References of "Sartor, Kevin"
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See detailExperimental validation of heat transport modelling in district heating networks.
Sartor, Kevin ULg

in Energy (in press)

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling methods are required to ... [more ▼]

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling methods are required to consider the dynamic behaviour of district heating networks to design them correctly, spare the investment costs and limit the heat losses related to the use of a too high operating temperatures. For the same reasons, the DHN control or retrofit of installations also requires the assessment of the DHN dynamic behaviour. To achieve this, the heat transport in DHN, which is one of the key issues in the behaviour of a whole centralized heating system, has to be correctly modelled. Previous work evidenced current limitations of one dimensional finite volume method to model heat transport in pipes and proposed an alternative method considering the thermal losses and the inertia of the pipes. The present contribution intends to experimentally validate this model on a test rig available at the Thermodynamics laboratory of the University of Liège (ULg, Belgium) and on an existing district heating network. For both experimental facilities, the current model shows good agreement between the experimental data and the simulation results for a large range of water velocities. Moreover, it is shown that the thermal inertia of the pipe has a significant influence on the outlet pipe temperature profile. [less ▲]

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See detailExergy analysis applied to performance of buildings in Europe
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Energy and Buildings (2017), 148

Energy performance of buildings generally assesses the energy consumption of buildings such as heating, domestic heat water, ventilation systems, etc. However, this approach is based on the first law of ... [more ▼]

Energy performance of buildings generally assesses the energy consumption of buildings such as heating, domestic heat water, ventilation systems, etc. However, this approach is based on the first law of thermodynamics and considers only the quantity of energy used without considering its ‘quality’ and leads to a lack of information about the energy conversion processes. This is particularly true in the new low-energy buildings where sometimes high temperatures sources are used to meet low-temperature needs. The exergy analysis of a system, based on first and second thermodynamic laws, can be used to overcome this. In this work, it is proposed to compare the energy and the exergy consumption and the related CO2 emissions of several kinds of buildings to determine the best systems in terms of energy and exergy needs. The energy demand calculations are performed using the official software available in Belgium and some assumptions are implemented to consider the exergy approach. As exergy calculations require a reference state, some different climatic conditions are also investigated. Finally, some conclusions are discussed to rank the sources of energy and their related exergy losses. [less ▲]

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See detailArduino: une carte électronique aux multiples possibilités
Sartor, Kevin ULg

Scientific conference (2017, March 08)

Formation destinée à l'utilisation des cartes électroniques "Arduino". Au programme une brève introduction, une liste de possibilités non exhaustive, le tout suivi de cas pratiques et de conseils pour la ... [more ▼]

Formation destinée à l'utilisation des cartes électroniques "Arduino". Au programme une brève introduction, une liste de possibilités non exhaustive, le tout suivi de cas pratiques et de conseils pour la réalisation de votre premier projet. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimized integration of heat storage into district heating networks fed by a biomass CHP plant.
Sartor, Kevin ULg

in Proceedings (2017, February 28)

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating networks (DHN) are recognized as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. However ... [more ▼]

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating networks (DHN) are recognized as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. However, as CHP plants are not optimized for electricity production, their operation is profitable only if a sufficient heat demand is available throughout the year. On the other hand, these plants often work for baseline operation and back-up boilers are used to supply the peak demand. To extend the use of the CHP plants and reduce costs, conventional fuel use and emissions, it is proposed to study the feasibility of using additional high temperature heat storage as retrofit of an existing CHP plant. This work is based on a simple and effective methodology that provides accurate estimations of economic, environmental and energetic performances of CHP plants connected to district heating networks. The DHN of the University in Liège (Belgium) is used as an application framework to demonstrate the effectiveness of the selected approach. The potential energy and pollutant emissions savings and resulting energy costs are estimated and the current policy limitations will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of undisturbed ground temperature on the design of closed-loop geothermal systems: A case study in a semi-urban environment
Radioti, Georgia ULg; Sartor, Kevin ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg et al

in Applied Energy (2017)

This paper presents temperature measurements in four Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs), equipped with fiber optics and located in a semi-urban environment (campus of the University of Liege, Belgium). A 3D ... [more ▼]

This paper presents temperature measurements in four Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs), equipped with fiber optics and located in a semi-urban environment (campus of the University of Liege, Belgium). A 3D numerical model is also presented to simulate the heat loss from the surrounding structures into the subsurface. The mean undisturbed ground temperature was estimated from data during the preliminary phase of a thermal response test (water circulation in the pipe loops), as well as from borehole logging measurements. The measurements during water circulation can significantly overestimate the ground temperature (up to 1.7 C in this case study) for high ambient air temperature during the test, resulting in an overestimation of the maximum extracted power and of the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP). To limit the error in the COP and the extracted power to less than 5%, the error in the undisturbed temperature estimation should not exceed ±1.5 °C and ±0.6 °C respectively. In urbanised areas, configurations of short BHEs (length < 40 m) could be economically advantageous (decreased installation and operation costs) compared to long BHEs, especially for temperature gradient lower than 0.05 °C/m. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergetic and Environmental Performances of a Domestic Hot Water Condensing Boiler Fired by Wood Pellets
Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg; Gabriele, Fabian; Restivo, Yannick et al

in Energy Procedia (2017)

In order to assess the performances of the domestic heating boilers with a CE mark, a wood pellets fired condensing boiler has been purchased and installed in the Laboratory for tests. The objective of ... [more ▼]

In order to assess the performances of the domestic heating boilers with a CE mark, a wood pellets fired condensing boiler has been purchased and installed in the Laboratory for tests. The objective of the study was not only to check the announced performances, but mainly to investigate the influence of the different parameters affecting the functioning of the boiler, the thermal efficiency and the pollutants (NOx and CO) emission being aimed at. Tests have been performed to study the influence of the cycling frequency of the burner functioning, the overall excess air, the return water temperature, and the output power of the boiler. As announced by the manufacturer, the tested boiler fulfils the requirements of the Blue Angel Label, but the recommended value for the excess air (1.2) can be reduced to a value of about 0.4 without excessive emissions of CO. The boiler could perform better if the ON period of the cycle of the burner is increased even better if the OFF period is suppressed. The NOx are mainly formed from the nitrogen content of the pellets and their emissions can only be reduced by a lower nitrogen content of the pellets than the limit stated in the standard. Random peaks observed in the evolution of CO, the boiler being operating in steady state regime, are attributed to the combustion process of pellets which is a non-continuous process by nature. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility study of burning neat jatropha oil into a vaporizing burner for household applications.
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Makaire, Danielle; Fontaine, Jean-Marie et al

in Proceedings (2016, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 ULg)
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See detailExperimental validation of heat transport modeling in district heating networks
Sartor, Kevin ULg

in Proceedings of Conference (2016)

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling technics are required to ... [more ▼]

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling technics are required to consider the dynamic behaviour of district heating network to design them correctly, spare investment costs and limit the heat losses related to the use of a too high operating temperature. For the same reasons, the DHN control or retrofit of installations also requires the assessment of the DHN dynamic behaviour. To achieve this, the heat transport in DHN, which is one of the key issues in the behaviour of a whole centralized heating system, has to be correctly modelled. Previous work evidenced current limitations of one dimensional finite volume method to model heat transport in pipes and proposed an alternative method considering the thermal losses and the inertia of the pipes. The present contribution intends to experimentally validate this model on a test rig facility available in the Thermodynamics laboratory of the University of Liège (ULg, Belgium) and on an existing district heating network. For both experimental facilities, the current model shows good agreement between experimental data and simulation results for a large range of water velocities. Moreover, it is shown that the thermal inertia of the pipe has a significant influence on the outlet pipe temperature profile. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (4 ULg)
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See detailExergy analysis applied to performance of buildings in Europe
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings (2016)

Energy performance of buildings generally assesses the energy consumption of buildings such as heating, domestic heat water, ventilation systems... However, this approach is based on the first law of ... [more ▼]

Energy performance of buildings generally assesses the energy consumption of buildings such as heating, domestic heat water, ventilation systems... However, this approach is based on the first law of thermodynamics and considers only the quantity of energy used without considering its “quality” and leads to a lack of information about the energy conversion processes. This is particularly true in the new low-energy buildings where sometimes high temperatures sources are used to meet low-temperature needs. The exergy analysis of a system, based on first and second thermodynamic laws, can be used to overcome this. In this work, it is proposed to compare the energy and the exergy consumption of several kinds of buildings to determine the best systems in terms of energy and exergy needs. The energy demand calculations are performed using the official software available in Belgium and some assumptions are implemented to consider the exergy approach. As exergy calculations require a reference state, some different climatic conditions are also investigated. Finally, some conclusions are discussed to rank the sources of energy and their related exergy losses. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (6 ULg)
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See detailExergetic, environmental and economic analysis of a biomass cogeneration plant connected to a district heating network.
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Renewable Energy in the Service of Mankind Vol II (2015)

When a district heating network is fed by natural gas boilers (or biomass boilers), the selection of the network temperature level has a slight influence on the boiler efficiency which means that ... [more ▼]

When a district heating network is fed by natural gas boilers (or biomass boilers), the selection of the network temperature level has a slight influence on the boiler efficiency which means that producing at low temperature allows only to decrease the heat losses through the network. However when a cogeneration plant based on a Rankine cycle is used, lowering the network temperature not only decreases the heat losses but also increase the electrical efficiency while decreasing the thermal efficiency. This aspect is very often overlooked when the quality of a cogeneration plant is assessed by the cogeneration efficiency namely the sum of the electrical and thermal efficiency which is misleading for decision makers. In this contribution, an existing cogeneration plant connected to a district heating network installed on the University Campus in Liège (Belgium) is used as an application test case. Based on actual operational and economic data, a detailed economic evaluation is carried out which is supported by a calibrated simulation model of the whole installation in order to study the influence of the network temperature level. As a second step, the simulation model is used again to perform a detailed exergetic analysis intended to give physical insights to the economical study. This results in a broader discussion on the several methods to assess the quality of cogeneration plants and the opportunity to develop such a technology together with district heating networks. [less ▲]

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See detailWe gme P08: Fiber-optic temperature profiles analysis for closed-loop geothermal systems-a case study
Radioti, Georgia ULg; Delvoie, Simon ULg; Sartor, Kevin ULg et al

in Second EAGE Workshop on Geomechanics and Energy: The ground as energy source and storage (2015, October)

In order to study the behaviour of shallow closed-loop geothermal systems four borehole heat exchangers equipped with fiber optics were installed on the campus of the University of Liege (Liege, Belgium ... [more ▼]

In order to study the behaviour of shallow closed-loop geothermal systems four borehole heat exchangers equipped with fiber optics were installed on the campus of the University of Liege (Liege, Belgium) over a surface area of 32m². This paper presents the analysis of continuous, high-resolution temperature profiles measured along the boreholes length. The undisturbed ground temperature measurements indicate heat loss from ground structures located close to the boreholes. A 3D numerical model is presented to reproduce the measured temperature profiles. Temperature profiles during hardening of the grouting material indicate extended fractured zones in the rock mass. Temperature measurements during the recovery phase of a Distributed Thermal Response Test indicate the succession of rock layers with different mineral content. The results are in good agreement with those of the borehole televiewer logging method. The presented analysis could provide information on bedrock heterogeneity, on the anisotropic thermal behaviour of the rock mass and on the ground temperature variations due to heat loss from ground structures. These information could significantly contribute to the long-term behaviour prediction of the geothermal system and the geothermal reservoir potential. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnex 60 : subtask 2.2 - Modeling heat transport in district heating networks
Sartor, Kevin ULg

Report (2015)

One subtask of the Annex 60 (Task 2.2) consists in the modeling of district composed by thermal and electric networks. In this contribution, several modeling techniques are investigated to assess the ... [more ▼]

One subtask of the Annex 60 (Task 2.2) consists in the modeling of district composed by thermal and electric networks. In this contribution, several modeling techniques are investigated to assess the behavior of the thermal part of the district heating network. These modeling techniques are compared to find the best modeling approach. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study for simulation of heat transport in large district heating network
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Thomas, David ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of ECOS 2015 (2015, June 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 107 (32 ULg)
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See detailAnnex 60 : subtask 2.2 - Connection methods in district heating networks
Sartor, Kevin ULg

Scientific conference (2015, April 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
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See detailLes vélos électriques, une solution d'avenir?
Sartor, Kevin ULg

Learning material (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 ULg)
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See detailSimulation and optimization of a CHP biomass plant and district heating network
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Applied Energy (2014), 130

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems ... [more ▼]

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. However, as CHP plants are not optimized for electricity production, their operation is profitable only if a sufficient heat demand is available throughout the year. Most of the time, pre-feasibility studies are based on peak power demand and business plans only assume monthly or yearly consumption data. This approach usually turns out to overestimate the number of operating hours or oversize the plant capacity. This contribution presents a methodology intended to be simple and effective that provides accurate estimations of economical, environmental and energetic performances of CHP plants connected to district heating networks. A quasi-steady state simulation model of a CHP plant combined with a simulation model of the district heating network installed on the Campus of the University in Liège (Belgium) is used as an application framework to demonstrate the effectiveness of the selected approach. Based on the developed model and actual consumption data, several scenarios for energy savings are considered and ranked. The potential energy savings and resulting energy costs are estimated enabling more general conclusions to be drawn on the opportunity of using district heating networks in urban districts for Western Europe countries. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 190 (39 ULg)
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See detailExergetic, environmental and economic analysis of a biomass cogeneration plant connected to a district heating network.
Sartor, Kevin ULg

in Book of abstracts of WREC2014 (2014, August 05)

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See detailPrediction of SOx and NOx Emissions from a Medium Size Biomass Boiler Biomass and Bioenergy
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Restivo, Yannick ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg et al

in Biomass and Bioenergy (2014), 65

While small and medium size biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants (i.e., up to 5 MW of electrical rated power) represent an attractive option to exploit locally available biomass resources at low ... [more ▼]

While small and medium size biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants (i.e., up to 5 MW of electrical rated power) represent an attractive option to exploit locally available biomass resources at low cost, the corresponding investment per unit of rated power significantly rises when the installed power decreases. In these cases, secondary pollutant emissions control measures are most of the time not economically viable and primary emissions control must be used alone to avoid the formation of undesired compounds such as $NO_x$ and $SO_x$. Primary control measures require the careful optimization of fuel quality and combustion process. For plant operators, being able to accommodate biomass quality changes in order to minimize the fuel cost can be of great importance in order to guarantee the profitability of the plant. This contribution is dedicated to the development of a zero-dimensional (input-output) combustion simulation model able to predict the pollutants emissions resulting from complete and incomplete combustion with respect to varying combustion operation (ambient temperature, humidity, fumes recirculation,..). This tool is intended to be integrated in a global simulation model of the CHP plant and the attached district heating network installed on the University campus in Liège. Doing so, the plant operation can be optimized with respect to economic as well as environmental and energetic aspects (3E approach) thus ensuring the sustainability of the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved District Heating Network Operation by the Integration of High Temperature Heat Pumps
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Digital proceedings of the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - SDEWES (2013, September 23)

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating networks are a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. Frequently, important ... [more ▼]

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating networks are a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. Frequently, important consumers are connected to ensure a stable base demand of heat throughout the year but they often have higher requirements in terms of temperature (i.e., steam) which involves high level of temperatures in the district heating network during the whole year and high levels of heat losses in the network. This contribution presents the possibility to decrease the level of temperature at which the district heating network operates and to use high temperature heat pumps connected locally at the consumption point to produce steam when needed. An investigation of the global design and integration through thermodynamic simulation models is realized for the University of Liège district heating network. This study is intended to determine the heat pump coefficient of performance and, therefore, to assess the balance between the savings in terms of heat losses and the additional heat pump electricity consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation and optimization of a CHP biomass plant and district heating network
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems ... [more ▼]

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. However, as CHP plants are not optimized for electricity production, their operation is profitable only if a sufficient heat demand is available throughout the year. Most of the time, pre-feasibility studies are based on peak power demand and business plans only assume monthly or yearly consumption data. This approach usually turns out to overestimate the number of operating hours or oversize the plant capacity. This contribution presents a methodology intended to be simple and effective that provides accurate estimations of economical, environmental and energetic performances of CHP plants connected to district heating networks. A quasi-steady state simulation model of a CHP plant combined with a simulation model of the district heating network installed on the Campus of the University in Liège (Belgium) is used as an application framework to demonstrate the effectiveness of the selected approach. Based on the developed model and actual consumption data, several scenarios for energy savings are considered and ranked. The potential energy savings and resulting energy costs are estimated enabling more general conclusions to be drawn on the opportunity of using district heating networks in urban districts for Western Europe countries. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 180 (24 ULg)