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See detailRisk assessment for small farmers exposed to plant protection products in the Niger River valley
Massalatchi Illyassou, Karimoun; Adamou, R.; Schiffers, Bruno ULg

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (in press)

Plant protection products play a very important role in agriculture. However, their misuse can have serious negative impacts both on human health and environment. A study was carried out to identify the ... [more ▼]

Plant protection products play a very important role in agriculture. However, their misuse can have serious negative impacts both on human health and environment. A study was carried out to identify the plant protection products used in the Niger River valley and to observe the local pesticide management practices. Ten active substances were identified as the most used chemicals by farmers. Their toxicological properties were characterized and their respective Potential Dermal Exposures (PDE) was evaluated in order to assess the risk level for the local small growers. The UK Predictive Operator Exposure Model was used to quantify the PDE during mixing/loading and application according to the local practices. The survey shows that the most common active substances are organophosphate or pyrethroids insecticides. In addition, some other prohibited and counterfeit pesticides cocktails are also used. All active substances used in Niger River valley are highly toxic. When sprayed without personal protective equipment (PPE) they could induce significant harmful impacts on the human health after exposure. The predictive exposure levels vary from 0.0013 mg/kg bw/day to 0.4125 mg/kg bw/day, several times higher the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (AOEL) for all actives substances. The survey also revealed that 76% of operators do not use any PPE during mixing/loading or spraying. Other bad practices observed in study area can increase the exposure of operators. Moreover, local consumers could also be exposed through intake of pesticide residues on harvested products. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential demal exposure of florists to fungicide residues on flowers and risk assessment
Toumi; Joly, L.; Vleminckx, C. et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (in press)

Flowers are susceptible to many pests and diseases. Therefore, they can be sprayed several times during their growth considering that no MRL are set for flow-ers. High levels of pesticide residues ... [more ▼]

Flowers are susceptible to many pests and diseases. Therefore, they can be sprayed several times during their growth considering that no MRL are set for flow-ers. High levels of pesticide residues potentially expose daily the florists who han-dle cut flowers and possibly could endanger their health. A study was carried out to evaluate the risk for florists exposed to fungicide residues during normal profes-sional tasks. Cotton gloves were distributed to 20 florists (two pairs to each florist) and worn during two consecutive half days during normal professional tasks (from min 2 hours to max 3 hours/day) to measure their potential dermal exposure (PDE). Samples were analyzed with a multi-residue (QuEChERS) method validated by a laboratory accredited for pesticide residues and with a combination of gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It appears from the results that a total of 54 fungicides with different toxicity classes were detected on cotton gloves. An average of 15.53 mg/kg fungicide residues per glove sample was meas-ured. Six of 54 are suspected of causing cancer after prolonged or repeated expo-sure. Boscalid was both the active substance for which the highest maximum and average concentrations (26.21 and 3.47 mg/kg, respectively). Famoxadone had the most critical PDE (156% AOEL for the maximum concentration). As a consequence, this study leads to conclude that Belgian florists, who worked for several years and handled a large number of flowers contaminated by high concentrations of pesti-cide residues, are exposed daily with a potential effect on their health. This sug-gests that safety standards should be set for residue levels on cut flowers. [less ▲]

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See detailStrengthening capacities to enhance food safety in low and middle income countries (LMIC)
Schiffers, Bruno ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailRisk Assessment of Florists Exposed to Pesticide Residues through Handling of Flowers and Preparing Bouquets
Toumi, Khaoula ULg; Laure, Joly; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2017), 14(5)

Abstract: Flowers are frequently treated with pesticides and, as a result, florists handling daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to pesticide residues. A study was conducted among twenty ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Flowers are frequently treated with pesticides and, as a result, florists handling daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to pesticide residues. A study was conducted among twenty volunteer florists located in Namur Province and in the Brussels Capital Region of Belgium in order to assess their potential dermal exposure to dislodgeable pesticide residues transferred from flowers to hands. Two pairs of cotton gloves were worn during two consecutive half days while handling flowers and preparing bouquets (from min 2 h to max 3 h/day). The residual pesticide deposits on the glove samples were extracted with a multi-residue Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method and analyzed by a combination of gas and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS) by an accredited laboratory. A total of 111 active substances (mainly insecticides and fungicides) were detected, with an average of 37 active substances per sample and a total concentration per glove sample of 22.22 mg/kg. Several predictive levels of contamination were considered to assess the risk. The potential dermal exposures (PDE) of florists were estimated at the average, for different percentiles, and at the maximum concentration of residues in samples. At the PDE P90 and at the PDEMAX (or worst case) values, three and five active substances respectively exceed the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (AOEL), indicating risk situations. For the systemic exposure (SE), one active substance (clofentezine) exceeds the AOEL at the P90 predictive level. In the worst case, SEMAX (at the maximum concentrations), four active substances (clofentezine, famoxadone, methiocarb, and pyridaben) exceed their respective AOEL values. Among the 14 most frequently detected active substances, two have SEMAX values exceeding the AOEL. Exposure could be particularly critical for clofentezine with an SEMAX value four times higher than the AOEL (393%). The exposure of florists appeared to be an example of a unique professional situation in which workers are exposed regularly to both a very high number of toxic chemicals and rather high concentration levels. Therefore the priority should be to raise the level of awareness among the florists who must change their habits and practices if they want to minimize their exposure. [less ▲]

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See detailThree Methods to Assess Levels of Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides in the Urban and Peri-urban Areas of Northern Benin
Lawson, Armel Joël; Akohou, Hermine; Lorge, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection (2017), 12(1), 91-108

Small farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Northern Benin use pesticides without respect of hygiene rules and any personal protective equipment (PPE). Based on observation of the local practices in ... [more ▼]

Small farmers in urban and peri-urban areas of Northern Benin use pesticides without respect of hygiene rules and any personal protective equipment (PPE). Based on observation of the local practices in Djougou, Gogounou and Parakou,field trials have been carried out under similar conditions to evaluate contamination and exposure levels of farmers, using three usual sampling methods (Visual Method, Patch Method and Whole Body Method). Both Visual and Patch Methods used dye and ghost ink as tracers. In the Whole Body trials, deltamethrin (PLAN D 25 EC) was used as insecticide treatment. Deposits were observed on the protective equipment and on the collectors. Tartrazine was determined by colorimetry and deltamethrin by gas chromatography with ECD detector (GC-ECD). The examination of protective equipment (Visual Method) showed that the whole body could be potentially exposed to pesticides. Hands were contaminated during the preparation and the loading of mixture up to sprayer rinsing. The Patch Method was not perfectly able to predict the contamination pattern on the farmers’ body. The Whole Body Method results appeared to be more variable and influenced by the skill of each operator compared to the Patch Method. The contamination levels observed were rather higher than the value estimated with a theoretical model (from 368 to 2867 mg of deltamethrin at the total/body). With PPE, the average exposure reached 3.25 mg/kg bw/day. Without PPE, the potential exposure was equal to 32.52 mg/kg bw/day. Both values far exceed the AOEL of deltamethrin (0.0075 mg/kg bw/day) indicating a high risk level for the operator. The theoretical used model (UK-POEM) was unable to predict the potential exposure outcomes measured in these trials. [less ▲]

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See detailPratiques phytosanitaires des producteurs de tomates du Burkina Faso et risques pour la santé et l’environnement
Son, Diakalia ULg; Somda, Irénée; Legrève, Anne et al

in Cahiers Agricultures (2017), 26(2), 6

To assess the phytosanitary practices of tomato growers in Burkina Faso, surveys were carried out in 2015 and 2016 among 316 producers in the West and North zones of the country. Ninety percent of ... [more ▼]

To assess the phytosanitary practices of tomato growers in Burkina Faso, surveys were carried out in 2015 and 2016 among 316 producers in the West and North zones of the country. Ninety percent of pesticides used by producers are purchased in local markets without guarantee of conformity or quality. Lambda-cyhalothrin of the pyrethroids family was the most used active substance. The use for tomato crop of cotton pesticides increased strongly between 2015 and 2016 (þ71%). The doses used by producers are higher than the recommended ones. More than 70% of the market gardeners do not observe any measure of adequate protection from the preparation of the mixture until the end of the treatments. The respect of preharvest interval depends mostly of the crop health status and does not follow the recommendations. Empty containers of pesticides are left in fields by 53% of the farmers. These results show that the phytosanitary practices of tomato producers are unsuitable and potentially harmful to the health of farmers and consumers and to the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailGuest Editorial : New European Union plant health regime: A more stringent regulation that could impact trade from developing countries in the near future
Schiffers, Bruno ULg

in Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection (2017), 12(1), 3

The new "Plant Health Law" provides more comprehensive and clearer rules for the prevention of entry into, and spread within, the EU territory of pests injurious to plant health but this regulation also ... [more ▼]

The new "Plant Health Law" provides more comprehensive and clearer rules for the prevention of entry into, and spread within, the EU territory of pests injurious to plant health but this regulation also includes regulating pests on the basis of pre-established criteria for risk assesment and prioritising of pests with the most serious consequences. [less ▲]

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See detailProduits de bio-contrôle, biopesticides, bioherbicides : Quels sont ces produits ? A-t-on évalué les risques liés à leur emploi ?
Schiffers, Bruno ULg

Article for general public (2016)

Pour réduire l’application des produits phytopharmaceutiques (les "pesticides") et notamment les herbicides largement utilisés jusque ces dernières années dans toutes les communes pour le désherbage des ... [more ▼]

Pour réduire l’application des produits phytopharmaceutiques (les "pesticides") et notamment les herbicides largement utilisés jusque ces dernières années dans toutes les communes pour le désherbage des espaces publics, de nouvelles substances actives sont soumises à autorisation et de nouveaux produits, issus du milieu et basés sur des mécanismes naturels de contrôle, apparaissent progressivement sur le marché. L’attente de produits de bio-contrôle, tant du côté des chercheurs que des autorités de régulation, de l’industrie et du public, se rejoignent : obtenir une protection ou un désherbage efficace des cultures sans les inconvénients liés à l’emploi de la majorité des produits de synthèse actuellement utilisés. En effet, si l’efficacité et la facilité d'emploi des pesticides de synthèse n’est pas plus à démontrer, leur usage intensif et récurrent sur les cultures, en espaces verts ou chez les particuliers a entraîné de nombreux effets non désirés et des coûts cachés pour la santé, l’épuration des eaux ou encore la perte de valeur des services écosystémiques offerts par les auxiliaires et les pollinisateurs. Toutes les parties prenantes de la protection des cultures, notamment les agriculteurs et les firmes, mettent aujourd’hui beaucoup d’espoir dans les biopesticides. D’autant que, s’il s’agit bien de nouvelles solutions techniques, leur mise en œuvre ne remet fondamentalement en question ni les stratégies d’intervention, ni les schémas de lutte contre les bioagresseurs. Il est encore à ce stade plus question de substitution des produits chimiques par des produits issus du milieu naturel que de modifier en profondeur les pratiques culturales comme le proposent par ailleurs l’agriculture biologique ou l’agroécologie. Or, ce qui est "naturel" n’est pas nécessairement synonyme de "sans danger pour l’homme ou son environnement". Beaucoup de substances naturelles ou d’organismes (toxines, alcaloïdes, virus, bactéries…) peuvent avoir de réels effets néfastes pour l’homme et les animaux exposés. Il est donc légitime de s’interroger, d’abord sur la nature de ces produits de bio-contrôle, ensuite sur les risques qui pourraient être liés à leur utilisation en protection des cultures. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of efficiency and selectivity of three bio-insecticides for the protection of tomatoes in Burkina Faso
Son, Diakalia ULg; Somda, I.; Legrève, Anne et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2016), 81(3), 289-297

The search for less toxic products and alternative methods is a need to elaborate integrated control strategies for growing tomatoes in Burkina Faso to reduce the dependence of farmers on pesticides. A ... [more ▼]

The search for less toxic products and alternative methods is a need to elaborate integrated control strategies for growing tomatoes in Burkina Faso to reduce the dependence of farmers on pesticides. A trail was carried out in the village of Koula, from December 2015 to March 2016, to assess the effectivveness and action spectrum of biopesticides on several key pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Burkina Faso, namely two Lepidoptera caterpillars (Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Utetheisa pulchella L.) and whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)). The effectiveness of the three products already sold in the country has been evaluated: Bio K 16 (1.5 kg/ha), H-N (3 L/ha) and PiOL (3 L/ha). In the aim to cover the spectrum of pests, and thus coming closer to integrated Pest Management practical conditions, eache biopesticides has been applied in association with abamectine, an insecticide-acaricide (ALCARIUS 18 EC, 1 L/ha). In general, all treatments resulted in significant protection of the tomato fruit against caterpillars of moths, but had no effect on Bemisia tabaci. The combination Bacillus thuringiensis-abamectine hasprovided both the best protection of the fruits and the highest yield (19.6 T/ha). This combination could be recommended as part of IPM in tomato cultivation. [less ▲]

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See detailA survey of pesticide residues in cut flowers from various countries
Toumi, Khaoula ULg; Vleminckx, Christiane; Van Loco, Joris et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2016), 81(3), 493-502

As in any intensive culture, flowers require the use of a wide range of pesticides to control diseases and pests which can damage production and marketability. In order to evaluate the average levels of ... [more ▼]

As in any intensive culture, flowers require the use of a wide range of pesticides to control diseases and pests which can damage production and marketability. In order to evaluate the average levels of contamination of the cut flowers and to assess the risk for professionals exposed to pesticide residues when handling cut flowers, a survey was carried out with a group of florists from the Belgian largest cities. Fifty samples of roses (5 stems per bouquet) were collected: 45 bouquets were sampled in the 7 largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege and Namur) and 5 were sampled from 5 supermarkets. Analysis of residual pesticide deposit is made by combining two multi-residue methods (GC-MS-MS and LC-MS-MS) in a laboratory accredited for pesticide residues. For all the samples analysed, a total of 97 active substances were detected, i.e. an average of 14 active substances per bouquet and a total average pesticide load of 26,03 mg/kg per flower sample. Most active substances (a.s.) reached high levels of residues, with concentrations between 10 and 50 mg/kg. Samples from Belgium and The Netherlands have a lower average number of a.s./sample, but the amount of residues is about the same in all samples (20-30 mg/kg) whatever the country of origin , except for the sample from Germany who is the worst case (22 a.s. with a total amount of 92 mg/kg). Most of the detected active substances are fungicides (dodemorph, spiroxamine, cyprodinil, fluopyram, pyrimethanil, benomyl (carbendazim), propamocarb, boscalid and iprodione) which are present on more than 20 of the 50 samples. All of them have a dermal acute toxicity. Consequently, florists who handle a large number of flowers are exposed daily with a potential effect on their health. [less ▲]

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See detailPesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium
Toumi, Khaoula ULg; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2016), 13(10), 943-957

In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in ... [more ▼]

In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that, despite being exposed to high deposits of residues, florists usually do not protect themselves from contact with residues even if they spend several hours handling cut flowers and preparing bouquets (from 2 to 6 h/day, depending on the time of year and/or selling periods) daily. Bad habits (eating, drinking, or smoking at work) and absence of personal protective equipment of most florists also increase the risk of contact with pesticide residues. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude des potentialités des systèmes d’application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA) pour les traitements phytosanitaires en céréaliculture (synthèse bibliographique)
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg; De Cock, Nicolas ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016)

Introduction. L’application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA) présente le double avantage de réduire à la fois l’étendue de la distribution des tailles des gouttes et le volume appliqué par rapport aux buses ... [more ▼]

Introduction. L’application contrôlée des gouttes (CDA) présente le double avantage de réduire à la fois l’étendue de la distribution des tailles des gouttes et le volume appliqué par rapport aux buses hydrauliques conventionnelles. Littérature. Cette revue investigue la potentialité de la CDA par rapport aux buses hydrauliques dans le cadre du désherbage précoce des adventices (2-3 feuilles). En termes de rétention, les études reliant les caractéristiques des gouttes (taille, vitesse et direction) et l’architecture, la densité et la mouillabilité du feuillage, en fonction de la formulation de bouillies, ont été abordées. Ces études montrent que des gouttes de 300 μm avec un adjuvant approprié et des jets émis 60° vers l’avant par rapport à la verticale contribuent à l’augmentation de la rétention sur les cibles problématiques à port dressé. L’effet des réductions des volumes d’application pour ces deux techniques est étudié sur base de la moyenne, du coefficient de variation et du taux de couverture des dépôts. Néanmoins, les résultats de ces études ne peuvent être généralisés du fait des différences de réglages opératoires entre les deux techniques d’application. Quant à la dérive, les atomiseurs CDA orientés horizontalement présentent un potentiel de dérive plus important que les buses hydrauliques pour lesquelles le spray est orienté vers le bas. La dérive augmente avec la vitesse du vent et diminue lorsque le diamètre médian volumétrique (DV50) augmente. Conclusions. De nouveaux réglages des atomiseurs de la CDA en termes de DV50 et de direction du jet peuvent répondre aux défis de l’agriculture de précision. Les pistes d’innovations proposées sont d’une part une amélioration de la résistance à l’usure des dents situées en bordure des disques et, d’autre part, une distribution granulométrique plus étroite. [less ▲]

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See detailDrift potential of tilted shielded rotary atomisers based on wind tunnel measurements
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; De Cock, Nicolas ULg et al

in 67th International Symposium on Crop Protection (2015, May 19)

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See detailDrift of tilted shielded rotary atomisers based on wind tunnel measurements
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; De Cock, Nicolas ULg et al

in Proceedings of International Symposium on Crop Protection Ghent 2015 (2015)

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See detailOptimisation de la rétention des produits phytosanitaires sur une surface superhydrophobe
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Schiffers, Bruno ULg et al

in Journée Nationale sur la valorisation des Résultats de la Recherche dans le Domaine des Grandes Cultures (2014, April 17)

La protection des cultures est principalement réalisée en Tunisie par l’application de bouillies phytosanitaires à base d’eau. Au niveau de l’impact des gouttes sur le feuillage, trois types de ... [more ▼]

La protection des cultures est principalement réalisée en Tunisie par l’application de bouillies phytosanitaires à base d’eau. Au niveau de l’impact des gouttes sur le feuillage, trois types de comportement sont observés, à savoir l’adhésion, le rebond et la fragmentation. Ces types d’impact affectent la rétention par le feuillage et dépendent de la taille et de la vitesse des gouttes, des propriétés physico-chimiques de la bouillie et de la mouillabilité des surfaces foliaires. Une technique d’imagerie rapide a permis d’évaluer la pertinence de l’utilisation d’adjuvants tensio-actifs en vue d’améliorer la rétention en agissant sur le type d’impact. Des essais de rétention sur feuilles de vulpin, surface très peu mouillables ou superhydrophobe, montrent que l’ajout d’un adjuvant 0,1 %v/v dans l’eau contribue à l’amélioration des dépôts. La proportion d’adhésion a augmenté alors que celle du rebond a diminué. Cette technique en laboratoire est un outil efficace pour évaluer les pratiques culturales des agriculteurs et de fournir des conseils et recommandations pratiques en fonction des cibles. [less ▲]

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See detailChapitre 9. Retour d’expérience. Institutions internationales - Chap. 9.4. Approche opérationnelle du PIP dans le soutien des petits producteurs africains face aux standards privés
STINGLHAMBER, Guy; Schiffers, Bruno ULg

in HAMMOUDI, Abdelhakim; GRAZIA, Cristina; SURRY, Yves (Eds.) Sécurité sanitaire des aliments : Régulation, analyses économiques et retours d'expérience (2014)

Les crises sanitaires de ces dernières années (E. coli, vache folle, poulet à la dioxine) ont fait prendre conscience de façon particulièrement violente des dangers liés à un développement non maîtrisé de ... [more ▼]

Les crises sanitaires de ces dernières années (E. coli, vache folle, poulet à la dioxine) ont fait prendre conscience de façon particulièrement violente des dangers liés à un développement non maîtrisé de systèmes agricoles intensifs et fortement industrialisés. L’évolution de la régulation au niveau international se heurte cependant à la difficulté de concilier, d’une part, l’efficacité des mesures sur le plan sanitaire et, d’autre part, l’assurance d’un bon fonctionnement de l’activité économique. Cet ouvrage propose un état des lieux des démarches de sécurité des aliments existantes ainsi qu’une série d’analyses critiques sur les méthodes et les instruments de régulation utilisés aux niveaux national et international dans le contexte actuel de forte interdépendance des économies des pays en développement et des pays développés. Une des originalités de cet ouvrage consiste dans la mise en perspective d’analyses de chercheurs et des retours d’expérience de professionnels des deux hémisphères du globe et d’institutionnels directement concernés par la question. Sécurité sanitaire des aliments s’adresse à tous les acteurs de l’agroalimentaire qu’ils soient étudiants, industriels ou chercheurs. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of rotary atomiser to optimize retention on barley leaves while reducing driftable droplets
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Boukhalfa, Hassina dite Hafida ULg et al

in International Advances in Pesticide Application, Aspects of Applied Biology 122 (2014, January)

Controlled Droplet Application using rotary atomiser is based on an improved control of droplet size and trajectory comparatively to hydraulic nozzles. On the basis of literature, it was stated that the ... [more ▼]

Controlled Droplet Application using rotary atomiser is based on an improved control of droplet size and trajectory comparatively to hydraulic nozzles. On the basis of literature, it was stated that the use of 60° forward angled spray combined with the narrow drop size distribution of a rotary atomiser could lead to low drift and high retention on monocotyledonous and superhydrophobic weeds at early stage. A Micromax120 atomiser was tuned to emit 270 µm VMD, 60° angled forward, to increase interception by the canopy structure. A spray mixture containing a superspreader adjuvant was used to avoid drop bouncing. An increase of spray retention comparatively to a Teejet 11002 at 1.4 bars was observed, although not proved statistically significant by these preliminary trials. On the drift side, the tilted spinning disc seemed to be advantageous since droplet spectra contains a low percentage of droplets under 100 µm and presents an ejection velocity of 25 m.s-1 at 5000 RPM. The spray drift was reduced about 50%. However, these setting were not found as efficient as expected. Indeed, angled spray proved to be more sensitive to advection and turbulence, as the spray was more exposed to the airflow than for the vertical position. It appears that angling the spray and choosing a drop size spectrum with a Volume Median Diameter as big as 270 µm is not sufficient to reduce significantly this issue. Some alternatives as decreasing the emission height are possible with angled sprays but require height control that seems difficult to reach in practical situations. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the general phytosanitary situation: development of a plant health barometer
Wilmart, Olivier; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman et al

in European Journal of Plant Pathology (2014), Online First Articles

The development of a plant health barometer, an instrument to measure the general phytosanitary situation on a national level (Belgium) and on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is ... [more ▼]

The development of a plant health barometer, an instrument to measure the general phytosanitary situation on a national level (Belgium) and on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 plant health indicators (PHI’s) as the basis for the plant health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agroindustrial representatives - to determine their relative impact in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with the previous year. Based on the results of the 13 PHI’s, it is concluded that the general plant health in Belgium shows a positive evolution from 2007 until 2010 and a negative evolution from 2010 until 2012. The plant health barometer provides a overview of the phytosanitary situation of plants and plant products in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of plant health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the plant production chain. Together with the food safety barometer and the animal health barometer, the plant health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a overview on the general status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of a commercial formulation of a plant resistance elicitor on non-target organisms
Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Buenotesta, Raphaël; Schiffers, Bruno ULg

in Bulletin OILB/SROP = IOBC/WPRS Bulletin (2014), 103

The toxicity of Fyto11, a plant resistance elicitor commercial formulation used to increase the natural resistance of Cucurbitaceae (cucumber, zucchini and melon) and Solanaceae (tomato and sweet pepper ... [more ▼]

The toxicity of Fyto11, a plant resistance elicitor commercial formulation used to increase the natural resistance of Cucurbitaceae (cucumber, zucchini and melon) and Solanaceae (tomato and sweet pepper) against powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions, has been assessed on several beneficial arthropods: the honeybee Apis mellifera, the predatory miteTyphlodromus pyri, the aphid parasitic wasp Aphidius rhopalosiphi and the aphid predator Episyrphus balteatus. Tested at 0.5% and 1.0% spray dilution on plants, Fyto11 did not lead to significant corrected mortalities for E. balteatus larvae and adult wasps of A. rhopalosiphi, with a maximum of 5.4% mortality. No effects on reproduction capacity of the parasitic wasps were observed. The exposure of T. pyri protonymphs to Fyto11 on glass plates lead to corrected mortalities of 1.1% and 32.6% at 0.5% and 1.0% and to a reduction of female fertility of 9.0% and 25.4%, compared to the control performance. When assessed on the honeybee by contact and oral exposure, Fyto11 did not lead to significant effects, with LD50 estimated as > 10 μg a.i./bee (oral) and 12.5 μg a.i./bee (contact), leading to HQ ratio < 50 and classifying the product at no or low risk for honeybees. These results showed that the product was harmless for all beneficials at the proposed commercial rate, except for T. pyri at 1.0% on glass plates, where the product was rated as slightly harmful. Even if all the beneficial species’ diversity has not been assessed with this product, negative effects on non-target organisms are not expected in field conditions and Fyto11 can be considered as compatible with IPM programs. [less ▲]

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