Dawn simulation light impacts on different cognitive domains under sleep restriction.
; ; et al
in Behavioural brain research (2015), 281
Chronic sleep restriction (SR) has deleterious effects on cognitive performance that can be counteracted by light exposure. However, it is still unknown if naturalistic light settings (dawn simulating ... [more ▼]
Chronic sleep restriction (SR) has deleterious effects on cognitive performance that can be counteracted by light exposure. However, it is still unknown if naturalistic light settings (dawn simulating light) can enhance daytime cognitive performance in a sustainable matter. Seventeen participants were enrolled in a 24-h balanced cross-over study, subsequent to SR (6-h of sleep). Two different light settings were administered each morning: a) dawn simulating light (DsL; polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lx during 30 min before wake-up time, with light around 250 lx for 20 min after wake-up time) and b) control dim light (DL; <8 lx). Cognitive tests were performed every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness and questionnaires were completed hourly to assess subjective mood. The analyses yielded a main effect of "light condition" for the motor tracking task, sustained attention to response task and a working memory task (visual 1 and 3-back task), as well as for the Simple Reaction Time Task, such that participants showed better task performance throughout the day after morning DsL exposure compared to DL. Furthermore, low performers benefited more from the light effects compared to high performers. Conversely, no significant influences from the DsL were found for the Psychomotor Vigilance Task and a contrary effect was observed for the digit symbol substitution test. No light effects were observed for subjective perception of sleepiness, mental effort, concentration and motivation. Our data indicate that short exposure to artificial morning light may significantly enhance cognitive performance in a domain-specific manner under conditions of mild SR. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Pushing the Limits: Chronotype and Time of Day Modulate Working Memory-Dependent Cerebral Activity.
Schmidt, Christina ; Collette, Fabienne ; et al
in Frontiers in neurology (2015), 6
Morning-type individuals experience more difficulties to maintain optimal attentional performance throughout a normal waking day than evening types. However, time-of-day modulations may differ across ... [more ▼]
Morning-type individuals experience more difficulties to maintain optimal attentional performance throughout a normal waking day than evening types. However, time-of-day modulations may differ across cognitive domains. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated how chronotype and time of day interact with working memory at different levels of cognitive load/complexity in a N-back paradigm (N0-, N2-, and N3-back levels). Extreme morning- and evening-type individuals underwent two fMRI sessions during N-back performance, one 1.5 h (morning) and one 10.5 h (evening) after wake-up time scheduled according to their habitual sleep-wake preference. At the behavioral level, increasing working memory load resulted in lower accuracy while chronotype and time of day only exerted a marginal impact on performance. Analyses of neuroimaging data disclosed an interaction between chronotype, time of day, and the modulation of cerebral activity by working memory load in the thalamus and in the middle frontal cortex. In the subjective evening hours, evening types exhibited higher thalamic activity than morning types at the highest working memory load condition only (N3-back). Conversely, morning-type individuals exhibited higher activity than evening-type participants in the middle frontal gyrus during the morning session in the N3-back condition. Our data emphasize interindividual differences in time-of-day preferences and underlying cerebral activity, which should be taken into account when investigating vigilance state effects in task-related brain activity. These results support the hypothesis that higher task complexity leads to a chronotype-dependent increase in thalamic and frontal brain activity, permitting stabilization of working memory performance across the day. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Fighting Sleep at Night: Brain Correlates and Vulnerability to Sleep Loss.
; ; et al
in Annals of neurology (2015), 78(2), 235-47
OBJECTIVE: Even though wakefulness at night leads to profound performance deterioration and is regularly experienced by shift workers, its cerebral correlates remain virtually unexplored. METHODS: We ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVE: Even though wakefulness at night leads to profound performance deterioration and is regularly experienced by shift workers, its cerebral correlates remain virtually unexplored. METHODS: We assessed brain activity in young healthy adults during a vigilant attention task under high and low sleep pressure during night-time, coinciding with strongest circadian sleep drive. We examined sleep-loss-related attentional vulnerability by considering a PERIOD3 polymorphism presumably impacting on sleep homeostasis. RESULTS: Our results link higher sleep-loss-related attentional vulnerability to cortical and subcortical deactivation patterns during slow reaction times (i.e., suboptimal vigilant attention). Concomitantly, thalamic regions were progressively less recruited with time-on-task and functionally less connected to task-related and arousal-promoting brain regions in those volunteers showing higher attentional instability in their behavior. The data further suggest that the latter is linked to shifts into a task-inactive default-mode network in between task-relevant stimulus occurrence. INTERPRETATION: We provide a multifaceted view on cerebral correlates of sleep loss at night and propose that genetic predisposition entails differential cerebral coping mechanisms, potentially compromising adequate performance during night work. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Dawn simulation light: a potential cardiac events protector.
; ; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi et al
in Sleep medicine (2015), 16(4), 457-61
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Major cardiovascular events frequently increase in the morning due to abrupt changes in the sympatho-vagal cardiac control during the transition from sleep to wakefulness. These ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Major cardiovascular events frequently increase in the morning due to abrupt changes in the sympatho-vagal cardiac control during the transition from sleep to wakefulness. These neural changes are translated into stepwise increases in cardiac functions, resulting in a potential cardiovascular stress. Here, we explored whether light can "optimize" heart rate and its neural control, by actively promoting a less steep transition from sleep to wakefulness, thus minimizing morning cardiovascular vulnerability. METHODS: Seventeen healthy young men were awakened 2-hours before their habitual wake-time. In a counterbalanced within-subject design, we applied a control condition (darkness during sleep and dim light during wakefulness) or dawn-simulation-light (DSL) starting 30-minutes before and ending 30-minutes after scheduled wake-up time. RESULTS: Our data reveal a significantly gradient reduction in heart rate during the transition from sleep to wakefulness, when applying DSL as compared to a control condition. Likewise, cardiac sympatho-vagal control smoothly increased throughout the 30-min sleep episode preceding scheduled wake-up under DSL and remained stable for the first 30-min of wakefulness. Interestingly, these effects were mostly driven by changes in the parasympathetic cardiac control. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate for the first time that a non-invasive strategy, as light exposure surrounding the wake-up process, can significantly reduce the deleterious sleep-to-wake evoked cardiac modulation in healthy young men awakened under conditions of increased sleep pressure. A translational approach of this light exposure, which closely resembles natural lighting conditions in the morning, may therefore act as a potential protector for cardiac vulnerability in the critical morning hours. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Blue blocker glasses as a countermeasure for alerting effects of evening light-emitting diode screen exposure in male teenagers.
; ; et al
in The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine (2015), 56(1), 113-9
PURPOSE: Adolescents prefer sleep and wake times that are considerably delayed compared with younger children or adults. Concomitantly, multimedia use in the evening is prevalent among teenagers and ... [more ▼]
PURPOSE: Adolescents prefer sleep and wake times that are considerably delayed compared with younger children or adults. Concomitantly, multimedia use in the evening is prevalent among teenagers and involves light exposure, particularly in the blue-wavelength range to which the biological clock and its associated arousal promotion system is the most sensitive. We investigated whether the use of blue light-blocking glasses (BB) during the evening, while sitting in front of a light-emitting diode (LED) computer screen, favors sleep initiating mechanisms at the subjective, cognitive, and physiological level. METHODS: The ambulatory part of the study comprised 2 weeks during which the sleep-wake cycle, evening light exposure, and multimedia screen use were monitored in thirteen 15- to 17-year-old healthy male volunteers. BB or clear lenses as control glasses were worn in a counterbalanced crossover design for 1 week each, during the evening hours while using LED screens. Afterward, participants entered the laboratory and underwent an evening blue light-enriched LED screen exposure during which they wore the same glasses as during the preceding week. Salivary melatonin, subjective sleepiness, and vigilant attention were regularly assayed, and subsequent sleep was recorded by polysomnography. RESULTS: Compared with clear lenses, BB significantly attenuated LED-induced melatonin suppression in the evening and decreased vigilant attention and subjective alertness before bedtime. Visually scored sleep stages and behavioral measures collected the morning after were not modified. CONCLUSIONS: BB glasses may be useful in adolescents as a countermeasure for alerting effects induced by light exposure through LED screens and therefore potentially impede the negative effects modern lighting imposes on circadian physiology in the evening. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Memory reactivation during rapid eye movement sleep promotes its generalization and integration in cortical stores.
; Schmidt, Christina ; et al
in Sleep (2014), 37(6), 1061-751075-1075
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Memory reactivation appears to be a fundamental process in memory consolidation. In this study we tested the influence of memory reactivation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on ... [more ▼]
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Memory reactivation appears to be a fundamental process in memory consolidation. In this study we tested the influence of memory reactivation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on memory performance and brain responses at retrieval in healthy human participants. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-six healthy subjects (28 women and 28 men, age [mean +/- standard deviation]: 21.6 +/- 2.2 y) participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Auditory cues were associated with pictures of faces during their encoding. These memory cues delivered during REM sleep enhanced subsequent accurate recollections but also false recognitions. These results suggest that reactivated memories interacted with semantically related representations, and induced new creative associations, which subsequently reduced the distinction between new and previously encoded exemplars. Cues had no effect if presented during stage 2 sleep, or if they were not associated with faces during encoding. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that following exposure to conditioned cues during REM sleep, responses to faces during retrieval were enhanced both in a visual area and in a cortical region of multisensory (auditory-visual) convergence. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that reactivating memories during REM sleep enhances cortical responses during retrieval, suggesting the integration of recent memories within cortical circuits, favoring the generalization and schematization of the information. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 101 (10 ULg)
Light modulation of human sleep depends on a polymorphism in the clock gene PER3
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ; ; Schmidt, Christina et al
in Behavioural Brain Research (2014), 271Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Circadian and homeostatic regulation of sleepiness and cognition and its neuronal underpinnings
Schmidt, Christina ; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi
in Garbarino, Sergio (Ed.) Sleepiness and Human Impact Assessment (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 33 (5 ULg)
Two time pieces for sleep regulation: the circadian clock and the homeostatic hourglass
; Schmidt, Christina ; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi
in Garbarino, Sergio (Ed.) Sleepiness and Human Impact Assessment (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 35 (7 ULg)
Neuroimaging, cognition, light and circadian rhythms
Gaggioni, Giulia ; Maquet, Pierre ; Schmidt, Christina et al
in Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience [=FNSYS] (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 54 (20 ULg)
Sleep ability mediates individual differences in the vulnerability to sleep loss: evidence from a PER3 polymorphism.
; ; et al
in Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior (2014), 52
Sleep deprivation is highly prevalent in our 24/7 society with harmful consequences on daytime functioning on the individual level. Genetically determined, trait-like vulnerability contributes to ... [more ▼]
Sleep deprivation is highly prevalent in our 24/7 society with harmful consequences on daytime functioning on the individual level. Genetically determined, trait-like vulnerability contributes to prominent inter-individual variability in the behavioral responses to sleep loss and adverse circadian phase. We aimed at investigating the effects of differential sleep pressure levels (high vs low) on the circadian modulation of neurobehavioral performance, sleepiness correlates, and nap sleep in individuals genotyped for a polymorphism in the clock gene PERIOD3. Fourteen homozygous long (PER3(5/5)) and 15 homozygous short (PER3(4/4)) allele carriers underwent both a 40-h sleep deprivation and multiple nap protocol under controlled laboratory conditions. We compared genotypes regarding subjective and ocular correlates of sleepiness, unintentional sleep episodes as well as psychomotor vigilance during both protocols. Nap sleep was monitored by polysomnography and visually scored according to standard criteria. The detrimental effects of high sleep pressure on sleepiness correlates and psychomotor vigilance were more pronounced in PER3(5/5) than PER3(4/4) carriers. Under low sleep pressure, both groups showed similar circadian time courses. Concomitantly, nap sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality across all naps tended to be higher in the more vulnerable PER3(5/5) carriers. In addition, PER3-dependent sleep-loss-related attentional lapses were mediated by sleep efficiency across the circadian cycle. Our data corroborate a greater detrimental impact of sleep deprivation in PER3(5/5) compared to PER3(4/4) carriers. They further suggest that the group with greater attentional performance impairment due to sleep deprivation (PER3(5/5) carriers) is superior at initiating sleep over the 24-h cycle. This higher sleep ability may mirror a faster sleep pressure build-up between the multiple sleep opportunities and thus a greater flexibility in sleep initiation. Finally, our data show that this higher nap sleep efficiency is positively related to attentional failures under sleep loss conditions and might thus be used as a marker for inter-individual vulnerability to elevated sleep pressure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
The circadian regulation of sleep: impact of a functional ADA-polymorphism and its association to working memory improvements.
; ; et al
in PloS one (2014), 9(12), 113734
Sleep is regulated in a time-of-day dependent manner and profits working memory. However, the impact of the circadian timing system as well as contributions of specific sleep properties to this beneficial ... [more ▼]
Sleep is regulated in a time-of-day dependent manner and profits working memory. However, the impact of the circadian timing system as well as contributions of specific sleep properties to this beneficial effect remains largely unexplored. Moreover, it is unclear to which extent inter-individual differences in sleep-wake regulation depend on circadian phase and modulate the association between sleep and working memory. Here, sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during a 40-h multiple nap protocol, and working memory performance was assessed by the n-back task 10 times before and after each scheduled nap sleep episode. Twenty-four participants were genotyped regarding a functional polymorphism in adenosine deaminase (rs73598374, 12 G/A-, 12 G/G-allele carriers), previously associated with differences in sleep-wake regulation. Our results indicate that genotype-driven differences in sleep depend on circadian phase: heterozygous participants were awake longer and slept less at the end of the biological day, while they exhibited longer non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and slow wave sleep concomitant with reduced power between 8-16 Hz at the end of the biological night. Slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta EEG activity covaried positively with overall working memory performance, independent of circadian phase and genotype. Moreover, REM sleep duration benefitted working memory particularly when occurring in the early morning hours and specifically in heterozygous individuals. Even though based on a small sample size and thus requiring replication, our results suggest genotype-dependent differences in circadian sleep regulation. They further indicate that REM sleep, being under strong circadian control, boosts working memory performance according to genotype in a time-of-day dependent manner. Finally, our data provide first evidence that slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta activity, majorly regulated by sleep homeostatic mechanisms, is linked to working memory independent of the timing of the sleep episode within the 24-h cycle. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Insights into behavioral vulnerability to differential sleep pressure and circadian phase from a functional ADA polymorphism.
; ; et al
in Journal of biological rhythms (2014), 29(2), 119-30
Sleep loss affects human behavior in a nonuniform manner, depending on the cognitive domain and also the circadian phase. Besides, evidence exists about stable interindividual variations in sleep loss ... [more ▼]
Sleep loss affects human behavior in a nonuniform manner, depending on the cognitive domain and also the circadian phase. Besides, evidence exists about stable interindividual variations in sleep loss-related performance impairments. Despite this evidence, only a few studies have considered both circadian phase and neurobehavioral domain when investigating trait-like vulnerability to sleep manipulation. By applying a randomized, crossover design with 2 sleep pressure conditions (40 h sleep deprivation vs. 40 h multiple naps), we investigated the influence of a human adenosine deaminase (ADA) polymorphism (rs73598374) on several behavioral measures throughout nearly 2 circadian cycles. Confirming earlier studies, we observed that under sleep deprivation the previously reported vulnerable G/A-allele carriers felt overall sleepier than G/G-allele carriers. As expected, this difference was no longer present when sleep pressure was reduced by the application of multiple naps. Concomitantly, well-being was worse in the G/A genotype under sleep loss when compared to the nap protocol, and n-back working memory performance appeared to be specifically susceptible to sleep-wake manipulation in this genotype. When considering psychomotor vigilance performance, however, a higher sensitivity to sleep-wake manipulation was detected in homozygous participants, but specifically at the end of the night and only for optimal task performance. Although these data are based on a small sample size and hence require replication (12 G/A- and 12 G/G-allele carriers), they confirm the assumption that interindividual differences regarding the effect of sleep manipulation highly depend on the cognitive task and circadian phase, and thus emphasize the necessity of a multimethodological approach. Moreover, they indicate that napping might be suitable to counteract endogenously heightened sleep pressure depending on the neurobehavioral domain. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Genetic polymorphisms of DAT1 and COMT differentially associate with actigraphy-derived sleep-wake cycles in young adults.
; ; et al
in Chronobiology international (2014), 31(5), 705-14
Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine plays a key role in sleep-wake regulation. Cerebral dopamine levels are regulated primarily by the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and by catechol-O ... [more ▼]
Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine plays a key role in sleep-wake regulation. Cerebral dopamine levels are regulated primarily by the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and by catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) in the prefrontal cortex. We hypothesized that the variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the gene encoding DAT (DAT1, SLC6A3; rs28363170) and the Val158Met polymorphism of COMT (rs4680) differently affect actigraphy-derived rest-activity cycles and sleep estimates in healthy adults (65 men; 45 women; age range: 19-35 years). Daytime sleepiness, continuous rest-actigraphy and sleep diary data during roughly 4-weeks were analyzed. Nine-repeat (9R) allele carriers of DAT1 (n = 48) more often reported elevated sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness score >/=10) than 10-repeat (10R) allele homozygotes (n = 62, p < 0.02). Moreover, male 9R allele carriers showed higher wrist activity, whereas this difference was not present in women ("DAT1 genotype" x "gender" interaction: p < 0.005). Rest-activity patterns did not differ among COMT genotypes. Nevertheless, a significant "COMT genotype" x "type of day" (workdays vs. rest days) interaction for sleep duration was observed (p = 0.04). The Val/Val (n = 36) and Met/Met (n = 24) homozygotes habitually prolonged sleep on rest days compared to workdays by more than 30 min, while Val/Met heterozygotes (n = 50) did not significantly extend their sleep (mean difference: 7 min). Moreover, whereas the proportion of women among the genotype groups did not differ, COMT genotype affected body-mass-index (BMI), such that Val/Met individuals had lower BMI than the homozygous genotypes (p < 0.04). While awaiting independent replication and confirmation, our data support an association of genetically-determined differences in cerebral dopaminergic neurotransmission with daytime sleepiness and individual rest-activity profiles, as well as other sleep-associated health characteristics such as the regulation of BMI. The differential associations of DAT1 and COMT polymorphisms may reflect the distinct local expression of the encoded proteins in the brain. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Time-on-task decrement in vigilance is modulated by inter-individual vulnerability to homeostatic sleep pressure manipulation.
; ; et al
in Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience (2014), 8
Under sleep loss, vigilance is reduced and attentional failures emerge progressively. It becomes difficult to maintain stable performance over time, leading to growing performance variability (i.e., state ... [more ▼]
Under sleep loss, vigilance is reduced and attentional failures emerge progressively. It becomes difficult to maintain stable performance over time, leading to growing performance variability (i.e., state instability) in an individual and among subjects. Task duration plays a major role in the maintenance of stable vigilance levels, such that the longer the task, the more likely state instability will be observed. Vulnerability to sleep-loss-dependent performance decrements is highly individual and is also modulated by a polymorphism in the human clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3). By combining two different protocols, we manipulated sleep-wake history by once extending wakefulness for 40 h (high sleep pressure condition) and once by imposing a short sleep-wake cycle by alternating 160 min of wakefulness and 80 min naps (low sleep pressure condition) in a within-subject design. We observed that homozygous carriers of the long repeat allele of PER3 (PER3 (5/5) ) experienced a greater time-on-task dependent performance decrement (i.e., a steeper increase in the number of lapses) in the Psychomotor Vigilance Task compared to the carriers of the short repeat allele (PER3 (4/4) ). These genotype-dependent effects disappeared under low sleep pressure conditions, and neither motivation, nor perceived effort accounted for these differences. Our data thus suggest that greater sleep-loss related attentional vulnerability based on the PER3 polymorphism is mirrored by a greater state instability under extended wakefulness in the short compared to the long allele carriers. Our results undermine the importance of time-on-task related aspects when investigating inter-individual differences in sleep loss-induced behavioral vulnerability. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Light modulation of human sleep depends on a polymorphism in the clock gene Period3.
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ; ; Schmidt, Christina et al
in Behavioural brain research (2014), 271
Non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light powerfully modulate human physiology. However, it remains scarcely understood how NIF responses to light modulate human sleep and its EEG hallmarks, and if there ... [more ▼]
Non-image-forming (NIF) responses to light powerfully modulate human physiology. However, it remains scarcely understood how NIF responses to light modulate human sleep and its EEG hallmarks, and if there are differences across individuals. Here we investigated NIF responses to light on sleep in individuals genotyped for the PERIOD3 (PER3) variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. Eighteen healthy young men (20-28 years; mean+/-SEM: 25.9+/-1.2) homozygous for the PER3 polymorphism were matched by age, body-mass index, and ethnicity. The study protocol comprised a balanced cross-over design during the winter, during which participants were exposed to either light of 40lx at 6500K (blue-enriched) or light at 2500K (non-blue enriched), during 2h in the evening. Compared to light at 2500K, light at 6500K induced a significant increase in all-night NREM sleep slow-wave activity (SWA: 1.0-4.5Hz) in the occipital cortex for PER3(5/5) individuals, but not for PER3(4/4) volunteers. Dynamics of SWA across sleep cycles revealed increased occipital NREM sleep SWA for virtuallyall sleep episode only for PER3(5/5) individuals. Furthermore, they experienced light at 6500K as significantly brighter. Intriguingly, this subjective perception of brightness significantly predicted their increased occipital SWA throughout the sleep episode. Our data indicate that humans homozygous for the PER3(5/5) allele are more sensitive to NIF light effects, as indexed by specific changes in sleep EEG activity. Ultimately, individual differences in NIF light responses on sleep may depend on a clock gene polymorphism involved in sleep-wake regulation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
Sleep-dependent neurophysiological processes in implicit sequence learning.
; ; Schmidt, Christina et al
in Journal of cognitive neuroscience (2013), 25(11), 2003-14
Behavioral studies have cast doubts about the role that posttraining sleep may play in the consolidation of implicit sequence learning. Here, we used event-related fMRI to test the hypothesis that sleep ... [more ▼]
Behavioral studies have cast doubts about the role that posttraining sleep may play in the consolidation of implicit sequence learning. Here, we used event-related fMRI to test the hypothesis that sleep-dependent functional reorganization would take place in the underlying neural circuits even in the possible absence of obvious behavioral changes. Twenty-four healthy human adults were scanned at Day 1 and then at Day 4 during an implicit probabilistic serial RT task. They either slept normally (RS) or were sleep-deprived (SD) on the first posttraining night. Unknown to them, the sequential structure of the material was based on a probabilistic finite-state grammar, with 15% chance on each trial of replacing the rules-based grammatical (G) stimulus with a nongrammatical (NG) one. Results indicated a gradual differentiation across sessions between RTs (faster RTs for G than NG), together with NG-related BOLD responses reflecting sequence learning. Similar behavioral patterns were observed in RS and SD participants at Day 4, indicating time- but not sleep-dependent consolidation of performance. Notwithstanding, we observed at Day 4 in the RS group a diminished differentiation between G- and NG-related neurophysiological responses in a set of cortical and subcortical areas previously identified as being part of the network involved in implicit sequence learning and its offline processing during sleep, indicating a sleep-dependent processing of both regular and deviant stimuli. Our results suggest the sleep-dependent development of distinct neurophysiological processes subtending consolidation of implicit motor sequence learning, even in the absence of overt behavioral differences. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Effects of Artificial Dawn and Morning Blue Light on Daytime Cognitive Performance, Well-being, Cortisol and Melatonin Levels.
; ; et al
in Chronobiology International (2013), 30(8), 988-97
Light exposure elicits numerous effects on human physiology and behavior, such as better cognitive performance and mood. Here we investigated the role of morning light exposure as a countermeasure for ... [more ▼]
Light exposure elicits numerous effects on human physiology and behavior, such as better cognitive performance and mood. Here we investigated the role of morning light exposure as a countermeasure for impaired cognitive performance and mood under sleep restriction (SR). Seventeen participants took part of a 48h laboratory protocol, during which three different light settings (separated by 2 wks) were administered each morning after two 6-h sleep restriction nights: a blue monochromatic LED (light-emitting diode) light condition (BL; 100 lux at 470 nm for 20 min) starting 2 h after scheduled wake-up time, a dawn-simulating light (DsL) starting 30 min before and ending 20 min after scheduled wake-up time (polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lux), and a dim light (DL) condition for 2 h beginning upon scheduled wake time (<8 lux). Cognitive tasks were performed every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness, and questionnaires were administered hourly to assess subjective sleepiness, mood, and well-being. Salivary melatonin and cortisol were collected throughout scheduled wakefulness in regular intervals, and the effects on melatonin were measured after only one light pulse. Following the first SR, analysis of the time course of cognitive performance during scheduled wakefulness indicated a decrease following DL, whereas it remained stable following BL and significantly improved after DsL. Cognitive performance levels during the second day after SR were not significantly affected by the different light conditions. However, after both SR nights, mood and well-being were significantly enhanced after exposure to morning DsL compared with DL and BL. Melatonin onset occurred earlier after morning BL exposure, than after morning DsL and DL, whereas salivary cortisol levels were higher at wake-up time after DsL compared with BL and DL. Our data indicate that exposure to an artificial morning dawn simulation light improves subjective well-being, mood, and cognitive performance, as compared with DL and BL, with minimal impact on circadian phase. Thus, DsL may provide an effective strategy for enhancing cognitive performance, well-being, and mood under mild sleep restriction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg)