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See detailEstimated energy balance in the jovian upper atmosphere during an auroral heating event
Melin, H.; Miller, S.; Stallard, T. et al

Poster (2005)

We present an analysis of a series of observations of the auroral/polar regions of Jupiter, carried out between September 8 and 11, 1998, making use of the high-resolution spectrometer, CSHELL, on the ... [more ▼]

We present an analysis of a series of observations of the auroral/polar regions of Jupiter, carried out between September 8 and 11, 1998, making use of the high-resolution spectrometer, CSHELL, on the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), Mauna Kea, Hawaii; these observations spanned an ``auroral heating event". This analysis combines the measured line intensities and ion velocities with a one-dimensional model of the jovian thermosphere/ionosphere (Grodent et al. 2001). We compute the model line intensities both assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and, relaxing this condition (non-LTE), through detailed balance calculations (Oka et al. 2004), in order to compare with the observations. Taking the model parameters derived, we calculate the changes in heating rate required to account for the modeled temperature profiles that are consistent with the measured line intensities. Comparison of the various heating and cooling terms enables us to investigate the balance of energy inputs into the auroral/polar atmosphere. Increases in Joule heating and ion drag are sufficient to explain the observed heating of the atmosphere; increased particle precipitation makes only a minor heating contribution. But local cooling effects - predominantly H[SUB]3[SUP]+[/SUP][/SUB] radiation-to-space - are shown to be too inefficient to allow the atmosphere to relax back to pre-event thermal conditions. Thus we conclude that this event provides observational, i.e. empirical, evidence that heat must be transported away from the auroral/polar regions by thermally or mechanically driven winds. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential of short- and medium-duration pigeonpea as components of a cereal intercrop.
Smith, C; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Proceedings Regional Workshop on Status and Potential of Pigeonpea in Eastern and Southern Africa (2001)

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See detailSurvey of pigeonpea production systems, utilization and marketing in semi-arid lands of Kenya.
Mergeai, Guy ULg; Kimani, P.; Mwang'ombe, A. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(3), 145-153

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See detailExperience-dependent changes in cerebral functional connectivity during human rapid eye movement sleep
Laureys, Steven ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Neuroscience (2001), 105(3), 521-525

One function of sleep is hypothesized to be the reprocessing and consolidation of memory traces (Smith, 1995; Gais et al., 2000; McGaugh, 2000; Stickgold et al., 2000). At the cellular level, neuronal ... [more ▼]

One function of sleep is hypothesized to be the reprocessing and consolidation of memory traces (Smith, 1995; Gais et al., 2000; McGaugh, 2000; Stickgold et al., 2000). At the cellular level, neuronal reactivations during post-training sleep in animals have been observed in hippocampal (Wilson and McNaughton, 1994) and cortical (Amzica et al., 1997) neuronal populations. At the systems level, using positron emission tomography, we have recently shown that some brain areas reactivated during rapid-eye-movement sleep in human subjects previously trained on an implicit learning task (a serial reaction time task) (Maquet et al., 2000). These cortical reactivations, located in the left premotor area and bilateral cuneus, were thought to reflect the reprocessing - possibly the consolidation - of memory traces during post-training rapid-eye-movement sleep. Here, the experience-dependent functional connectivity of these brain regions is examined. It is shown that the left premotor cortex is functionally more correlated with the left posterior parietal cortex and bilateral pre-supplementary motor area during rapid-eye-movement sleep of subjects previously trained to the reaction time task compared to rapid-eye-movement sleep of untrained subjects. The increase in functional connectivity during post-training rapid-eye-movement sleep suggests that the brain areas reactivated during post-training rapid-eye-movement sleep participate in the optimization of the network that subtends subject's visuo-motor response. The optimization of this visuo-motor network during sleep could explain the gain in performance observed during the following day. [less ▲]

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See detailExperience-dependent changes in cerebral activation during human REM sleep
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg et al

in Nature Neuroscience (2000), 3(8), 831-836

The function of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is stiil unknown. One prevailing hypothesis suggests that REM sleep is important in processing memory traces. Here, using positron emission tomography (PET ... [more ▼]

The function of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is stiil unknown. One prevailing hypothesis suggests that REM sleep is important in processing memory traces. Here, using positron emission tomography (PET) and regional cerebral blood flow measurements, we show that waking experience influences regional brain activity during subsequent sleep. Several brain areas activated during the execution of a serial reaction time task during wakefulness were significantly more active during REM sleep in subjects previously trained on the task than in non-trained subjects. These results support the hypothesis that memory traces are processed during REM sleep in humans. [less ▲]

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