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See detailAtrial Natriuretic Peptide in cardiac horses
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Al-Haidar, Ali; Remy, Benoît ULg et al

in Voorjaarsdagen Proceedings (2014, April 17)

Background: Natriuretic peptides are cardiac biomarkers that have been shown to have high potential for diagnosis, prognosis, and guidance of treatment in human and small animal cardiology. However, their ... [more ▼]

Background: Natriuretic peptides are cardiac biomarkers that have been shown to have high potential for diagnosis, prognosis, and guidance of treatment in human and small animal cardiology. However, their diagnostic and prognosis value in the equine species has only been studied in a limited number of cases. Objective: To investigate the plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration (ANPPl) in a large group of horses with various degrees of valvular regurgitation (VR) and heart failure (HF). Animals: Ninety-one horses, admitted at the equine teaching hospital of the University of Liege, and with no, mild, moderate or severe VR and presenting various stages of HF, according to human and canine grading system (A: no VR, B1: asymptomatic VR without cardiac remodelling, B2: asymptomatic VR with cardiac remodelling, C: symptomatic VR). Methods: All horses underwent clinical and Doppler echocardiographic examination, which allowed determining the presence, nature, and severity of VR, and the HF stage. The ANPPl was measured using a commercially available human RIA test. The mean values of body weight, age, ANPPl and each echocardiographic parameter were compared between horses in stage A, B1, B2 or C of HF and between horses with no, mild, moderate or severe VR, using a one-way ANOVA test. Then, correlations between ANPPl and each echocardiographic parameter were assessed using a Pearson’s product-moment analysis. Results: Horses with severe and moderate VR had significantly higher ANPPl than horses with mild or no VR. ANPPl was significantly higher in horses at stage B2 and C of HF than horses at stage A and B1. Moreover, ANPPl was significantly correlated with most of the measured echocardiographic variables. This correlation was especially strong with the left atrial diameter and its percentage of dilation. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Those results suggest that ANPPl in horses suffering from VR could have a high diagnostic value of HF, especially in horses with tricuspid or mitral insufficiency and with enlargement or dysfunction of the atria. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of inhaled hysrosoluble curcumin in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung neutrophilia in horses
Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Cerri, Simona ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Dorothy Russel Havemeyer Foundation IAD Workshop (2014)

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See detailAtrial Natriuretic Peptide as an indicator of the severity of valvular regurgitation and heart failure in horses
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Al Haidar, Ali; Remy, Benoît ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2014), in press

Natriuretic peptides are cardiac biomarkers, routinely used for diagnosis, prognosis, and guidance for treatment in human and small animal cardiology. However, their diagnostic and prognostic value in ... [more ▼]

Natriuretic peptides are cardiac biomarkers, routinely used for diagnosis, prognosis, and guidance for treatment in human and small animal cardiology. However, their diagnostic and prognostic value in horses has received little study. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma atrial natriuretic concentration (ANPPl) in a large group of horses with various degrees of valvular regurgitation (VR) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Clinical examination and two-dimensional, time-motion mode and Doppler echocardiography were performed on 91 horses admitted to the Equine Teaching Hospital of Liege University, with either no, mild, moderate or severe VR and presenting various stages of CHF. ANPPl was measured using a commercially available human RIA test. Mean values of body weight, age, ANPPl and echocardiographic parameters were compared between horses with no, mild, moderate and severe VR and between horses in different CHF stages. Correlation and linear regression of ANPPl with each echocardiographic parameter and with the percentage of dilation of each of cardiac chambers were assessed. Horses with severe or moderate VR had significantly higher ANPPl than horses with mild or no VR. ANPPl was significantly higher in horses presenting CHF than in horses without CHF. ANPPl was significantly correlated with the left atrial diameter and its percentage of dilation. These results suggest a diagnostic value of ANPPl in horses with VR, especially with tricuspid or mitral insufficiency with dilation of the atria. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced or Reduced Fetal Growth Induced by Embryo Transfer into Smaller or Larger Breeds Alters Post-Natal Growth and Metabolism in Pre-Weaning Horses
Peugnet, Pauline; Wimel, Laurence; Duchamp, Guy et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(7), 102044

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See detailPrevalence and Risk Factors for Various Cardiac Diseases in a Hospital-Based Population of 3434 Horses (1994-2011)
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2013), 27(6), 1563-70

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for ... [more ▼]

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for various cardiac diseases in a hospital-based equine population. Animals: Files of 3434 horses admitted at the internal medicine department of the Liege Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011were reviewed and of those, 284 were categorized as suffering from moderate to severe cardiac disease. Methods: Observational study. After calculating prevalence for each cardiac disease, we tested whether breed (chi-square test) or gender, age, body weight (BW) and other cardiac diseases (logistic regressions) were risk factors (p<0.05 significant). Results: Mitral regurgitation (MR, 4.4%), atrial fibrillation (AF, 2.3%), aortic regurgitation (AR, 2.1%) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR, 1.7%) were the most common cardiac abnormalities. Determinants were male gender and increasing age for AR (OR=2.03, CI=1.07-4.94), racehorses breed and middle-age for TR (OR=4.36; CI=1.10-17.24), and high BW for AF (OR=3.54; CI=1.67-7.49). MR was the major valvular disease associated with AF, pathological ventricular arrhythmia, pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and congestive heart failure (CHF). TR was also linked to AF, PR and CHF; AR was not linked to CHF. Conclusions and clinical importance: Several previously suspected risks factors of a variety of equine cardiac diseases are statistically confirmed in the studied hospital-based population. Similar observation could be suspected in a larger randomized population and should be taken into account in health and sport’s monitoring of horses presenting predisposing factors. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and Risk Factors for Various Cardiac Diseases in a Hospital-Based Population of 3434 Horses (1994-2011)
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2013), 27(6), 1563-70

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for ... [more ▼]

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for various cardiac diseases in a hospital-based equine population. Animals: Files of 3434 horses admitted at the internal medicine department of the Liege Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011were reviewed and of those, 284 were categorized as suffering from moderate to severe cardiac disease. Methods: Observational study. After calculating prevalence for each cardiac disease, we tested whether breed (chi-square test) or gender, age, body weight (BW) and other cardiac diseases (logistic regressions) were risk factors (p<0.05 significant). Results: Mitral regurgitation (MR, 4.4%), atrial fibrillation (AF, 2.3%), aortic regurgitation (AR, 2.1%) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR, 1.7%) were the most common cardiac abnormalities. Determinants were male gender and increasing age for AR (OR=2.03, CI=1.07-4.94), racehorses breed and middle-age for TR (OR=4.36; CI=1.10-17.24), and high BW for AF (OR=3.54; CI=1.67-7.49). MR was the major valvular disease associated with AF, pathological ventricular arrhythmia, pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and congestive heart failure (CHF). TR was also linked to AF, PR and CHF; AR was not linked to CHF. Conclusions and clinical importance: Several previously suspected risks factors of a variety of equine cardiac diseases are statistically confirmed in the studied hospital-based population. Similar observation could be suspected in a larger randomized population and should be taken into account in health and sport’s monitoring of horses presenting predisposing factors. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity and specificity of blood leukocyte counts as an indicator of mortality in horses after colic surgery
Salciccia, Alexandra ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Grulke, Sigrid ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 173(11),

The objectives of this study were to describe and relate perioperative changes in blood leukocyte counts to the outcome of surgical colic horses, determine a cut-off value in the early postoperative ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to describe and relate perioperative changes in blood leukocyte counts to the outcome of surgical colic horses, determine a cut-off value in the early postoperative period to obtain an indicator of the outcome, and compare the obtained value to a validation population of horses. Fifty-three horses undergoing colic surgery were included in the descriptive part of the study. Total leukocyte counts were performed before, during and serially after surgery. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on the leukocyte counts of 45 of these horses to determine a cut-off value for the outcome. The results obtained were validated on a second set of 50 horses that underwent colic surgery in similar conditions. The kinetics of blood leukocytes in survivors was higher than in non-survivors during the first days. Non-survivor horses were more likely to have at least one blood leukocyte count ≤3.9×103/mm3 between 28 and 60 hours after surgery than survivor horses. This cut-off value was confirmed in the validation population. These results suggest that routine values of blood leukocyte counts can be used as an additional prognostic indicator after colic surgery alongside other predictors previously associated with the outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailRisks factors for valvular regurgitations in 3499 equids: a cross-sectional study.
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 2013 ACVIM Forum (2013)

Risk factors for valvular regurgitations (VR) have been suspected in equids, but no extensive epidemiologic study has been performed in a large mixed equine population. Therefore, the aim of this study ... [more ▼]

Risk factors for valvular regurgitations (VR) have been suspected in equids, but no extensive epidemiologic study has been performed in a large mixed equine population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to statistically test risk factors for VR in a large population of equids. Hospital records were reviewed for 3.499 equids, admitted at the internal medicine department of the Liege Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011, aged ≥2 years, and which underwent thorough cardiac clinical evaluation. Of this population, 495 cases had ECG and echocardiography performed because of a clinical suspicion of cardiac disease. Chi-square test or logistic regressions (as appropriate) were used to test if breed, gender, age, body weight (BW), and co-existence of various cardiac diseases were risk factors for each VR. Moreover, the risk of development of congestive heart failure (CHF) was tested for each VR. Significance was set at p<0.05. Most of the studied animals were warmbloods, and observed prevalences were 4.4% for mitral regurgitation (MR), 2.1% for aortic regurgitation (AR), 1.7% for tricuspid regurgitation (TR), and 1.0% for pulmonary regurgitation (PR). Significant risk factors were male gender and increasing age for AR (OR=2.03, CI=1.07-4.94), and racehorses breed group and middle-age for TR (OR=4.36; CI=1.10-17.24). No effect of age or BW was demonstrated for MR. MR was the major valvular disease associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachyarrhythmia, PR and CHF. TR was also linked to AF, PR and CHF; but AR was not linked to CHF. In conclusion, several previously suspected risks factors for VR were confirmed statistically in this study and should be taken into account in health and athletic monitoring of horses presenting predisposing factors. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk factors for atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 3499 equids admitted at the liege university equine hospital between 1994 and 2011
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 2013 ECEIM Congress (2013)

Risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and pathological ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) have been suspected in equids, however little epidemiologic data exists. The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and pathological ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) have been suspected in equids, however little epidemiologic data exists. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for AF and VTA in a large equine population. Case files of 3499 equids admitted to the internal medicine department of the Liege University Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011were reviewed. Amongst them, 495 horses with a suspicion of a cardiac abnormality underwent ECG and echocardiography. After calculation of prevalence of AF and VTA, we tested whether breed (chi-square test) or gender, age, body weight (BW) and presence of other cardiac diseases (logistic regressions) were risk factors (significance set at p<0.05). In the studied population, prevalence of AF was high (2.3%), whereas prevalence of VTA was low (0.7%). Warmbloods and standardbreds were significantly overrepresented in AF cases. High BW was a risk factor for AF (OR=3.54; CI=1.67-7.49), whereas age was not. No effect of breed, age or BW was demonstrated for VTA. AF was observed significantly more frequently in horses presenting with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (MR), tricuspid regurgitation, and pulmonary regurgitation, and VTA was significantly more frequent in horses with MR. Several previously suspected but not statistically demonstrated risk factors of AF were confirmed in this study and horses presenting valvular disease could be at increased risk of developing AF and VTA. [less ▲]

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See detailOsteochondosis in foals
Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Vander Heyden, Laurent ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 127(17), 456-467

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See detailAssociation of breeding conditions with prevalence of osteochondrosis in foals
Vander Heyden, Laurent ULg; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe ULg; Caudron, Isabelle ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 178

Osteochondrosis (OC) is the most common developmental orthopaedic disease in horses and represents a major problem to the horse industry. The complete mechanism of this multifactorial disease is not yet ... [more ▼]

Osteochondrosis (OC) is the most common developmental orthopaedic disease in horses and represents a major problem to the horse industry. The complete mechanism of this multifactorial disease is not yet elucidated, but it is accepted that OC lesions are the result of intrinsic genetic and external factors. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relationship between breeding management and OC. Breeding conditions were recorded, and a radiological examination was performed in 223 foals. Feeding practice and housing management were analysed in a multivariate model to determine risk factors for OC in three periods: gestation, birth to weaning and weaning to one-year-old. The major breakthrough of this study is the significant relationship between OC development and (1) the maternal nutrition during gestation and (2) the type of housing of the foals during their first year. It appears that mares fed with concentrates during gestation are more likely to produce foals that are subsequently affected by OC compared with other mares (P<0.05). Foals housed exclusively at pasture until one year of age are significantly less affected than foals exclusively housed in box or, alternatively, in box and at pasture (P<0.05). These results underline the role of the energy metabolism and the level of exercise in the aetiologic process of the disease, and help to develop preventive strategies during the crucial period of gestation to one year of age of the foal. [less ▲]

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See detailSevoflurane inhibits equine myeloperoxidase release and activity in vitro.
MINGUET, Grégory ULg; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia (2013), 40

Objective To investigate the effects of the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane on the release of total and active myeloperoxidase (MPO) by non-stimulated and stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs ... [more ▼]

Objective To investigate the effects of the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane on the release of total and active myeloperoxidase (MPO) by non-stimulated and stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in whole blood from healthy horses. Study design In vitro experimental study. Animals Adult healthy horses. Methods Samples of whole venous blood were collected and incubated in air or in air plus 2.3% or 4.6% sevoflurane for 1 hour. PMNs were stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), with a combination of cytochalasin B (CB) and fMLP or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Total and active MPO contents released by PMNs in blood were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection (SIEFED) respectively. Additional experiments were performed to assess the effect of sevoflurane on the peroxidase and chlorination cycles of purified equine MPO using Amplex Red and 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein as fluorogenic substrates respectively. Results As compared with air alone, 1 hour exposure of whole blood to 4.6% sevoflurane in air significantly inhibited the release of total and active MPO by unstimulated and both fMLP- and CB + fMLP-stimulated PMNs but not by PMA-stimulated PMNs. Although 2.3% sevoflurane had no effect on total MPO release by unstimulated and stimulated PMNs, it significantly reduced the release of active MPO by unstimulated and fMLP-stimulated PMNs. Additionally, sevoflurane reversibly inhibited the activity of MPO, especially the peroxidase cycle of the enzyme. Conclusions and clinical relevance Although our experimental study was not designed to assess the effects of sevoflurane in vivo, this inhibition of MPO release and activity may have relevance for anaesthetized horses and deserves further studies to examine the clinical importance of these findings. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between echocardiographic measurements and body size in horses.
Al Haidar, Ali; Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Borde, Laura ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2013), 33(2), 107-114

The objectives of this work were to evaluate the optimal body size variable, and to determine mathematical model that best fits echocardiographic measurements to body size in the equine species. 150 ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this work were to evaluate the optimal body size variable, and to determine mathematical model that best fits echocardiographic measurements to body size in the equine species. 150 horses of various breeds, aged 1 week to 17 years old, body weight (BW) 38 to 890 kg, and free from cardiac disease were used in this study. Based on their age (i.e. younger or older than 2 years), animals were separated into 2 groups. In each horse, the body weight (BW), height at withers (HT), thoracic circumference (TC) and the body length (BL) were measured, the body surface area (BSA) was calculated, and a standard two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography was performed allowing classic cardiac measurements to be taken. Correlations between each echocardiographic measurement and each of the anthropometric variables were assessed via a Pearson’s product-moment analysis and using linear, logarithmic, and power regression analysis in all animals and within the 2 groups. The dimensional, but not the functional, echocardiographic measurements showed a close correlation with all body size variables, especially during growth. The relationship between cardiac measurements and body size was best described using power regression models with TC as the anthropometric variable, but the relationship was also very accurately described using BW, BSA, or BL. In the equine species, dimensional echocardiographic reference values should be established using power regression equations on TC. Such a correction for body size could increase the diagnostic value of echocardiography in equine cardiology. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of breed, sex, age and body weight on Echocardiographic Measurements in the Equine Species
Al Haidar, Ali; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Deleuze, Stefan ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (2013), In press

Little is known about the effect of various animal's signalment variables on echocardiographic reference values in the equine species. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sex, breed, age ... [more ▼]

Little is known about the effect of various animal's signalment variables on echocardiographic reference values in the equine species. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sex, breed, age and body weight (BW) on echocardiographic measurements in the equine species. Echocardiography was performed on 212 ponies or horses of various breeds, aged from 1 day to 37 years old (mean ± SD: 7.8 ± 5.8 years), BW 38-890 kg (mean ± SD: 421 ± 133 Kg), and free of cardiac disease. Fifty of those animals aged from 2 months to 35 years old (mean ± SD: 11.6 ± 6.4 years old); BW 77-662 kg (mean ± SD: 436 ± 135 kg) were also examined using the pulsed-wave Doppler mode. Standard two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography were performed on all animals. Standard pulsed-wave Doppler examination of each cardiac valve was performed on the 50 first examined animals. Data were analysed using a general linear model including the effect of sex, age, breed and BW after logarithmic transformation of the data. Therefore, the same analysis was performed separately on animals aged  2 years-old and on older animals. All dimensional echocardiographic measurements were significantly affected by BW and most of them were significantly affected by breed, but not by sex. Only the aortic and the pulmonary artery internal diameter were significantly affected by age. None of the Doppler measurements were significantly affected by the tested variables. In conclusion, in the equine species, dimensional echocardiographic reference values should be established using regression equations as a function of BW, which could increase the diagnostic value of this leading technique in equine cardiology. Breed could also have an effect on those measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailTödlich in jedem Alter
Sandersen, Charlotte ULg

in hundkatzepferd (2012)

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See detailClinical Assessment of alfaxolone in rabbits
Tutunaru, Alexandru-Cosmin ULg; Sonea, Alexandru; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2012, October 19)

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See detailSurgical treatment of open joint injuries: a retrospective study of 22 horses.
Salciccia, Alexandra ULg; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULg; Evrard, Laurence ULg et al

Conference (2012, October 19)

Aims: To evaluate the prognosis of horses treated surgically for open joint injuries. Methods: The medical records of horses admitted for surgical treatment of a wound in communication with a joint were ... [more ▼]

Aims: To evaluate the prognosis of horses treated surgically for open joint injuries. Methods: The medical records of horses admitted for surgical treatment of a wound in communication with a joint were reviewed. A telephone questionnaire was used for the long term evaluation. Fisher’s exact tests were used for the statistical analyses. Results: Twenty two horses were included in the study with the following distribution of lesions: 6 carpi, 6 fetlocks, 4 tibiotarsal joints, 2 proximal and 3 distal interphalangeal joints, 1 elbow. The duration of the injury before referral ranged from 3 hours to 10 days. Surgical treatment consisted of 1-3 joint lavages. Of the 22 horses, 4 were euthanatized during hospitalization and 18 were discharged. After discharge, 3 horses died due to colic, 2 were lost and 13 were still alive. The survival was not influenced by the duration of the wound. All horses with cutaneous defects less than 5 cm and all horses affected in the lower limb (below the level of the canon) were discharged. Having an affected joint proximal to the canon was significantly associated to the need of multiple surgeries (OR: 17.5; p= 0.024). Conclusions: Even if the prognosis remains guarded for open joint injuries, a long delay between injury and treatment should not be systematically associated with a bad prognosis for survival. Open joint injuries of the lower limb were associated with survival. They required less often multiple articular lavages than open joint injuries of the upper limb, warranting thus a better prognosis. [less ▲]

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