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See detailThe extreme ultraviolet imager of solar orbiter: optical design and alignment scheme
Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Mazzoli, Alexandra ULg; Meining, S. et al

in SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications (2015)

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See detailOn-Orbit Degradation of Solar Instruments
BenMoussa, A.; Gissot, S.; Schühle, U. et al

in Solar Physics (2013)

We present the lessons learned about the degradation observed in several space solar missions, based on contributions at the Workshop about On-Orbit Degradation of Solar and Space Weather Instruments that ... [more ▼]

We present the lessons learned about the degradation observed in several space solar missions, based on contributions at the Workshop about On-Orbit Degradation of Solar and Space Weather Instruments that took place at the Solar Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (Royal Observatory of Belgium) in Brussels on 3 May 2012. The aim of this workshop was to open discussions related to the degradation observed in Sun-observing instruments exposed to the effects of the space environment. This article summarizes the various lessons learned and offers recommendations to reduce or correct expected degradation with the goal of increasing the useful lifespan of future and ongoing space missions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EUI instrument on board the Solar Orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation
Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Rochus, Pierre ULg; Renotte, Etienne ULg et al

in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2012, June)

The Solar Orbiter mission will explore the connection between the Sun and its heliosphere, taking advantage of an orbit approaching the Sun at 0.28 AU. As part of this mission, the Extreme Ultraviolet ... [more ▼]

The Solar Orbiter mission will explore the connection between the Sun and its heliosphere, taking advantage of an orbit approaching the Sun at 0.28 AU. As part of this mission, the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) will provide full-sun and high-resolution image sequences of the solar atmosphere at selected spectral emission lines in the extreme and vacuum ultraviolet. To achieve the required scientific performances under the challenging constraints of the Solar Orbiter mission it was required to further develop existing technologies. As part of this development, and of its maturation of technology readiness, a set of breadboard and prototypes of critical subsystems have thus been realized to improve the overall instrument design. The EUI instrument architecture, its major components and sub-systems are described with their driving constraints and the expected performances based on the breadboard and prototype results. The instrument verification and qualification plan will also be discussed. We present the thermal and mechanical model validation, the instrument test campaign with the structural-thermal model (STM), followed by the other instrument models in advance of the flight instrument manufacturing and AIT campaign. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar magnetism eXplorer (SolmeX)
Peter, Hardi; Abbo, L.; Andretta, V. et al

in Experimental Astronomy (2011)

The magnetic field plays a pivotal role in many fields of Astrophysics. This is especially true for the physics of the solar atmosphere. Measuring the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere is ... [more ▼]

The magnetic field plays a pivotal role in many fields of Astrophysics. This is especially true for the physics of the solar atmosphere. Measuring the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere is crucial to understand the nature of the underlying physical processes that drive the violent dynamics of the solar corona—that can also affect life on Earth. SolmeX, a fully equipped solar space observatory for remote-sensing observations, will provide the first comprehensive measurements of the strength and direction of the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere. The mission consists of two spacecraft, one carrying the instruments, and another one in formation flight at a distance of about 200 m carrying the occulter to provide an artificial total solar eclipse. This will ensure high-quality coronagraphic observations above the solar limb. SolmeX integrates two spectro-polarimetric coronagraphs for off-limb observations, one in the EUV and one in the IR, and three instruments for observations on the disk. The latter comprises one imaging polarimeter in the EUV for coronal studies, a spectro-polarimeter in the EUV to investigate the low corona, and an imaging spectro-polarimeter in the UV for chromospheric studies. SOHO and other existing missions have investigated the emission of the upper atmosphere in detail (not considering polarization), and as this will be the case also for missions planned for the near future. Therefore it is timely that SolmeX provides the final piece of the observational quest by measuring the magnetic field in the upper atmosphere through polarimetric observations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) onboard the SOLAR ORBITER mission
Rochus, Pierre ULg; Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Renotte, Etienne ULg et al

in A3. 4. Space-based Astronomy (2009)

Solar Orbiter will for the first time study the Sun with a full suite of in-situ and remote sensing instruments from inside 0.25 AU and will provide imaging and spectral observations of the Sun’s polar ... [more ▼]

Solar Orbiter will for the first time study the Sun with a full suite of in-situ and remote sensing instruments from inside 0.25 AU and will provide imaging and spectral observations of the Sun’s polar regions, from out of the ecliptic. This proximity to the Sun will also have the significant advantage that the spacecraft will fly in near synchronization with the Sun’s rotation, allowing observations of the solar surface and heliosphere to be studied from a near co-rotating vantage point for almost a complete solar rotation. The mission’s ambitious characteristics draw severe constraints on the design of these instruments. The scientific objectives of Solar Orbiter rely ubiquitously on the Extreme EUV Imager suite (EUI). The EUI instrument suite on board of Solar Orbiter is composed of two high resolution imagers (HRI), one at Lyman α and one dual band at the two 174 and 335 EUV passbands in the extreme UV, and one dual band full-sun imager (FSI) working alternatively at the two 174 and 304 EUV passbands. In all the units, the image is produced by a mirror-telescope, working in nearly normal incidence. The EUV reflectivity of the optical surfaces is obtained with specific EUV multilayered coatings, providing the spectral selection of the EUV units (1HRI and 1 FSI). The spectral selection is complemented with very thin filters rejecting the visible and IR radiation. Due to its orbit, EUI / Solar Orbiter will see 20 solar constants and an entrance baffle to limit the solar heat input into EUI is needed. The paper presents the scientific objectives of EUI and also covers the EUI instrument development plan which will require some trade-off between existing and promising technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance of diamond detectors for VUV applications
BenMoussa, A.; Theissen, A.; Scholze, F. et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (2006), 568(1), 398-405

We report on experimental results with photodetectors made of diamond. the Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA), will use such detectors for the first time for a solar physics space instrument. A (LYRA) set of ... [more ▼]

We report on experimental results with photodetectors made of diamond. the Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA), will use such detectors for the first time for a solar physics space instrument. A (LYRA) set of measurement campaigns was carried out to obtain their XUV-to-VIS characterization (responsivity, linearity, stability, homogeneity). The responsivity has been measured from the XUV to the NIR, in the wavelength range 1-1127 nm (i.e. 1240-1.1 eV). The diamond detectors exhibit a photoresponse varying in the 40-75 mA/W range at 7 nm and demonstrate a visible rejection ratio (200 versus 500 nm) larger than four orders of magnitude. We show that diamond photodetectors are sensitive sensors for VUV photons, stable within a few percent, with a good linearity and moderate homogeneity. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLYRA, a solar UV radiometer on PROBA2
Hochedez; Schmutz, W.; Stockman, Yvan ULg et al

in Advances in Space Research (2006), 37

LYRA is the solar UV radiometer that will embark in 2006 onboard Proba2, a technologically oriented ESA micro-mission. LYRA is designed and manufactured by a Belgian–Swiss–German consortium (ROB, PMOD/WRC ... [more ▼]

LYRA is the solar UV radiometer that will embark in 2006 onboard Proba2, a technologically oriented ESA micro-mission. LYRA is designed and manufactured by a Belgian–Swiss–German consortium (ROB, PMOD/WRC, IMOMEC, CSL, MPS and BISA) with additional international collaborations. It will monitor the solar irradiance in four UV passbands. They have been chosen for their relevance to Solar Physics, Aeronomy and Space Weather: (1) the 115–125 nm Lyman-a channel, (2) the 200–220 nm Herzberg continuum range, (3) the Aluminium filter channel (17–70 nm) including He II at 30.4 nm and (4) the Zirconium filter channel (1–20 nm). The radiometric calibration will be traceable to synchrotron source standards (PTB and NIST). The stability will be monitored by onboard calibration sources (LEDs), which allow to distinguish between potential degradations of the detectors and filters. Additionally, a redundancy strategy maximizes the accuracy and the stability of the measurements. LYRA will benefit from wide bandgap detectors based on diamond: it will be the first space assessment of a pioneering UV detectors program. Diamond sensors make the instruments radiation-hard and solar-blind: their high bandgap energy makes them insensitive to visible light and, therefore, make dispensable visible light blocking filters, which seriously attenuate the desired ultraviolet signal. Their elimination augments the effective area and hence the signal-to-noise, therefore increasing the precision and the cadence. The SWAP EUV imaging telescope will operate next to LYRA on Proba2. Together, they will establish a high performance solar monitor for operational space weather nowcasting and research. LYRA demonstrates technologies important for future missions such as the ESA Solar Orbiter [less ▲]

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See detailSolar-blind diamond detectors for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA II
Benmoussa, A.; Hochedez, J. F.; Schmutz, W. K. et al

in Experimental Astronomy (2003), 16(3), 141-148

Fabrication, packaging and experimental results on the calibration of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors made on diamond are reported. LYRA (Lyrnan-alpha RAdiometer onboard PROBA-2) will use ... [more ▼]

Fabrication, packaging and experimental results on the calibration of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors made on diamond are reported. LYRA (Lyrnan-alpha RAdiometer onboard PROBA-2) will use diamond detectors for the first time in space for a solar physics instrument. A set of measurement campaigns was designed to obtain the XUV-to-VIS responsivity of the devices and other characterizations. The measurements of responsivity in EUV and VUV spectral ranges (40-240 nm) have been carried out by the Physkalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The longer wavelength range from 210 to 1127 nm was measured with monochromatic light by using a Xe-lamp at IMO-IMOMEC. The diamond detectors exhibit a photoresponse which lie in the 35-65 mA/W range at 200 nm (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 20-40%) and indicate a visible rejection ratio (200-500 nm) higher than four orders of magnitude. [less ▲]

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