References of "Scali, Thérèse"
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See detailLesbians and gay men accessing parenthood: opportunities and challenges
Scali, Thérèse ULg

Scientific conference (2016, November 28)

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See detailBelgian Heterosexuals’ Attitudes towards Gay and Lesbian Couples and Same-sex Parenting
Scali, Thérèse ULg

Doctoral thesis (2016)

The legal situation of Belgian gay men and lesbians may be perceived as one of the best in Europe. Indeed, the Belgian Parliament has legalized marriage and parenting for same-sex couples, has enacted ... [more ▼]

The legal situation of Belgian gay men and lesbians may be perceived as one of the best in Europe. Indeed, the Belgian Parliament has legalized marriage and parenting for same-sex couples, has enacted anti-discrimination laws, and has designed and funded several action plans to combat homophobia. Since the opening up of marriage to same-sex couples in 2003, around a thousand gay and a thousand lesbian marriages are celebrated each year in Belgium (Direction Générale Statistique et Information Économique, 2015). Moreover, since the legalization of parenthood for gay men and lesbians, more and more same-sex couples adopt children or resort to artificial insemination, and the total number of children growing up with same-sex parents is growing steadily. Thus, a new reality is emerging: the reality of same-sex headed families. However, in spite of the civil rights granted to gay men and lesbians, the issue of social acceptance of same-sex couples and their children still remains and Belgium continues to record increasing levels of violence against homosexual people. Therefore, the main objective of the present thesis was to explore Belgian heterosexuals’ attitudes towards same-sex marriage and same-sex parenting. The first goal was to investigate the social and personal factors that may be associated with positive and negative attitudes towards same-sex marriage and those towards same-sex parenting (Study 1). The results of self-report questionnaires (N = 1168) revealed that the general attitude towards gay men and lesbians, gender-role traditionalism, beliefs in the origin of homosexuality, representations about child well-being and contact are major predictors of attitudes towards gay and lesbian civil rights. Moreover, results revealed that attitudes differed according to participant’s gender (heterosexual men are less supportive of both same-sex marriage and same-sex parenting than heterosexual women). The respective role of several variables was also discussed (gender-role traditionalism, beliefs in the origin of homosexuality, general attitudes towards gay men and lesbians, representations of child well-being and contact). We demonstrated that increasing intergroup contact can help diminish the impact of some personal beliefs on attitudes towards same-sex parenting. Moreover, results revealed that the degree of support differed in regard to the different types of parenthood. Moreover, several authors in the field of social psychology highlighted the role of beliefs and social representations upon attitudes (Dardenne, 2006). Specifically, attitudes towards gay men and lesbians as parents seem to be somehow beliefs-based (Costa, 2013). Our next objectives were to explore the arguments in favour and against same-sex parenting, both in the general population through the comments posted on social networks (Study 2) and with health-care professionals working in family counselling centres (Study 3). Both studies highlighted positive and negative arguments, each linked to one of the following category: societal and legal context, religiosity, contact, representations of homosexuality, gender-role traditionalism, general attitudes towards gay men and lesbians and representations about child well-being. Moreover, a comparative analysis of the two samples allowed us to state that the arguments held by the social workers are quite similar to those held by the citizens in the general population. Thus, we concluded that health-care professionals’ attitudes are based on naïve knowledge rather than on scientific knowledge, and this lack of scientific knowledge on same-sex parenting has an impact not only on social workers’ attitudes but also on their interventions. To conclude, our work demonstrated that, in Belgium, the barriers to accepting rainbow couples and families are no longer legal, but social. Nearly ten years after the law on adoption for same-sex couples, the country remains relatively conservative and traditional in some regards. Therefore, by demystifying and deconstructing ill-conceived ideas, it will be possible to move towards greater acceptance. Thus, more positive attitudes may be reached when in-depth work has taken place on social perceptions, particularly around questions of gender-role traditionalism, the representations of homosexuality and same-sex lifestyle, and around the child’s well-being. In particular, it is important to deconstruct stereotypes about gay men and lesbians and open minds to other possible forms of families. To achieve those goals, the role of intergroup contact is very important. It is, consequently, also down to psycho-social trainers to create homophobia prevention programmes based on tailor-made training sessions, taking into account the specificities of each group and their beliefs. Finally, we recommend that future research focuses upon same-sex parent families, in order to enrich the scientific data available on these families and their experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailFaire famille aujourd'hui : expériences de personnes gays, lesbiennes et trans
Scali, Thérèse ULg

Conference (2016, October 19)

Les multiples systèmes, formes, catégories et pratiques de la parenté ont retenu l’attention des anthropologues comme une dimension centrale des façons dont les individus et les groupes humains conçoivent ... [more ▼]

Les multiples systèmes, formes, catégories et pratiques de la parenté ont retenu l’attention des anthropologues comme une dimension centrale des façons dont les individus et les groupes humains conçoivent et vivent leurs rapports à eux-mêmes, aux autres, aux sociétés et au monde qui les entoure. Dans différents contextes et périodes historiques, des évolutions – tant démographiques, politiques, socio-culturelles, économiques, juridiques, scientifiques, médicales, ou encore relatives aux âges ou aux genres – ont contribué à sa (re)définition constante. Force est de constater que les innovations récentes concernant, entre autres, les technologies de procréation médicalement assistée et de gestation pour autrui, ou les débats autour du « mariage pour tous » et de l’adoption par des couples du même sexe, ont parfois été interprétés en termes de profondes ruptures par rapport à des conceptions plus « traditionnelles » de la parenté, ce qui leur confère un certain caractère inédit et polémique. D’un point de vue anthropologique, ces reconfigurations de la parenté témoignent de différentes modalités d’articulation entre le social, le culturel et le biologique, faits de société et faits de nature, construit et inné, dans la définition de la parenté. Cela amène à repenser la parenté dans toutes ses dimensions, du public à l’intime. Partant de l’anthropologie, et afin d’élargir le champ des réflexions empiriques, théoriques et épistémologiques, ce colloque invite à croiser les perspectives sur les (re)configurations contemporaines de la parenté dans les sciences humaines et sociales en privilégiant les approches ethnographiques. Il comprend deux axes principaux mais non exclusifs. Le premier axe entend appréhender les manières dont la question des (re)configurations contemporaines de la parenté est posée dans différents espaces publics et intimes. Le second axe ouvre quant à lui un débat épistémologique sur les regards croisés et comparatifs entre divers contextes, thématiques ou disciplines en invitant à analyser les enjeux, apports et limites issus de tels travaux de recherche. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition to parenthood of lesbian parents: key processes and clinical implications
Scali, Thérèse ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 29)

The transition to parenthood is a key process for understanding the development of family relationships in a systemic perspective. This process has been studied mostly in heterosexual families but very ... [more ▼]

The transition to parenthood is a key process for understanding the development of family relationships in a systemic perspective. This process has been studied mostly in heterosexual families but very few studies focus on families with same-sex families. This exploratory study analyzes the key passages of the transition from 17 lesbian headed families through a quantitative analysis of socio-demographic data, information about the coming-out, pair formation, project of the child, the child's arrival, as well as social and cultural pressures towards family and stressors. The main results show that the decision making to become parents is generally harmonious (70%) between the members of the couple, and only a few had substantial conflicts (17,1%). Moreover, the motivation to become parents seems to be stronger for the mother who carried the child (57, 1%)than for the social mother. The majority of the lesbian mothers reported no medical homophobia (64,3%) Regarding the caregiving tasks, they seem to be equally shared between social and biological mothers. In regards to the child, almost 70% are aware of their parents’ sexual orientation (as only 5.7% are not fully aware). Finally, no changes in the quality of relationship with the family of origin have been found after the birth of the baby. Clinical implications of these results will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDéfis et besoins des intervenants psycho-sociaux en planning familial face à la thématique de l’homoparentalité.
Scali, Thérèse ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

in Thérapie Familiale (2016), 37(2), 177-194

Depuis 2006 en Belgique, le cadre législatif permet aux couples homosexuels l’accès à la parentalité. Ainsi, les intervenants psycho-sociaux sont aujourd’hui face à une réalité qui les interpelle et qui ... [more ▼]

Depuis 2006 en Belgique, le cadre législatif permet aux couples homosexuels l’accès à la parentalité. Ainsi, les intervenants psycho-sociaux sont aujourd’hui face à une réalité qui les interpelle et qui leur demande d’intervenir : travail clinique, psychoéducation, sensibilisation dans les écoles, conférences, formations… En utilisant la méthode des focus groupes, la présente recherche a investigué les attitudes des intervenants psycho-sociaux dans les plannings familiaux face à la thématique de l’homoparentalité. Les résultats ont mis en évidence trois dimensions : la réalité de terrain des intervenants avec les défis auxquels ils sont confrontés, leurs expériences et leurs ressentis, leurs questionnements et leurs besoins. Ces résultats pourront aider à promouvoir la santé et la qualité de vie des personnes homosexuelles en favorisant la compréhension des réactions des professionnels hétérosexuels auxquels ils sont confrontés. [less ▲]

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See detailAttitudes toward Gay and Lesbian Marriage and Parenting Across Seven European Countries
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Green, Robert-Jay; Katzuny, Katy et al

Conference (2015, July 08)

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See detailLes attitudes des hétérosexuels envers le mariage et la parentalité des gays et des lesbiennes en Belgique francophone
Scali, Thérèse ULg

Scientific conference (2015, March 31)

Les droits des homosexuels à travers le monde sont en constante évolution. Nonobstant l’important nombre de droits civils qui leur sont accordés en Belgique, la question de l’acceptation sociale des ... [more ▼]

Les droits des homosexuels à travers le monde sont en constante évolution. Nonobstant l’important nombre de droits civils qui leur sont accordés en Belgique, la question de l’acceptation sociale des couples et des familles de gays et de lesbiennes reste posée. L’objectif principal de notre projet est d’examiner les facteurs corrélés à l’acceptation et/ou au rejet du mariage et à la parentalité pour les gays et les lesbiennes. La présente présentation sera axée autour de deux volets : une méthodologie quantitative et une méthodologie qualitative d’analyse des attitudes. En particulier, nous tenterons de démontrer le rôle du genre sur les attitudes et les représentations sociales. Les résultats quantitatifs montrent que les prédicteurs des attitudes positives et négatives sont différents pour les hommes et pour les femmes. Les résultats qualitatifs quant à eux ont mis en lumière les stéréotypes particuliers qui sont encore véhiculés à l’heure actuelle, tant dans la population tout venant, que chez les professionnels de la santé. Enfin, les deux méthodologies ont montré que les attitudes diffèrent envers les gays et les lesbiennes. [less ▲]

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See detailPutting Prejudice into Perspective: Does Perceived Suitability for Adoption Depend on Sexual Orientation More Than on Other Applicant Features?
Steffens, Melanie C.; Jonas, Kai J.; Scali, Thérèse ULg

in Sensoria – a Journal of Mind, Brain & Culture (2015), 6

Most prejudice studies focus on a single aspect, for instance, sexual prejudice, overlooking other individual characteristics or multiple minority status (i.e., identity intersections). As a drawback ... [more ▼]

Most prejudice studies focus on a single aspect, for instance, sexual prejudice, overlooking other individual characteristics or multiple minority status (i.e., identity intersections). As a drawback, this approach could overestimate specific sources of prejudice. We demonstrated this empirically in the context of the controversial topic of adoption by samegender couples. In three experiments (total N = 603) we examined the conditions under which members of the general population rate target adults’ written applications as indicating suitability for adopting, independently manipulating target sexual orientation, gender, socio-economic status (SES), and age. We found that SES explained as much or more variance in adoption suitability decisions as sexual orientation; applicant gender influenced those decisions more than applicant sexual orientation. Younger applicants were also preferred to older ones. Few interactions were obtained. Mediators of adoption suitability decisions were assumptions about the general wellbeing of the child, and specific worries concerning the child. Our results suggest that reservations against adoption by same-gender couples may be overestimated if one focuses exclusively on sexual orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailSame-sex marriage and same-sex adoption: Socio-political context of the rights of gay and lesbian people in Belgium
Scali, Thérèse ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

in Psychology of Sexualities Review (2015), 6(1), 81-98

Belgium is considered as being on the forefront of a number of rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT). In the 1990s, the law on legal cohabitation made it possible for same-sex ... [more ▼]

Belgium is considered as being on the forefront of a number of rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT). In the 1990s, the law on legal cohabitation made it possible for same-sex couples to draw up cohabitation contracts. Belgium then became the second country in Europe to authorise marriage between same-sex partners in 2003, as well as opening up access to parenthood to LGBT people, in 2006. In addition, the Government has launched several programmes to fight against homophobia in schools and in society in general. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes that have taken place in Belgian legislation from traditional family law through to the opening up of marriage and parenthood to homosexual couples, analysing the arguments which have been put forward in support and against it, as well as the potential rational behind shared agendas. It will also describe the emergence of the LGBT movement in Belgium, the various non-governmental organisations which are active in the country and the role they play. An overview of current events will be presented (changes in the number of marriages, divorces and adoptions in Belgium). Finally, the paper will discuss the reactions of Belgian society and the challenges which LGBT people living in Belgium still have to face. In this way, we aim to contribute towards an overview of the current socio-political context in Belgium, in order to better understanding the processes at work in a country which wants to be seen as gay-friendly. [less ▲]

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See detailLes intervenants psycho-sociaux face à l’homoparentalité: quels besoins et quels défis?
Scali, Thérèse ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

Conference (2014, December)

Les intervenants psycho-sociaux sont confrontés à une société changeante qui leur pose de nouveaux défis tant dans leur clinique que vis-à-vis des concepts théoriques auxquels ils se réfèrent. En ... [more ▼]

Les intervenants psycho-sociaux sont confrontés à une société changeante qui leur pose de nouveaux défis tant dans leur clinique que vis-à-vis des concepts théoriques auxquels ils se réfèrent. En particulier depuis 2006 en Belgique, le cadre législatif permet aux couples homosexuels l’accès à la parentalité. Ainsi, les psychologues de la santé sont aujourd’hui face à une réalité qui les interpelle et qui leur demande d’intervenir. Ces interventions sont nombreuses : travail clinique, psychoéducation, sensibilisation dans les écoles, conférences… Mais qu’en est-il réellement du contenu de ces interventions ? La présente recherche a investigué les attitudes des intervenants psycho-sociaux dans les plannings familiaux face à la thématique de l’homoparentalité. Une méthodologie d’investigation groupale (les focus groups) a été utilisée (Kitzinger, Markova & Kalampalikis, 2004). A travers 6 focus groups composés de 4 à 8 participants, des psychologues, médecins, assistants sociaux et juristes ont été amenés à discuter cette question de santé publique à travers l’analyse de leurs pratiques quotidiennes. Les résultats ont mis en évidence trois niveaux : la réalité de terrain des intervenants avec leurs expériences et leurs ressentis, leurs questionnements concrets liés à la méconnaissance du vécu des familles homoparentales, et leurs besoins en termes d’outils. Ces résultats pourront aider à promouvoir la santé et la qualité de vie des personnes homosexuelles en favorisant la compréhension des réactions des professionnels hétérosexuels auxquels ils sont confrontés. [less ▲]

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See detailLes attitudes des jeunes hétérosexuels envers les couples homosexuels et les familles homoparentales: premiers résultats d'une étude crossnationale (Belgique, France et Italie)
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Green, Robert-Jay; Gross, Martine et al

Scientific conference (2014, November 22)

Cette étude exploratoire vise à examiner les variables corrélées aux attitudes positives et négatives à l'égard du mariage (SSM) et des parents de même sexe (SSP) dans trois pays (France, Belgique, Italie ... [more ▼]

Cette étude exploratoire vise à examiner les variables corrélées aux attitudes positives et négatives à l'égard du mariage (SSM) et des parents de même sexe (SSP) dans trois pays (France, Belgique, Italie) où les personnes LGBT possèdent au moment de l’étude (2012-2013) différents niveaux de reconnaissance de leurs droits civils et parentales. Les attitudes ont été évaluées à travers de questionnaires en ligne chez une cohorte de 11180 participants s’auto-déclarant hétérosexuels résidants en Belgique, France et en Italie : 53% de femmes, 47% des hommes âgés de 18 à 25. Nous avons supposé que les attitudes positives envers les SSM et SSP seraient associées au sexe féminin, à une faible religiosité, à une idéologie politique libérale et à des autres variables comme le contact avec les personnes LGBT. Les résultats confirment que certaines variables sociodémographiques ainsi que le contact et la satisfaction relationnelle avec les personnes LGBT s’associent aux attitudes positives ou négatives. En particulier une plus grande satisfaction dans les relations avec les personnes LGBT s’associe à des attitudes plus positives envers les personnes LGBT en général, le mariage homosexuel et l’homoparentalité. La qualité de la relation semble être plus importante que la quantité dans la prédiction des attitudes positives. Limitations: Les étudiants qui ont participé à l’étude ne sont pas représentatifs de la population générale dans les trois pays. Ils n’ont pas été choisis au hasard parmi toutes les universités de chaque pays, de telle sorte les résultats ne sont pas généralisables à tous les étudiants. [less ▲]

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See detailComparing Heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay and lesbian couples and parents across Belgium, France and Italy
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Green, RJ; Katzuny, K et al

Conference (2014, July)

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See detailGay and Lesbian Families Well-Beeing: Respectively Ten and Seven years after the legalization of Same-sex Marriage and Same-sex Adoption in Belgium, understanding heterosexual adults' attitudes.
Scali, Thérèse ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Green, Robert-Jay

Conference (2014, July)

Belgium is one of the first European country to legalize marriage and adoption for same-sex couples (respectively in 2003 and 2006) and to state anti-discrimination laws (2008). Despite the legalization ... [more ▼]

Belgium is one of the first European country to legalize marriage and adoption for same-sex couples (respectively in 2003 and 2006) and to state anti-discrimination laws (2008). Despite the legalization, what can we say about adults’ attitudes? This study is part of an international project, and aims at studying the attitudes towards different kind of same-sex constellations – single gays and lesbians, couples, and families – and at examining the correlates to those attitudes. Attitudes were assessed through self-report questionnaires in a cohort of 366 heterosexual participants resident in Belgium, 72% females and 28% males aged from 26 to 40 (age class corresponding to transition lifecycle and parenting choices). Participants were asked to answer socio-demographic questions and to self-report their contact with homosexual people (frequency and satisfaction). Then different scales assessed their attitudes toward homosexuality (General Attitudes Toward Homosexuality, Da Costa, 2011; ATLG, Herek), same-sex marriage (Katuzny Scale on Same-Sex Marriage, 2012) and different types of same¬-sex parenting – adoption, alternative insemination, in vitro, ovocyte donation (D’Amore & Green Homoparentality Scale, 2012). It is hypothesized that correlates to positive attitudes will be associated with female gender, lower religiosity, non-protestant religions, liberal political ideology, and higher education and socioeconomic status. This presentation contributes to a better understanding of Belgian’s attitudes toward same-sex couples and same-sex families, by measuring the predictive variables of positive and negative attitudes. [less ▲]

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