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See detailSur la capacité de saturation des combinaisons colloïdes
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in Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles (1911), XXX

Spring, W. Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles (1911), 30, 561-71; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). cf. C. A., 4, 138, 969 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles (1911), 30, 561-71; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). cf. C. A., 4, 138, 969, 1911. This is a report of some suggestive expts. on the mutual adsorption relations of saponin, lampblack and filter paper. When varying amts. of saponin are added to a standard suspension of lampblack in water the solns. of high and of low conc. settle faster than do the intermediate ones. There is an optimum stability at a conc. of saponin between 2.0 and 3.5%. In an elec. field saponin moves toward the anode, lampblack toward the cathode. When saponin is added to a lampblack suspension and an elec. current is passed the lampblack moves toward the anode-a reversal of the direction which it exhibits when alone. When a suspension of lampblack is poured through a filter the paper retains a part of the lampblack and this retained portion cannot be removed by washing with water, even when the filter is reversed. But if a soln. of saponin be poured through the blacked filter a portion of the retained lampblack is given up and passes through with the soln. A crayon made by molding a mixture of wet clay with lampblack or finely ground graphite marks paper easily and leaves a mark which is erased with difficulty. If, however, a soln. of saponin be used to moisten the clay-lampblack mixture the crayon is harder, marks paper with difficulty and the mark is easily erased. Similar results are obtained when the paper, instead of the crayon, is impregnated with saponin. When filter paper pulp is mixed with a lampblack suspension and collected on a cloth filter, the pulp retains some of the lampblack and the amt. so retained is sensibly independent of the conc. of lampblack in the original suspension. The author makes certain applications to the action of soapy substances in the cleansing of fabrics and concludes that there exists a limiting "saturation capacity in the combinations between colloids" which is analogous to the saturation of one atom by chem. combination with another. [This conclusion is quite out of accord with the existing knowledge of the form of the absorption isotherm and is not supported by the evidence presented. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSur une modification lente de la constitution des solutions de certains sels
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), XXIX

By Spring, W. Inst. chim. gen., Liege. Rec. trav. chim. (1910), 29, 163-72; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Solns. of a number of ... [more ▼]

By Spring, W. Inst. chim. gen., Liege. Rec. trav. chim. (1910), 29, 163-72; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Solns. of a number of salts (KNO3, KBr, Na2SO4, K2Cr2O7, ZnSO4, CuCl2, CuSO4, MnCl2, AlCl3, etc.) prepared in 1905 and kept at ordinary temp. from the action of direct sunlight were examined at intervals during the following four years and were found to become more and more transparent. The degree of transparency was judged by the degree of luminosity in the soln. of a beam of light projected through it by an electric lantern (50 volts and 12 amp.). To ascertain if there had been any molecular change in the solns., during the four years the conductivities of the original and the four year old solns. were determined and compared. The cond. of the original solns. was determined from portions of the 4-year-old solns. which had been evaporated to dryness and redissolved to the original vol. In the majority of cases the 4-year-old solns. showed markedly smaller conds. This may be explained by a hydrolysis of the salt which occurs when the soln. is first made. The "hydrate" [hydroxide?] thus formed is in a colloidal condition and does not affect the electrical resistance; this colloidal soln. by reflection renders more luminous a beam of light passed through the soln. The free acid initially present is the cause of the high conductivity of the solution. In the old solns. the colloidal hydrate and the free acid have greatly decreased, and the conductivity is therefore smaller than before. The state of equilibrium of such a hydrolysis, when once displaced by change of temp., etc., is restored very slowly. The soln. becomes more optically transparent owing to the gradual disappearance of the colloidal hydrate. The K2Cr2O7 soln. alone was anomalous and showed a decrease in resistance of almost one-half on standing four years. This soln. had become yellow, but on evaporating the soln. and redissolving to the same vol. the color was reddish yellow as in the original soln. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Quatrième et dernière communication : Les solutions de savon et l'acide silicique, l'argile et la cellulose
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), XXIX

Spring, W. Luttich. Rec. trav. chim. (1910), 29(1), 8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). see also C. A., 4, 138, 969. Study of the ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Luttich. Rec. trav. chim. (1910), 29(1), 8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). see also C. A., 4, 138, 969. Study of the action of hydrated iron oxide, 7Fe2O3.3H2O on soap soln. of varying conc. led to the conclusions that the optimum suspension conc. of the soap soln. is 0.5%, that the soap splits into a basic and acid part, the basic combining with the Fe2O3 and the acid part remaining in soln., and that a soap soln. will remove Fe2O3 from its adsorption compds. with cellulose. Substituting an Fe hydrosol for the Fe2O3 it was found that pptn. occurred between limiting ratios of the soap to hydrosol, i. e., between 1 of soap to 2.16 of Fe2O3 and 1 of soap to 3.47 Fe2O3. The pptn. of Al2O3, with soap soln. shows a periodicity, the ratios of soap to Al2O3 in those solns. which become clear being approx. 8.33, 4.16, 2.06. If the wt. of Al2O3. exceeds that of the soap no pptn. occurs. A large excess of soap, 20 times the wt. of Al2O3, gives a suspension optimum, whereas 80 times the wt. of Al2O3 gives pptn. The speed of the reaction depends primarily on the ratio of the reacting substances. 7SiO2.3H2O combines with a basic constituent of soap, leaving an acid constituent of low ash in soln. The % of ash in the soap in soln. increases when more dil. soap solns. are used, due to soln. of SiO2. The adsorption compd. of basic soap with SiO2 dissociates on shaking with H2O. A pptn. optimum occurs at 1/8% soap soln., and a suspension optimum at 1/16 and 1/2%. A hydrated clay gave approx. the same results, pptg. about 60% of the soap from a 1/2% soln. The soap has a solvent action on the clay, a 1/8% soap soln. giving the highest ratio of suspended clay to soap. A suspension optimum for the settling of clay in soap soln. is found at 1/32% soap soln. Cellulose forms an adsorption compd. with the basic constituents of soap, the cleavage of the soap being noticeable only in concs. above 1%. The cleansing action of soap is due to the formation of an adsorption compd. with the material to be removed, which thus loses its adhesive properties. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques remarques au sujet du travail de M. A. Reychler sur l'électrophorèse du noir de fumée
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Belgique (1910), XXIV(11), 416-420

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Troisième communication : Les solutions de savon et l'hydrosol aluminique
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), XXIX

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See detailSur une modification lente de la constitution des solutions de certains sels
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in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1910), (1), 11-22

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See detailSur une modification lente de la constitution des solutions de certains sels
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles (1910), 29

Spring, Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles (1910), 29, 145-56; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Solns. of a number of ... [more ▼]

Spring, Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles (1910), 29, 145-56; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Solns. of a number of salts (KNO3, KBr, Na2SO4, K2Cr2O7, ZnSO4, CuCl2, CuSO4, MnCl2, AlCl3, etc.) prepared in 1905 and kept at ordinary temp. from the action of direct sunlight were examined at intervals during the following four years and were found to become more and more transparent. The degree of transparency was judged by the degree of luminosity in the soln. of a beam of light projected through it by an electric lantern (50 volts and 12 amp.). To ascertain if there had been any molecular change in the solns., during the four years the conductivities of the original and the four year old solns. were determined and compared. The cond. of the original solns. was determined from portions of the 4-year-old solns. which had been evaporated to dryness and redissolved to the original vol. In the majority of cases the 4-year-old solns. showed markedly smaller conds. This may be explained by a hydrolysis of the salt which occurs when the soln. is first made. The "hydrate" [hydroxide?] thus formed is in a colloidal condition and does not affect the electrical resistance; this colloidal soln. by reflection renders more luminous a beam of light passed through the soln. The free acid initially present is the cause of the high conductivity of the solution. In the old solns. the colloidal hydrate and the free acid have greatly decreased, and the conductivity is therefore smaller than before. The state of equilibrium of such a hydrolysis, when once displaced by change of temp., etc., is restored very slowly. The soln. becomes more optically transparent owing to the gradual disappearance of the colloidal hydrate. The K2Cr2O7 soln. alone was anomalous and showed a decrease in resistance of almost one-half on standing four years. This soln. had become yellow, but on evaporating the soln. and redissolving to the same vol. the color was reddish yellow as in the original soln. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEinige Beobachtungen über die Waschwirkung der Seifen : Zweite Mitteilung
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in Zeitschrift für Chemie und Industrie der Kolloide (1910), 6

Spring, W. Luttich. Z. Chem. Ind. Kolloide (1910), 6, 11-7,109-11,164-8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Study of the action of ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Luttich. Z. Chem. Ind. Kolloide (1910), 6, 11-7,109-11,164-8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Study of the action of hydrated iron oxide, 7Fe2O3.3H2O on soap soln. of varying conc. led to the conclusions that the optimum suspension conc. of the soap soln. is 0.5%, that the soap splits into a basic and acid part, the basic combining with the Fe2O3 and the acid part remaining in soln., and that a soap soln. will remove Fe2O3 from its adsorption compds. with cellulose. Substituting an Fe hydrosol for the Fe2O3 it was found that pptn. occurred between limiting ratios of the soap to hydrosol, i. e., between 1 of soap to 2.16 of Fe2O3 and 1 of soap to 3.47 Fe2O3. The pptn. of Al2O3, with soap soln. shows a periodicity, the ratios of soap to Al2O3 in those solns. which become clear being approx. 8.33, 4.16, 2.06. If the wt. of Al2O3. exceeds that of the soap no pptn. occurs. A large excess of soap, 20 times the wt. of Al2O3, gives a suspension optimum, whereas 80 times the wt. of Al2O3 gives pptn. The speed of the reaction depends primarily on the ratio of the reacting substances. 7SiO2.3H2O combines with a basic constituent of soap, leaving an acid constituent of low ash in soln. The % of ash in the soap in soln. increases when more dil. soap solns. are used, due to soln. of SiO2. The adsorption compd. of basic soap with SiO2 dissociates on shaking with H2O. A pptn. optimum occurs at 1/8% soap soln., and a suspension optimum at 1/16 and 1/2%. A hydrated clay gave approx. the same results, pptg. about 60% of the soap from a 1/2% soln. The soap has a solvent action on the clay, a 1/8% soap soln. giving the highest ratio of suspended clay to soap. A suspension optimum for the settling of clay in soap soln. is found at 1/32% soap soln. Cellulose forms an adsorption compd. with the basic constituents of soap, the cleavage of the soap being noticeable only in concs. above 1%. The cleansing action of soap is due to the formation of an adsorption compd. with the material to be removed, which thus loses its adhesive properties. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Chimique de Belgique (1910), XXIV

Spring, W. Bull. soc. belg. chim. (1910), 24, 17-54; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). cf. C. A., 3, 1,599, 1613. The theories of ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bull. soc. belg. chim. (1910), 24, 17-54; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). cf. C. A., 3, 1,599, 1613. The theories of soap solns. up to the present time, including one of his own previously outlined. Further work shows that Fe2O3, acts similarly to Cu in forming colloidal combinations, and in combining to produce an acid and a basic soap. Soap forms with Fe2O3 a more stable combination than Fe2O3 forms with various solids, particularly with cellulose. It is found that 3.10 mol. Fe2O3 are pptd. by 1 mol. soap when the hydrosol of FeO3H3 and soap 3 are used. Soap agglutinates the hydrosol of alumina as it does Fe. The rapidity in both cases depends upon the proportions of material mixed as well as on other factors not yet so well defined. Solns. of soap with H3SiO3, clay and cellulose behave as lampblack. The experiments show that the detergent action of soap solns. is due to the formation of a combination of adsorption with the material to be removed, the combination having lost to a great extent the adhesive power possessed by the materials before their combination. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEinige Beobachtungen über die Waschwirkung der Seifen : Vierte Mitteilung
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in Zeitschrift für Chemie und Industrie der Kolloide (1910), 6

voir Einige Beobazchtungen über die Waschwirkung der Seifen : Zweite Mitteilung

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See detailÜber langsame Aenderungen der Konstitution gewisser Salzlösungen
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in Zeitschrift für Chemie und Industrie der Kolloide (1910), 6

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See detailEinige Beobachtungen über die Waschwirkung der Seifen : Dritte Mitteilung
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Zeitschrift für Chemie und Industrie der Kolloide (1910), 6

voir Einige Beobazchtungen über die Waschwirkung der Seifen : Zweite Mitteilung

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Deuxième communication : Les solutions de savon et les composés ferriques
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in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1909), XXVIII

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), 28, 424-43; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). see C ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1910), 28, 424-43; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). see C. A., 3, 1599-1613; 4, 138. In this investigation finely divided hematite (Fe2O3) containing 4.6% H2O) was treated in a manner similar to the C described) in preceding communication. It was found that in pure H2O it remains in suspension for days, but in acid or alkaline solns. it settles in 0.5 hr. When subjected to action of electric current the tendency is to migrate toward the cathode; hence particles must be positively charged. When Fe2O2 is shaken with soap solns. of varying strength all except those with about 0.5% soap settle in 5 days or less. Those with 7-8% show a ferric color in the clear soln. The residue on evapn. of the clear 7% soln. shows 17.66% and 17.50% ash, after deducting 1.13% Fe2O3; from the same soln. not shaken with Fe2O3 18.31%. Dilute KOH solns. (less than 0.1%) do not cause settling, but as little as 0.0001% HCl does so. A soln. of soap in MeOH was shaken with Fe2O3. The residue on evapn. of the clear soln. showed 17.68% ash; from the original soln. 18.24%. This shows a decomp. of the soap into a basic and an acid portion, the latter combining with the Fe2O3. Suspension of Fe2O3 in H2O filters clear after 16 filtrations, through same paper in alc., after 4. This is due to adsorption, and not to blocking of the pores, for if H2O be poured on the paper through which alc. suspension filtered clear, it comes through more and more turbid as the alc. is washed out. If 2% soap soln. be used instead, it looks as if filter had been pierced. This indicates that Fe2O3 forms an adsorption-combination with soap more stable than with cellulose or other materials. When colloidal Fe(OH)3 solns. are shaken with soap solns. clarification is found to depend on the relative amts. of Fe(OH)3 and soap. It is most rapid when the proportion is between 2.16 and 3.47 mols. Fe2O3 to 1 of soap. By a titration method the ratio was found to be 3.10-3.25:1 when Fe(OH)3 was run into the soap; 1 when soap was run into Fe(OH)3. The ppts. in the 2 cases were almost the same in comp., and were entirely different from the Fe soap prepared by adding FeCl3 soln. to soap soln., in which the ratio is 3 mols. soap to 1 mol. Fecl3. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Première communication
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1909), XXVIII

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1909), 28, 120-35; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique (1909), 28, 120-35; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). The action of soap is explained by the following facts: (1) Carbon hastens the decomp. of soap in water by causing the formation of an acid salt. This combination of C with the soap is not stoichiometric but a combination such as exists between colloidal substances. The combination of the C with the soap is formed because of the difference of the electrical polarity of its constituents from water. (2) C suspended in water forms a combination of absorption more or less stable with the solid substances, especially cellulose. This, the author says, is proved by the fact that a suspension of finely divided C in water will give up its C to filter paper when filtered, and if the paper is then inverted the C cannot be washed off by means of water. There exists a combination of colloidal C and paper. (3) A suspension of C in soap solution is characterized by its stability. When filtered all of the C passes through the filter paper. In his experiments the author employed a 2% soap solution and C from which all oily matter had been removed so that there was no chance for emulsions. It was found that there was an optimum % of concentration for which the C remained in suspension. In a 2% sol. the C deposited almost as rapidly as in pure water, but in solutions of less than 0.5% the deposition was slower. In a 1% sol. the C remained in suspension about 2 months. All of the soap solutions which had retained C in suspension nevertheless had a sediment. Acid and alkaline solutions of soap were tried with regard to their power of holding C in suspension. The acid solutions became clear rapidly while the alkaline held the C better than pure water does. MeOH and EtOH solutions of soap were also tried. The deposition of C from these took place more rapidly than in the case of water. Soap solutions which deposited C were examined to see whether any soap was dragged down with the C. It was found each time that the % of ash of the sol. which had been agitated with C and then filtered, was greater than the corresponding % of ash of the sol. not so treated, which was run as a comparison. The author concludes that the soap sol. was slightly decomposed by contact with the C into an acid portion which agglutinated with C and into a basic portion which remained in solution. The MeOH and EtOH sols. of soap when examined in the same manner as above showed less ash. This would mean that the solution underwent no change and that there was no agglutination with the C. This also explains why alc. solutions of soap give inferior detersive effects. The sediment of C deposited from soap solution is different in character from that deposited from pure water. It is oleaginous and viscous. A suspension of C in water was subjected to electrolysis. With a difference of potential of 8 volts cataphoresis is doubtful, but when the sol. is made slightly alkaline the C acts as if charged electropositive and is deposited around the cathode. A 0.2% soap solution when electrolyzed gave a white deposit around the anode after several hours. This, when separated from the solution and the ash determined and compared with that of the filtrate, indicates that the deposit at the anode is an acid soap while the soap left in the solution is basic. The author is carrying on experiments to show the action of silicic acid, iron oxide, Al2O3, etc., in soap solutions. Also in Arch. sci. phys. nat. g.acte.en., 27, 229. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Première communication
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1909), (1), 187-206

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1909), 187-206; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010 ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1909), 187-206; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Lampblack purified from fats and resins was tested for its rate of sedimentation in pure H2O, in 0.01-2% soap solns., in 0.01-2% soap solns. containing an equivalent of HCl or of KOH, and in MeOH or EtOH solns. of soap, the concentrations of soap being 1/50 and 1/60% in the MeOH and 0.02% in the EtOH. In H2O and in 2% soap soln. lampblack remained in suspension to the same extent; in 0.5% soap soln. in 6 days a small amount of lampblack remained in suspension; in I% soap soln. lampblack remained in suspension for more than 2 mos. In all cases some of the lampblack was deposited. The acid solns. in the different concentrations cleared quickly, while the alkaline solns. held the lampblack in suspension better than H2O. The alcohols acted as H2O, but to produce an effect of the same order, their mass ought to be 50-200 times as great as that of H2O. The soap soln. shaken with lampblack gave a heavier ash than the soap soln. alone. The soln. seemed to be divided into 2 parts, a more acid one which agglutinated with the lampblack and a more basic one which remained in the soln. Proof of this was found from the smaller ash remaining from the residue after treating in alc. The alc. solns. gave less of a detergent effect. The sediment of lampblack in the soap soln. differed from that in H2O by being viscous and oily while that in H2O was grainy and easily thrown into suspension in H2O. On filtration the lampblack from H2O suspensions blackened the paper completely while from soap soln. the particles not in contact with the paper were readily detached. Lampblack in pure H2O with a current of 8 volts did not conduct; in H2O rendered slightly alkaline the lampblack was deposited at the cathode; in a 2% soap soln. after some hrs. lampblack was deposited at the anode. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Quatrième et dernière communication : Les solutions de savon et l'acide silicique, l'argile et la cellulose
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in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1909), (12), 1128-1139

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Deuxième communication : Les solutions de savon et les composés ferriques
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in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1909), (9-10), 949-966

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1909), 949-66; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Blood ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences, Academie Royale de Belgique (1909), 949-66; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Blood and colloidal hydrate of iron easily form with soap a combination of adsorption which is not sol. in H2O. This combination in presence of H2O does not have the power of adhering to glass, porcelain, cellulose, skin, etc. Hence such substances are cleaned by soap because the colloidal combination is not adsorbed by these solid substances. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations sur l'action détersive des solutions de savon : Troisième communication : Les solutions de savon et l'hydrosol aluminique
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in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1909), (11), 1059-1065

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See detailEinige Beobachtungen über die Waschwirkung der Seifen
Spring, Walthère ULg

in Zeitschrift für Chemie und Industrie der Kolloide (1909), 4

Spring, W. Zeitschrift fuer Chemie und Industrie der Kolloide (1909), 4, 161-8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Objections to ... [more ▼]

Spring, W. Zeitschrift fuer Chemie und Industrie der Kolloide (1909), 4, 161-8; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); https://scifinder.cas.org (accessed July 8, 2010). Objections to Chevreuil's, Hillger's, Falk's, and Knapp's theories for the cleansing action of soap are presented. Experiments on the action of soap sols. on carefully purified lampblack bring out the following facts: Lampblack (charged +) hastens the formation of an acid salt (charged -) then forms an adsorption compound with it. A suspension of lampblack in soap sol. will run through filter paper while lampblack can be filtered from water sol. because of an adsorption compound between it and the filter paper. A 1% soap sol. gives an optimum suspension of lampblack, while a 2% is about equivalent to water. Small amounts of alkali increase the suspending power of a sol. greatly. 0.2-0.16% sols. of soap in MeOH, and 0.05% sol. in EtOH show the same optimum suspension for lampblack. The residue of soap obtained by evaporating a given vol. of sol. is the same, whether C has settled through it or not, but the ash in that residue is greater when C has been present, i. e., the basic part is higher in ash than the acid part. From MeOH the ash is less and the C has combined with the basic soap. From EtOH there is practically no difference. The C settled from soap sol. is a thick sirup, and cannot be purified, but forms a colloidal sol. in H2O. C in H2O is uncharged, but in alkaline sol. is + charged. From a 2% soap sol. a white ppt. of C + acid soap collects about the anode, and is lower in ash than soap obtained from the sol. by evaporation. Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved. [less ▲]

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