References of "Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir"
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See detailDevelopmental profiles of GFAP-positive astrocytes in sheep cerebellum
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2014)

Astroglial account for the largest glial population in the brain and play a variety of vital functions in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). An immunohistochemical study was performed in ... [more ▼]

Astroglial account for the largest glial population in the brain and play a variety of vital functions in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). An immunohistochemical study was performed in 19 ovine foetuses ranging from two to five months of gestation, one newborn lamb and three adult sheep. Using the anit-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) marker, several variations were found in the degree of GFAP positive (GFAP+) astrocyte distribution between the different zones in the cerebellum of sheep during brain development. Our study indicates that the first appearance of astrocytes from restricted zones in the cerebellum occurs around the eighth week of gestation. Bergmann cells were found to be present from around the 15th week of gestation onwards. Our findings suggest that the maturation of astrocytes begins in the caudal parts of the cerebellum, developing from their initial ventral regions to spread first to dorsal regions radially within the white matter, then followed by the more rostral parts of the cerebellum. Astrocytes were also found to proliferate in the vermis before appearing in the cerebellar hemispheres. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative Analysis of the Relative Abundance Changes Observed in Type I, III and V Collagen after Suspensory Ligament Injuries in Horses
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Baise, Etienne ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

in Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2014, July)

Introduction: The equine suspensory ligament (SL) injuries are an important cause of lameness in horses. Quantification of the relative abundance of the constitutive collagen types is essential to ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The equine suspensory ligament (SL) injuries are an important cause of lameness in horses. Quantification of the relative abundance of the constitutive collagen types is essential to investigate the differences between normal and injured tissues. The aim of this original study was to precisely determine the different collagen ratios both in injured and normal SL. This approach is a rational step towards understanding the intimate mechanisms of SL repair and regeneration at the molecular and histological levels. Methods: Five Warmblood horses with visible signs of injury in only one forelimb SL were selected. Specimens were obtained from the central core of lesions in damaged SLs and from the corresponding regions in other healthy SLs. Collagen types I, III and V were purified by differential salt precipitation after collagen extraction with acetic acid containing pepsin and they were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The bands corresponding to types I, III, and V collagen were assessed by densitometry after SDS-PAGE. SAS software (SAS Institute 2001) was used for all statistical analyses. Results: Based on ultrastructural observations, purified fibers of types I, III, and V collagens have been identified. The relative proportions of type III and type V collagen were significantly higher in the specimens‎ from damaged tissue compared with specimens from normal tissue (P < 0.001). These changes were concomitant with significant decrease in type I collagen in the injured tissue (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our study showed that after SL injury, the relative abundance of the different collagen types is modified. These changes are the molecular hallmark of a decrease in tissue quality and mechanical properties of the ligament. It lays down the bases of subsequent researches on the tissue regeneration that may lead to the development of new treatment strategies for damaged tissues, particularly in the equine SL injuries. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of Astrocytes in the Sheep Cerebellum
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Antoine, Nadine; Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg et al

Scientific conference (2013, October 11)

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See detailMorphometric analyses of the normal suspensory ligament in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

Poster (2013, July)

The suspensory ligament (SL) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the SL in ... [more ▼]

The suspensory ligament (SL) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the SL in sound horses. Right limbs from 11 horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the SL were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin–phloxine–saffron and Hematoxylin–eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues allowing the use of an image analysis programme. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the SL. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the SL of sound horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric analyses of the body and the branches of the normal third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament) in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

in Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2013)

The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the ... [more ▼]

The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the body and the branches of right thoracic and pelvic limbs TIOM in sound horses to determine whether there are differences in CT, MT and AT between age, sex, limbs and levels. Right limbs from 11 sound horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the TIOM were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin–phloxine–saffron and Hematoxylin–eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues observed allowing the use of an image analysis programme to calculate percentage of each tissue within the TIOM. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the TIOM. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the TIOM of sound horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological and morphometric analyses of the suspensory ligament in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

Poster (2012, October)

Ultrasound techniques allow examination of some parts of the suspensory ligament (SL) but "anomalies" are regularly observed. Their significance is not known. Few studies have described the relationship ... [more ▼]

Ultrasound techniques allow examination of some parts of the suspensory ligament (SL) but "anomalies" are regularly observed. Their significance is not known. Few studies have described the relationship between ultrasonographic appearance and the exact morphology in histological sections. The aim of this study is to develop good techniques for cutting, staining, and showing the variation in the tissue composition within the SL. The SLs from the right limbs of 11 horses were collected. Samples were taken from cross-sections at six levels of the SL and they were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. By using the cryosection technique, some freezing artifacts (holes) appeared. Therefore, a technique of freezing with cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin-phloxine-saffron gives a good contrast of colors between the tissues observed allowing the use of an image analysis program. The percentage of each tissue within the SL for each section and for six levels of the ligament was calculated. Results were analyzed by SAS software. The muscle tissue (PMT) and adipose tissue (PAT) decreased significantly (p < 0.0001), whereas the connective tissue (PCT) increased significantly (p < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the SL. The PMT was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in females than males, while the PCT was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in males than females. The PAT was significantly higher (p = 0.0278) in hindlimbs than in forelimbs. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the suspensory ligament (interosseous muscle III) of the horse
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Espinosa, Jennifer; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

Poster (2011)

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL. The significance of “abnormal” findings is however not sufficiently known. Until now, few studies described the relationship between the ultrasonographic appearance and the exact morphology in histological sections. The aim of this study is to develop good techniques for cutting and staining the SL and to improve knowledge about the normal morphology of the SL. Methods: In this study, the SL of eight <sound> horses were collected. The body of the SL was divided in 3 thirds and sampling was realised within each third and between the thirds. The samples were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek for cryosections. The sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin or Masson's trichrome. For 3 SL, ultrasounds were performed before sampling. The digital tip was maintained in physiological position owing to a press. Results: Most of the paraffin sections were shredded because of the hardness of the tissue. Cryosection revealed a better preservation of tissues. Only some freezing artifacts (holes) appeared on a few sections. Muscles fibers surrounded by adipose tissue containing blood vessels were present mainly in the proximal and medium third of the SL whereas they were not found in the distal third. The remaining structure look like a tendon and was composed of collagen fibers, stained in green with the Masson's trichrome coloration. Conclusions: This study permitted to develop cutting and staining techniques for the SL and helped to map the adipose, muscular and tendinous parts within the SL. It lays down the bases of subsequent studies that will concern ultrasonographically examined digital tips of sound and pathological horses of different breeds and ages. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the suspensory ligament (interosseous muscle III) of the horse
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Espinosa, Jennifer; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

Poster (2010)

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL. The significance of “abnormal” findings is however not sufficiently known. Until now, few studies described the relationship between the ultrasonographic appearance and the exact morphology in histological sections. The aim of this study is to develop good techniques for cutting and staining the SL and to improve knowledge about the normal morphology of the SL. Methods: In this study, the SL of eight <sound> horses were collected. The body of the SL was divided in 3 thirds and sampling was realised within each third and between the thirds. The samples were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek for cryosections. The sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin or Masson's trichrome. For 3 SL, ultrasounds were performed before sampling. The digital tip was maintained in physiological position owing to a press. Results: Most of the paraffin sections were shredded because of the hardness of the tissue. Cryosection revealed a better preservation of tissues. Only some freezing artifacts (holes) appeared on a few sections. Muscles fibers surrounded by adipose tissue containing blood vessels were present mainly in the proximal and medium third of the SL whereas they were not found in the distal third. The remaining structure look like a tendon and was composed of collagen fibers, stained in green with the Masson's trichrome coloration. Conclusions: This study permitted to develop cutting and staining techniques for the SL and helped to map the adipose, muscular and tendinous parts within the SL. It lays down the bases of subsequent studies that will concern ultrasonographically examined digital tips of sound and pathological horses of different breeds and ages. [less ▲]

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