cows with a mature corpus luteum (CL) (diameter of greater than or equal to17 mm determined by ultrasonography) and having a follicle with a diameter of 10 mm (n = 49) were randomly assigned to three groups. The first group was treated with a single dose of exogenous prostaglandin (25 mg), while the second group was treated with 35 mg on day 0, and the third group served as control in order to evaluate the effect of rectal manipulation on the CL during ultrasonographic examination. Blood samples were collected daily for analysing progesterone (P4) concentrations. In group 1 the incidence of oestrus and artificial insemination (AI) in 10 days after treatment was 95% (19 of 20). The conception rate was 31.6%, and the average time to oestrus after treatment was 3.7 day. In group 2 the incidence of oestrus and A.I. was 84.2% (16/19). The conception rate was 31.2%, and the average time to oestrus after treatment was 2.8 day. In the untreated group only two cows (2/10) exhibited oestrus during the examined period and none of them became pregnant. There were no significant differences between the two treated groups in terms of reduction in the area of CL and P4 concentrations and of an increase in the area of the dominant follicles. At the same time, the decrease in the percentage changes relative to the area of CL and to the concentrations of P4 were statistically significant in both treated groups. [less ▲]

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