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See detailPedagogical and didactic adaptations of a mathematics course to a student-centred education in an architecture programme
Jancart, Sylvie ULiege; Seijkens, Nicolas ULiege; Silvestre, Aude ULiege

Conference (2017, September)

This presentation will focus on both didactic and pedagogical reflections teaching mathematics in architecture programme in order to support the experience and learning of first year students. Led in ... [more ▼]

This presentation will focus on both didactic and pedagogical reflections teaching mathematics in architecture programme in order to support the experience and learning of first year students. Led in order to promote the students’ intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and support our didactic reflections, an inventory of mathematical difficulties encountered by freshmen in their program has been established. This inventory also served the purpose of demystifying mathematics and valuing them through a place in a cursus more rooted in the profession (Wigfield and Eccles, 2000). Sorted according to the skills involved, the relevant difficulties pointed out by students were mostly found in two courses, topography and structure. Several examples will be presented demonstrating the lack of transfer between the disciplines, students studying formulas without understanding them. To counter this lack of transfer, pedagogical reflections about our current teaching were developed thanks to the Feedback First-Year Project (FFYP) developed in the University of Liège. In this context, three significant devices set up in mathematics were developed. The first one is an online-oriented prerequisite test implemented on our academic online platform. The second one is an intermediate test based on true/false quizzes and the third one a simulation of the real exam with peer interventions. According to Nicol’s recommendations (2009), each of these features is completed with specific feedbacks specially designed in order to impact several dimensions of their motivation. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit Belittlements Call for Implicit Measures: Emotional Reactions to Youth Paternalistic Stereotypes
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Huart, Johanne ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

in Psychologica Belgica (2017), 57(2), 133-153

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack ... [more ▼]

Age discrimination at work can potentially affect every worker. Indeed, like ‘old’ workers, young ones hired in their first job elicit the idea that they have quite interesting social abilities but lack of competence, which constitutes a case of paternalistic stereotypes (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002). Generally, the negative (incompetence) facet of such stereotypes is not blatantly expressed, but is subtly conveyed behind an apparently positive discourse. Consequently, it is considered as being generally under-detected, while harmful. In this paper, we examine whether paternalistic stereotyping’s under-detection is real or if it is due to the use of inadequate measures. Based on a study showing that targets feel that something is wrong (Dardenne, Dumont, & Bollier 2007), we rely on affective measures to investigate whether the detection of the subtly conveyed negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes calls for subtle, implicit measures. In Study 1, explicit self-reports of targets’ affective states after a meeting with a paternalistic boss revealed mainly positive affect. In Study 2, an implicit emotional measure however revealed the presence of a negative affective state. The last Study, using a more ecological affective measure, demonstrates that paternalistic stereotypes trigger an ambivalent affective reaction. Altogether, the three studies suggest that the negative facet of paternalistic stereotypes is not as under-detected as we thought. [less ▲]

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See detailPromouvoir, développer et optimiser les pratiques de feedback formatif en Bloc1 en Faculté d'Architecture - Partage d'expériences
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Seijkens, Nicolas ULiege

Scientific conference (2017, June 08)

Au cours des quatre dernières années, l’Institut de Formation et de Recherche en Enseignement Supérieur (IFRES) et le Service Guidance Étude (SGE) de l’Université de Liège ont développé et mis en place un ... [more ▼]

Au cours des quatre dernières années, l’Institut de Formation et de Recherche en Enseignement Supérieur (IFRES) et le Service Guidance Étude (SGE) de l’Université de Liège ont développé et mis en place un projet visant à promouvoir et optimiser les pratiques de feedback formatif et d’Assessment for Learning en première année. Le Projet Feedback a été initié en 2013 et poursuivi en 2014 au sein de la Faculté des Sciences appliquées, adapté depuis juin 2014 en Faculté de Droit, de Science Politique et de Criminologie, depuis 2015 en Faculté des Sciences, et depuis 2016 en Faculté d’Architecture. Le projet est mené dans un but de soutien à l’apprentissage et à la qualité de l’expérience vécue par les étudiants de première année. Il vise à engager un groupe d’enseignants en Architecture dans une réflexion portant sur leurs pratiques d’enseignement et d’évaluation, et de potentielles régulations à y apporter. Chacun des participants impliqués est porté à réenvisager certaines dimensions de son enseignement de première année à la lumière des théories se rapportant aux pratiques de feedback lors d’entretiens individuels structurés, avec l’équipe pédagogique encadrante (une référente pédagogique et une architecte), mais également lors de séances plénières collectives. Des initiatives, telles que des tests de prérequis en mathématique, ou une grille de critères pour le dessin ou encore outil réflexif d’aide à la prise de note en atelier de projet, ont été développées dans divers cours (Mathématique ; Théorie de l’Architecture ; Construction et d’Applications Constructives ; Atelier de Projet ; etc.). Parmi la quinzaine d’initiatives élaborées, certaines ont déjà été mises en œuvre, d’autres sont toujours en développement actuellement ou sont en phase de réflexion. L’avis des étudiants est au cœur des préoccupations du Projet Feedback. Plusieurs questionnaires ont été administrés aux étudiants, afin d’investiguer leurs perceptions relatives à diverses initiatives mises en place lors de l’année académique 2016-2017. [less ▲]

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See detailBenevolent Stigmatisation in all its States: Multifaceted Consequences of Paternalistic Stereotyping
Silvestre, Aude ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2016)

L’objectif de cette thèse est d’examiner les effets de la stigmatisation chez les personnes qui en sont la cible. A travers deux chapitres théoriques et quatre chapitres expérimentaux, nous tenterons ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cette thèse est d’examiner les effets de la stigmatisation chez les personnes qui en sont la cible. A travers deux chapitres théoriques et quatre chapitres expérimentaux, nous tenterons d’établir une vue la plus complète de la stigmatisation au quotidien et de ses effets, pour ensuite tenter de l’enrichir. Nos deux premiers chapitres passent en revue la littérature en lien avec notre thème principal afin d’identifier des trous qui méritent d’être comblés, avec notre premier chapitre qui dresse un aperçu des études qui mettent en évidence cette stigmatisation quotidienne toujours bien présente, et notre second chapitre qui se focalise plus précisément sur deux types d’expression de la stigmatisation, la clairement hostile et la subtilement bienveillante, pour ensuite se concentrer sur un type plus précis de stigmatisation bienveillante basée sur une incompétence suggérée, la stéréotypisation paternaliste. Les chapitres expérimentaux 3, 4, 5, et 6 sont autant de tentatives d’enrichissement des recherches réalisées dans le domaine de la stéréotypisation paternaliste. Comme nous pourrons l’observer dans le chapitre 2, les conséquences cognitives des stéréotypes paternalistes ont reçu une belle attention de la part de chercheurs, aux dépends des conséquences affectives et comportementales. Dès lors, nos chapitres expérimentaux s’intéresseront à ces deux types d’impacts. Le chapitre 3 complètera la recherche sur les conséquences comportementales du paternalisme bienveillant. Le chapitre 4 nous aidera à mieux comprendre comment la stéréotypisation paternaliste est vécue d’un point de vue affectif par de jeunes travailleurs dans le contexte particulier du monde du travail. Le chapitre 5, quant à lui, s’intéressera, d’abord, à l’effet unique du paternalisme sur les performances motrices de jeunes athlètes, et ensuite, au rôle médiateur de deux émotions spécifiques au monde sportif, l’anxiété cognitive et la confiance en soi. Le chapitre 6 clôturera notre réflexion expérimentale en explorant l’efficacité de trois stratégies de réduction des effets délétères du paternalisme sur les performances motrices identifiés dans le chapitre 5. Enfin, notre dernier chapitre sera un résumé général de nos résultats mais discutera également des implications pratiques, des intérêts scientifiques et des limitations de ce travail, pour se clore sur des propositions de recherches futures. [less ▲]

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See detailBenevolent Ideology and Women’s Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men’s Wallet
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Sarlet, Marie; Huart, Johanne ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(2),

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide ... [more ▼]

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women) on women’s economic decision- making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2’s Generalized Linear Mixed Model’s results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women’s endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape malefemale relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men. [less ▲]

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See detailYou’re not my dad, you’re my coach! When Paternalism Impairs Agility Performance
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2012, August 21)

Objectives: We were interested in the impacts of coach’s paternalistic motivational speech on young high performance sportsmen and sportswomen. We suggested that their motor performance (agility test ... [more ▼]

Objectives: We were interested in the impacts of coach’s paternalistic motivational speech on young high performance sportsmen and sportswomen. We suggested that their motor performance (agility test) would be diminished. Design: We used a 2 (paternalism: presence vs. absence) X 2 (valence: positive vs. negative) design to create four types of motivational speech. Methods: 60 participants read a description of an invented collective sport, followed by the coach’s motivational speech. After reading those texts, they were asked to do a motor agility test. They also had to complete an emotional measure on a 7-point Likert scale. We used linear regression as well double mediation macros in order to test the impacts of the coach’s paternalistic motivational speech on agility performance. Results: The results revealed direct effects of paternalism and valence on two measures of agility performance. Agility performance was worse when the speech was paternalistic (vs. no paternalistic) as well as when the speech was negative (vs. positive). When we compared negative paternalistic speech with the 3 others, we found that the direct effect of negative paternalism on performance is serially mediated, first by anxiety and, second by feeling of (in)competence. Conclusions: Acting in a fatherlike attitude might look like a good idea to motivate a sport team, using a little bit of father authority. But by doing so, in a negative way, the risk is that the team might perform badly instead. [less ▲]

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See detailGentlemen, Bring out Your Wallet, It’s Time to Pay: Benevolent Sexism and Women’s Economic Behaviour
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Sarlet, Marie ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Conference (2012, May 11)

Some women want to be flattered, cherished and protected by men more than others. We tested the hypothesis that this belief, that is, the personal endorsement of Benevolent Sexism (BS) as well as the ... [more ▼]

Some women want to be flattered, cherished and protected by men more than others. We tested the hypothesis that this belief, that is, the personal endorsement of Benevolent Sexism (BS) as well as the perceived BS of the men, would lead women to take economic decisions which fit traditional gender roles depicting men as women’s financial providers. In Study 1 (Ultimatum Game) and after answering to a BS scale, female participants were proposed fair, quite fair, and very unfair financial offers made by 39 male's faces that varied in perceived BS. When the financial proposition contradicted their beliefs about men as providers (when the offers were very unfair), more offers were rejected by high BS individuals and for high BS faces compared to their low BS counterparts. However, when the financial propositions were more fair, more offers were accepted by high BS individuals and for high BS faces. In Study 2 (Dictator Game), women high (vs. low) in BS propose more unfair offers to men. Moreover, women propose more unfair offers to men with high (vs. low) BS facial characteristics. Economic decisions are shaped by interpersonal as well as individual beliefs about how gender relationships ought to be. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Emotional Side of Paternalism: Do People Share What They Feel?
Silvestre, Aude ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege

Poster (2012, January 28)

We were interested in the kind of emotions felt and socially shared after experiencing paternalism (when A acts toward B with a fatherlike attitude) or blatant hostility. Participants had to read either a ... [more ▼]

We were interested in the kind of emotions felt and socially shared after experiencing paternalism (when A acts toward B with a fatherlike attitude) or blatant hostility. Participants had to read either a paternalist, hostile or factual version of the welcome speech of their new boss. They then were asked to write a text about how this day was going (social sharing measure). The results revealed that being the target of paternalism or hostility is an emotional episode which leads to social sharing of emotion. Hostility is a clearly negative episode, leading to negative social sharing. Paternalism is more ambiguous. Participants felt positive emotions (except for distrust) but they shared both positive and negative ones. Paternalism can be perceived as positive but seems to lead to negative outcomes. Our further step would be to test its negative effects on performance (reading span test). [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Is the Impact of Benevolent Sexism on Reactions Facing Unfairness?
Silvestre, Aude ULiege

Master's dissertation (2009)

Social interactions between men and women are subject to lots of influences, be it during an encounter, on the work place, in an intimate relationship, etc. Moreover, whereas they are in a similar ... [more ▼]

Social interactions between men and women are subject to lots of influences, be it during an encounter, on the work place, in an intimate relationship, etc. Moreover, whereas they are in a similar situation, men and women react quite differently. Benevolent sexism is one of the factors that affect men-women relationships. In this dissertation, an experiment was built in order to study the impacts of benevolent sexism on relationships between men and women in a particular frame: the Ultimatum Game. The authors try to know the impacts of benevolent sexism on women’s behaviour during an Ultimatum Game, and that according to the context female participants are in. Female participants played the role of receivers who had to accept or reject offers proposed by photographs of men on the computer screen. The results of the experiment revealed that the kind of offer (fair, unfair, very unfair), the context (romantic or occupational) and the level of benevolent sexism as well as attractiveness of the photographed male’s faces will influence female participants’ behaviour and their decision-making process in an Ultimatum Game. The results will then be discussed and suggestions for future research will be put forward. [less ▲]

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