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See detailFood provioning influences ranging patterns in northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina)
Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Savini, Tommaso ULg; Asensio, Norberto et al

in International Journal of Primatology (2015, January)

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See detailThe value of disturbance-tolerant cercopithecine monkeys as seed dispersers in degraded habitats
Albert, Aurélie; McConkey, Kim; Savini, Tommaso ULg et al

in Biological Conservation (2014), 170

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See detailThe role of Macaca spp (primates Cercopithecidae) in seed dispersal networks
Albert, Aurélie; Savini, Tommaso ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg

in Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (2013), 61

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See detailA study on the ecology of northern pigtail macaque (Amcaca nemestrina) in Khao Yai National PArk
Savini, Tommaso ULg; albert, aurélie; José Dominguez, Juan Manuel et al

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailHome range size and daily path length in a wild troop of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina): preliminary results
Jose Dominguez, Juan Manuel; Albert, aurélie; Garcia, CJ et al

Conference (2012, March)

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See detailSeasonal variations of ranging pattern in pigtailed macaques: influence of wild and human resources
Albert, Aurélie ULg; Savini, Tommaso ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg

Conference (2011, September)

Numerous studies have highlighted the influence of food availability on primate behaviour. Our research aims at understanding the ranging pattern of a troop of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies have highlighted the influence of food availability on primate behaviour. Our research aims at understanding the ranging pattern of a troop of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) living around the visitor center of the Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. The frugivorous pigtailed macaques are supposed to adapt their ranging pattern to the spatio-temporal distribution of fruiting trees. However, the presence of humans, and thus, of human food, may also have an impact on their home range size and location. We followed the troop during 12 months and recorded its diet and progression within the home range (GPS points every 30 minutes). On monthly kernels defining the home range surface, we superimposed a grid of 110x110 m cells. We analysed the spatio-temporal distribution of fruiting trees in botanical transects and converted it into a food abundance index (FAI). Given their semi-terrestriality decreasing travel costs, we predicted that macaques should increase their range during the period of low fruit abundance to gather a sufficient amount of high-quality food (fruits). To the contrary, our results showed that the size of the troop’s home range decreased during fruit scarcity (dry season). The diet analysis showed that during this period, macaques used human food, a high-quality resource, as fallback food which concentration around human settlements made the long travel no more necessary. Alternately, in period of fruit abundance, a correlation between the FAI and the number of GPS points from macaques for each home range cell showed that macaques spent more time in places with a higher abundance of some fruit species, in particular some considered as important in their diet. Finally, in this peculiar situation of macaques living close to human managed areas, both wild and human resources’ spatio-temporal distribution influence the size and location of the troop’s home range [less ▲]

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See detailSleeping Site Selection and Presleep Behavior in Wild Pigtailed Macaques
Albert, Aurélie ULg; Savini, Tommaso ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg

in American Journal of Primatology (2011), 73

Several factors are likely to control sleeping site selection and presleep behavior in nonhuman primates, including predation risk and location of food resources. We examined the effects of these factors ... [more ▼]

Several factors are likely to control sleeping site selection and presleep behavior in nonhuman primates, including predation risk and location of food resources. We examined the effects of these factors on the sleeping behavior of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina). While following a troop living in the surroundings of the Visitor Center of Khao Yai National Park (Thailand), we recorded the physical characteristics and location of each sleeping site, tree, the individuals’ place in the tree, posture, and behavior. We collected data for 154 nights between April 2009 and November 2010. The monkeys preferred tall sleeping trees (20.97SD 4.9 m) and high sleeping places (15.87SD 4.3 m), which may be an antipredator strategy. The choice of sleeping trees close to the last (146.77SD 167.9 m) or to the first (150.47SD 113.0 m) feeding tree of the day may save energy and decrease predation risk when monkeys are searching for food. Similarly, the choice of sleeping sites close to human settlements eases the access to human food during periods of fruit scarcity. Finally, the temporal pattern of use of sleeping sites, with a preference for four of the sleeping sites but few reuses during consecutive nights, may be a tradeoff between the need to have several sleeping sites (decreasing detection by predators and travel costs to feeding sites), and the need to sleep in well-known sites (guaranteeing a faster escape in case of predator attack). [less ▲]

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See detailBEHAVIOURAL ECOLOGY OF LONG-TAILED MACAQUES IN THE CONTEXT OF URBAN COMMENSALISM: A COMPARISON STUDY BETWEEN BANGKOK (THAILAND) AND BALI (INDONESIA)
Brotcorne, Fany ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline et al

Poster (2010, September 16)

The quest for coexistence with non-human primates requires an extensive analysis of the growing commen-salism phenomenon. The long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), a very successful commensal species ... [more ▼]

The quest for coexistence with non-human primates requires an extensive analysis of the growing commen-salism phenomenon. The long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), a very successful commensal species, adapts remarkably to anthropogenic habitats. Studies in several Asian locations raised the issue of hu-man-macaque conflict related to human health and safety as well as to conservation threats on macaques. Here, we aimed at assessing the anthropogenic impact (human presence and provisioning frequency) on the eco-behavioural profile of two populations living commensally with humans in Bangkok (Thailand) and Ubud (Padangtegal, Bali). We used an identical focal and scan sampling methodology during two three-month study periods in 2007 (Bangkok) and 2009 (Bali). Despite different ecological conditions, the two populations showed a strongly similar activity budget. Resting was the most common activity (40% vs. 35%), followed by feeding (28% vs. 24%), moving (15% vs. 14%) and affiliations (14% vs. 19%). Agonistic behaviours were slightly more frequent in Bali (0.6% vs. 3.0%), maybe due to higher population density (8.5/ha vs. 14.2/ha). Contrary to previous studies, we did not find any impact of provisioning on agonistic interactions. Concerning diet composition, proportions of natural vs. provisioned food and proportions of various food categories were consistent between the two sites. Since the ecological conditions were different, the anthropogenic factors are likely to explain the strong consistency in eco-behavioural profile of the two populations. Further studies are planned on three other populations to assess the specific impact of commensalism on behavioural ecology and derive the implications for long term population trends. [less ▲]

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See detailPigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina): the pest and the gardener
Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Albert, Aurélie; Savini, Tommaso ULg

Conference (2010, July)

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See detailImportance of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina) in seed dispersal: impact on the ecological balance of the tropical rainforest at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand
Albert, Aurélie ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Savini, Tommaso ULg

Poster (2010)

Today, many countries of South-East Asia know about the alarming state of the forests existing on their territory and all agree that it is essential to save the remaining primary forest but also to enable ... [more ▼]

Today, many countries of South-East Asia know about the alarming state of the forests existing on their territory and all agree that it is essential to save the remaining primary forest but also to enable the regeneration of degraded areas, through natural or artificial reforestation. The conservation of tropical rainforests thus passes by the necessity to better understand the plant-animal interactions, and in particular, the seed dispersal process. While following a troop of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina) accustomed to Man in Khao Yai National park (2 168 km ²), Thailand, we will bring important data relating to these seed dispersers potentially necessary but unfortunately vulnerable. Indeed, this vulnerable but little known species, seems to be essential to maintain forest diversity by dispersing many plant species, particularly those inaccessible to smaller frugivores. First results already show that they disperse many seed species, of all kind of size, in all forest types, from primary forest to secondary forest, thanks to various handling techniques. They also seem to show an adaptation in their daily travels according to resources availability. The next fieldworks will enable us to bring more precision in these results and their temporal variations and thus to conclude on the potential role of Macaca nemestrina in the tropical rainforest regeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance des macaques à queue de cochon (Macaca nemestrina leonina) dans la dispersion des graines : impact sur l’équilibre écologique de la forêt tropicale au parc national de Khao Yai, Thaïlande
Albert, Aurélie ULg; Latinne, Alice ULg; Savini, Tommaso ULg et al

in Folia Primatologica : International Journal of Primatology = Internationale Zeitschrift für Primatologie = Journal international de Primatologie (2009)

Today, many countries of South-East Asia know about the alarming state of the forests existing on their territory and all know that it is essential to save the still existing primary forest but also to ... [more ▼]

Today, many countries of South-East Asia know about the alarming state of the forests existing on their territory and all know that it is essential to save the still existing primary forest but also to enable the regeneration of degraded areas, in particular thanks to reforestation (natural or artificial). To elucidate the role of seed dispersers and to promote their conservation are essential for the conservation of the tropical rainforests. While following a troop of pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina) accustomed to Man in Khao Yai National park (2 168 km ²), Thailand, we will bring important data relating to these seed dispersers potentially necessary but unfortunately vulnerable. Indeed, this species, from which very little has been studied, seems to be essential to the dispersal of many plant species, particularly those inaccessible to smaller frugivores. The results emanating from the first fieldwork already show important characteristics: the dispersal of many seed species, of all kind of size, in all forest types, from primary forest to secondary forest, thanks to various handling techniques. They also seem to show an adaptation in their daily travels according to resources availability. The next fieldworks will enable us to bring more precision in these results and their temporal variations and thus to conclude on the potential role of Macaca nemestrina in the regeneration of the tropical rainforest. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary results on the behavioural-ecology of a long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) population in disturbed urban habitats, Bangkok (Thailand)
Brotcorne, Fany ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Savini, Tommaso ULg

Conference (2008, August)

In many tropical regions of the world, humans and nonhuman primates share habitats, and their interactions are increasingly common. As a result, human presence has an important impact on the demography ... [more ▼]

In many tropical regions of the world, humans and nonhuman primates share habitats, and their interactions are increasingly common. As a result, human presence has an important impact on the demography, behaviour, and overall ecology of the nonhuman primates’ populations. More specifically, the increasing human pressure represents a critical danger for the survival of most primate species, often leading to the local extinction of entire populations. However, some primate species show a high degree of plasticity when facing human disturbance, and even adapt their ecological behaviour to heavily modified urban areas. Our research project, in collaboration with the City of Bangkok, focuses on long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), a species distributed throughout all Southeast Asia, and showing a great ability to adapt to urban habitat. The goal of our study is to define the impact of urbanized habitat fragments on the social interaction and reproductive patterns of the macaque populations, in order to design sustainable management plans and reduce conflicts with local human populations. We present preliminary results from a 4 month study period (May to August 2007) on a large semi-provisioned troop living in the South of Bangkok suburban area. Data were collected via instantaneous scan sampling for activity budget, and focal sampling for diet, while aggressive and sexual interactions within the group were noted ad libitum. The study group, 128 animals (10 males, 6 subadults, 48 females of whom 39 with an infant, and 64 juveniles) appears to use an area highly disturbed by of human activities. In the coming year we plan to extend our observations to a second troop inhabiting an estimated area of 5 km2 of pristine mangrove with an ongoing forest regeneration project. [less ▲]

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See detailDiet, habitat use, and seed dispersal by a pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina leonina) troop in Khao Yai National Park (Thailand)
Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Latinne, Alice ULg; Savini, Tommaso ULg

Conference (2008, April 23)

While studying the influence of human proximity on the ecology of pigtail macaques, a species not well documented in continental Thailand, we collected data on ranging and foraging behaviours of a troop ... [more ▼]

While studying the influence of human proximity on the ecology of pigtail macaques, a species not well documented in continental Thailand, we collected data on ranging and foraging behaviours of a troop of Macaca nemestrina leonina living in the surroundings of Khao Yai National park tourist centre. We present here data suggesting a role as seed dispersers for the pigtails, role which has not been considered yet when analysing the importance of the frugivorous community in forest regeneration. Such a role might be however expected based on the highly frugivorous diet of the macaques, the presence of cheek pouches, and the relatively long distance they travel daily. The studied troop counts about 40 individuals, with 3 adult males for 9 adult females, and occupies a 100 ha home range with sleeping sites close to the tourist facilities. Macaques spent about 30% of their days in primary forests, and more than 60 percent in secondary forest and open areas. They consume a certain proportion of human food (6.4%), but spend most time foraging for wild food in the surrounding forest. Fruits count for an important part of their diet (76%) and, indeed, the faeces analysis reveals the presence of a high number of seeds, which size ranges up to above 15mm. Their viability was assessed using the cut-test and Tetrazolium immersion, showing a high percentage of viable seeds in the samples. Three series of seeds (defecated, spat, and control seeds) placed in germination boxes reached a high germination rate, with no uniform significant differences between defecated, spat and control seeds. Seeds without pulp, a frequent case when macaques reject them after transport and processing, seem to be more likely to germinate than seeds rejected with their pulp directly under the parent tree. These results suggest altogether that pigtail macaques are potential seed dispersers, an important factor in regard of their regular use of degraded habitat zones. [less ▲]

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See detailFeeding ecology and seed dispersal of pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand
Latinne, Alice ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Savini, Tommaso ULg

in Folia Primatologica : International Journal of Primatology = Internationale Zeitschrift für Primatologie = Journal international de Primatologie (2008), 79

Seed dispersal has a profound influence on structure and diversity in tropical environment. Although all frugivorous primates disperse seeds, the contribution of dispersal by some species in forest ... [more ▼]

Seed dispersal has a profound influence on structure and diversity in tropical environment. Although all frugivorous primates disperse seeds, the contribution of dispersal by some species in forest regeneration is still discussed. For instance, baboons and macaques are controversially described as seed dispersers or as seed predators. We study the seed dispersal by a troop of pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina) in the Khao Yai National Park (Thailand) in order to describe the mode of seed dispersal and the seed fate of each fruit species consumed by macaques, including the assessment of potential germination enhancement for dispersed seeds. Pigtail macaques disperse seeds either via feces, by swallowing seeds, or via cheekpouch storage, by spitting out seeds after processing the fruits in the mouth. Preliminary results of our study show that pigtail macaques in the study troop disperse the seeds of at least 15 fruits species. For some species (Nephelium melliferum, Baccaurea ramiflora), macaques use the 2 modes of seed dispersal simultaneously. If part of the seeds excreted are intact and viable, as shown by the cut test, some are destroyed during mastication and digestion, and therefore it seems that macaques are to be considered both as seed dispersers and predators. The size of dispersed seeds ranges from the largest defecated seed (Nephelium melliferum) of 22mm long and 13mm wide to the smallest (Dissocheta divaricata) less than 1mm long and 0.5mm wide. In the future, Tetrazolium test will also be used to assess seed viability, and the germination enhancement for seeds defecated or spat out will be assessed using germination test. Germination rate and germination delay will be compared for defecated, spat and control (seeds from non consumed fruits collected from trees foraged by the macaques) seeds. [less ▲]

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