References of "Stefaniak, Nicolas"
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See detailPROCEDURAL VISUAL LEARNING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg et al

in American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (2012)

Purpose: According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the Procedural Learning (PL) system may contribute to the language difficulties observed in children with Specific Language ... [more ▼]

Purpose: According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the Procedural Learning (PL) system may contribute to the language difficulties observed in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Method: Fifteen children with SLI and their typically developing (TD) peers were compared on visual PL tasks: specifically, deterministic Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. In a first experiment, children with SLI and their TD peers performed the classical SRT task using a keyboard as response mode. In a second experiment, they performed the same SRT task but gave their responses through a touchscreen (instead of a keyboard) to reduce the motor and cognitive demands of the task. Results: Although in Experiment 1, children with SLI demonstrated learning, they were slower and made more errors than their TD peers. Nevertheless, these relative weaknesses disappeared when the nature of the response mode changed (Experiment 2). Conclusions: This study reports that children with SLI may exhibit sequential learning. Moreover, the generally slower RTs observed in previous deterministic SRT studies may be explained by the response mode used. Thus, our findings are not consistent with the predictions of the PDH, and suggest that language impairments in SLI are not sustained by poor procedural learning abilities. [less ▲]

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See detailProcedural learning in specific language impairment: effects of sequence complexity
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (2012)

According to the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), abnormal development in the procedural memory system could account for the language deficits observed in specific language impairment (SLI). Recent ... [more ▼]

According to the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), abnormal development in the procedural memory system could account for the language deficits observed in specific language impairment (SLI). Recent studies have supported this hypothesis by using a serial reaction time (SRT) task, during which a slower learning rate is observed in children with SLI compared to controls. Recently, we obtained contrasting results, demonstrating that children with SLI were able to learn a sequence as quickly and as accurately as controls. These discrepancies could be related to differences in the statistical structure of the SRT sequence between these studies. The aim of this study was to further assess, in a group of 21 children with SLI, the PDH with second-order conditional sequences, which are more difficult to learn than those used in previous studies. Our results show that children with SLI had impaired procedural memory, as evidenced by both longer reaction times and no sign of sequence-specific learning in comparison with typically developing controls. These results are consistent with the PDH proposed by Ullman and Pierpont (2005) and suggest that procedural sequence-learning in SLI children depends on the complexity of the to-be-learned sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailUnimpaired Procedural visual learning abilities in children with specific language impairment..
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg et al

in American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (2012)

Purpose: According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the Procedural Learning (PL) system may contribute to the language difficulties observed in children with Specific Language ... [more ▼]

Purpose: According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the Procedural Learning (PL) system may contribute to the language difficulties observed in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Method: Fifteen children with SLI and their typically developing (TD) peers were compared on visual PL tasks: specifically, deterministic Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. In a first experiment, children with SLI and their TD peers performed the classical SRT task using a keyboard as response mode. In a second experiment, they performed the same SRT task but gave their responses through a touchscreen (instead of a keyboard) to reduce the motor and cognitive demands of the task. Results: Although in Experiment 1, children with SLI demonstrated learning, they were slower and made more errors than their TD peers. Nevertheless, these relative weaknesses disappeared when the nature of the response mode changed (Experiment 2). Conclusions: This study reports that children with SLI may exhibit sequential learning. Moreover, the generally slower RTs observed in previous deterministic SRT studies may be explained by the response mode used. Thus, our findings are not consistent with the predictions of the PDH, and suggest that language impairments in SLI are not sustained by poor procedural learning abilities. [less ▲]

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See detailL’apprentissage de nouvelles informations sémantiques par les patients amnésiques : une revue de la littérature.
Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Année Psychologique (L') (2011), 111

The ability of amnesic patients to learn new semantic information is a topic of research that has a renewed interest for about 10 years, in particular following Vargha-Khadem’s and collaborators’ (1997 ... [more ▼]

The ability of amnesic patients to learn new semantic information is a topic of research that has a renewed interest for about 10 years, in particular following Vargha-Khadem’s and collaborators’ (1997) works and the impact of these results both on our understanding of the relations between semantic and episodic memory and, from a clinical point of view, on the way to consider rehabilitation possibilities for these patients. This review aims to present what is known about this topic, by trying to respond to 4 different questions: What are the relations between episodic and semantic memory? Does the study of amnesic patients provide contributive data regarding this debate? Are these patients really able to learn new semantic information and, if so, to what extent? What is the nature of the knowledge that amnesic patients can acquire? [less ▲]

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See detailExploration of serial structure procedural learning in children with language impairment.
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Guillaume, mélody et al

in Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (2011), 17

Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits are directly associated with poor procedural learning abilities. Findings from our previous work are contrary to ... [more ▼]

Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits are directly associated with poor procedural learning abilities. Findings from our previous work are contrary to this hypothesis; we found that children with SLI were able to learn eight-element-long sequences as fast and as accurately as children with normal language (NL) on a serial reaction time (SRT) task. A probabilistic rather than a deterministic SRT paradigm was used in the current study to explore procedural learning in children with SLI to mimic real conditions of language learning. Fifteen children with or without SLI were compared on an SRT task including a probabilistic eight-element-long sequence. Results show that children with SLI were able to learn this sequence as fast and as accurately as children with NL, and that similar sequence-specific learning was observed in both groups. These results are novel and suggest that children with SLI do not display global procedural system deficits. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1-8). [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic Hyperpriming in Normal Aging: A Consequence of Instructions?
Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2010), 17(5), 615-632

Semantic hyperpriming has consistently been found in normal aging. However, <br />because the standard instructions to test semantic priming are generally ambiguous <br />(focusing on both accuracy and ... [more ▼]

Semantic hyperpriming has consistently been found in normal aging. However, <br />because the standard instructions to test semantic priming are generally ambiguous <br />(focusing on both accuracy and speed), it is difficult to account for hyperpriming in <br />older adults. By using the direct and mediated priming paradigms, this study investigates <br />whether older adults’ response mode at testing may explain hyperpriming. First, we <br />show that, under identical conditions, inducing a response mode that favors speed leads <br />to greater priming effects in older adults. The pattern of results is similar to what is <br />observed under standard instructions. Second, prompting a response mode that favors <br />accuracy leads to greater priming effects in younger adults. We discuss various explanations <br />for these findings and conclude, in accordance with the Ratcliff, Thapar, <br />Gomez, and McKoon (2004a) diffusion model, that hyperpriming in normal aging is <br />contingent on older adults’ response mode at testing. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the impact of the explicit knowledge of sequence regularities on both deterministic and probabilistic serial reaction time task performance?
Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg et al

in Memory & Cognition (2008), 36(7), 1283-98

The aim of this study was to explore the role of prior explicit sequence knowledge by comparing its influence on serial reaction time (SRT) performance with either a deterministic or a probabilistic ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to explore the role of prior explicit sequence knowledge by comparing its influence on serial reaction time (SRT) performance with either a deterministic or a probabilistic sequence. The results confirm that, with a deterministic sequence, preliminary explicit learning improves SRT performance. On the other hand, with a probabilistic sequence, the results show no advantage for SRT performance in explicit-learning conditions. In addition, by using the process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991), we show that performance on a subsequent generation task was more sustained by controlled processes for participants in the explicit-learning conditions than for those in the incidental condition. On the whole, these results, showing that the influence of explicit knowledge can be suppressed in certain specific conditions, are consistent with the intervention of both implicit and explicit mechanisms in SRT tasks, and the results also show that their relative influence can be modulated by the particular demands of the task. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical markers in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Stefaniak, Nicolas ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Giustina, A.; Angeli, A.; Canalis, E. (Eds.) et al Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (2002)

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