References of "Salmon, Thierry"
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See detailUSING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO CHARACTERIZE THE CONVECTIVE DRYING BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT SLUDGES
Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg; Herbreteau, Benjamin et al

in Drying Technology (2015, August 18), 33(11), 1302-1308

Drying appears as a major step prior to valorization of sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This study uses an experimental design on different sludges to highlight the drying behavior according to ... [more ▼]

Drying appears as a major step prior to valorization of sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This study uses an experimental design on different sludges to highlight the drying behavior according to drying conditions, storage and extrusion. This research is performed with industrial view, but on a single cylinder sample, and focuses on five responds: maximum drying flux, time to reach 95% of dry matter, final volume, critical moisture and slowing-down coefficient. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation on Convective Drying of Mixtures of Sewage Sludge and Sawdust in a Fixed Bed
Li, Jie ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

in Drying Technology (2015), 33(6), 704-712

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See detailRedistribution of a mixture of organic vapours inside a activated carbon filter
Berezovka, Inna; Hichem, Fettaka; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Journal (2015), 280

X-ray tomography in a combination with gas chromatography was used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of adsorption front of organics distributed inside activated carbon filters during defined ... [more ▼]

X-ray tomography in a combination with gas chromatography was used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of adsorption front of organics distributed inside activated carbon filters during defined period of storage. This approach was tested against filters partly contaminated by CCl4 and n-heptane separately and by their mixture. X-ray tomography was shown to be capable to “recognize” different organic vaporvapours adsorbed on activated carbon and to follow their movement inside filters. Gas Chromatography was used either to monitor all possible losses of adsorbed species spices from the carbon bed, or either for “seeing” the location of each component of the mixture of organics along the filter depth. Such in situ information could be useful for evaluation of lifetime of carbon filters and for a thorough understanding of adsorption process taking place under static conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailImage analysis of X-ray tomograms of sludge during convective drying in a pilot-scale fixed bed
Li, Jie ULg; Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2015), 134

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See detailInvestigation on Convective Drying of Mixtures of Sewage Sludge and Sawdust in a Fixed Bed
Li, Jie ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

in Drying Technology (2014)

This work is a part of a project aiming at developing a renewable fuel for gasification purposes, through convective drying of sludge/wood mixtures. The first step consists of characterizing the behavior ... [more ▼]

This work is a part of a project aiming at developing a renewable fuel for gasification purposes, through convective drying of sludge/wood mixtures. The first step consists of characterizing the behavior of sawdust/sludge mixtures during the application of convective drying. The influence of the mixing step (no mixing against 30 s at 40 rpm), as well as the sawdust/sludge ratio (1/9, 2/8, 3/7 and 4/6 on a dry basis) and the effect of the drying temperature (50 °C, 80 °C and 110 °C) have been investigated. In this study, X-ray tomography, a non-invasive imaging technique, is used to assess changes in the volume, void and exchange surface at the beginning and the end of the drying process. Results first confirm the importance of the mixing step on the drying behavior: the drying rate of the mixed sludge is lower than that of the original sludge. Nevertheless the addition of sawdust is shown to have a positive impact on the drying process from a mass ratio of 2/8, with drying rates higher than that of the original sludge. With increasing amount of sawdust, the initial and final bed volumes, initial and final total exchange surfaces, and initial void fraction increase linearly, but the bed volume shrinkage and final void fraction decrease linearly. [less ▲]

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See detailINFLUENCE OF SLUDGE TREATEMENT ON ITS CONVECTIVE DRYING BEHAVIOR
Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Herbreteau, Benjamin; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 27)

Drying appears as a major step prior to valorization of sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This study uses an experimental design on different sludges to highlight the drying behavior according to ... [more ▼]

Drying appears as a major step prior to valorization of sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This study uses an experimental design on different sludges to highlight the drying behavior according to drying conditions, storage and extrusion. This research is performed with industrial view, but on a single cylinder sample, and focuses on five responds: maximum drying flux, time to reach 95% of dry matter, final volume, critical moisture and slowing-down coefficient. [less ▲]

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See detailConvective drying of sawdust/sludge mixtures in a fixed bed: The effect of sludge origin
Li, Jie ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

Scientific conference (2014, August 26)

Sludges collected from Oupeye WWTP (MS=80%), Grosses Battes WWTP (MS=85.5%), and Embourg WWTP (MS=88%) in Belgium and presenting different properties were used. The influence of the sawdust/sludge ratio ... [more ▼]

Sludges collected from Oupeye WWTP (MS=80%), Grosses Battes WWTP (MS=85.5%), and Embourg WWTP (MS=88%) in Belgium and presenting different properties were used. The influence of the sawdust/sludge ratio on convective drying was investigated in a fixed bed. X-ray tomography was used to assess changes in volume, exchange surface and void fraction. Results showed that the average drying rates were 0.062 (Oupeye), 0.079 g/s (Grosses Battes) and 0.042 g/s (Embourg) respectively, using raw sludges. For sawdust/sludge mixtures with the mass ratio of 4/6, the average drying rates of sludges were improved (Oupeye: 0.092 g/s, Grosses Battes: 0.106 g/s, Embourg: 0.049 g/s). [less ▲]

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See detailConvective drying behavior of sawdust/sludge mixtures in a fixed bed
Li, Jie ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

Scientific conference (2014, May 27)

This work is part of a project aiming at developing a renewable fuel for gasification purposes, through the convective drying of sludge/wood mixtures. The first step consists in characterizing the drying ... [more ▼]

This work is part of a project aiming at developing a renewable fuel for gasification purposes, through the convective drying of sludge/wood mixtures. The first step consists in characterizing the drying behaviour of sludge/sawdust mixtures, in a convective fixed bed dryer. The influence of the mixing step (no mixing against 30 s at 40 rpm) and the sawdust/sludge ratio (1/9, 2/8, 3/7 and 4/6 on a dry basis) was investigated. X-ray tomography, a non-invasive imaging technique, was used to assess changes in volume and exchange surface during drying. The sawdust addition was shown to have a positive impact on the drying process from mass ratio of 2/8. Results showed that the volume and exchange surface increased with higher sawdust addition during the whole drying process. Moreover, a linear decrease of the exchange surface is observed with sludge, while a plateau is reached after a linear phase for sludge/sawdust mixtures. As expected, the drying rate of sludges or sludge/sawdust mixtures decreased nearly linearly with the exchange surface. For sawdust/sludge mixtures, the drying rate continued to decrease after the end of shrinkage, due to internal transfer limitations. These promising results open the way to new valorisation ways, especially for very pasty sludge. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Shrinkage Effect on Mass Transfer During Convective Drying of Sawdust/Sludge Mixtures
Li, Jie ULg; Bennamoun, Lyes; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

in Drying Technology (2014), 32

Convective drying of wastewater sludges and sawdust/sludge mixtures was studied. The first part of this work was an experimental study performed in a cross-flow convective dryer using 500 g of wet ... [more ▼]

Convective drying of wastewater sludges and sawdust/sludge mixtures was studied. The first part of this work was an experimental study performed in a cross-flow convective dryer using 500 g of wet material extruded through a disk with circular dies of 12 mm. The results showed that the sawdust addition has a positive impact on the drying process from a mass ratio of 2/8, on a dry basis, with observed drying rates higher than the original sludge. The second part of this work consisted of developing a drying model in order to identify the internal diffusion coefficient and convective mass transfer coefficient from the experimental data. A comparison was made between fitted drying curves, well represented by the Newton’s model, and the analytical solutions of the diffusion equation applied to a finite cylinder. Variations of dimensional characteristics such as the volume and exchange surface of the sample bed were obtained by X-ray tomography. This technique allowed confirm that shrinkage, which is an important phenomenon occurring during sludge and sawdust/mixture drying, must be taken into account. The results showed that both the internal diffusion coefficient and convective mass transfer coefficient were affected by mixing and sawdust addition. The internal diffusion coefficient changed from 7.77×10-9 m2/s for the original sludge to 7.01×10-9 m2/s for the mixed sludge and then increased to 8.35×10-9 m2/s for the mixture of a mass ratio of 4/6. The convective mass transfer coefficient changed from 9.70×10-8 m/s for the original sludge to 8.67×10-8 m/s for the mixed sludge and then increased to 12.09×10-8 m/s for the mixture of a mass ratio of 4/6. These results confirmed that sawdust addition was beneficial to the sludge drying process as the mass transfer efficiency between the air and material increased. Reinforcing the texture of sludge by adding sawdust can increase the drying rate and decrease the drying time, and then the heat energy supply will be reduced significantly. The study also showed that neglecting shrinkage phenomenon resulted in an overestimation for the internal diffusion coefficient for the convective drying of sludges and sawdust/sludge mixtures. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling of Wastewater Sludge Drying with Determination of Diffusivity Moisture
Bennamoun, Lyes ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

in Journal of Residuals Science and Technology [=JRST] (2013), 10(4), 165

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See detailConvective Drying of Mixtures of Sewage Sludge and Sawdust in a Fixed Bed
Li, Jie ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

Conference (2013, October 04)

This work is part of a project aiming at developing a renewable fuel for gasification purposes, through the convective drying of sludge/wood mixtures. The first step consists in characterizing the drying ... [more ▼]

This work is part of a project aiming at developing a renewable fuel for gasification purposes, through the convective drying of sludge/wood mixtures. The first step consists in characterizing the drying behaviour of sludge/sawdust mixtures, in a convective fixed bed dryer. In particular, the influence of the mixing step (no mixing against 30 s at 40 rpm) and the sawdust/sludge ratio (1/9, 2/8, 3/7 and 4/6 on a dry basis) have been investigated, as well as the drying temperature (50 °C, 80 °C and 110 °C). As showed in a previous work, the addition of dry matter into sludge has an impact on the initial 3D structure of the bed of extrudates to be dried. Moreover, it is well known that the volume shrinkage occurring during sludge drying will affect the drying velocity. In this study, X-ray tomography, a non-invasive imaging technique, is used to assess changes in volume, porosity and exchange surface between the beginning and the end of the drying process. Results first confirm the importance of the mixing step on the drying behaviour: the drying rate of the mixed sludge is slower than the one of original sludge. Nevertheless the addition of sawdust is shown to have a positive impact on the drying process from mass ratio of 2/8, with observed drying rates higher than for the original sludge. During the whole drying process, the volume and exchange surface of the sample increase and the porosity decreases as the mass ratio increases. These results indicate that the air and the sample contact more fully with more sawdust addition, resulting from bed expansion and exchange surface increase. Hence, the heat and mass transfer efficiency between the air and the material increases and consequently the drying rate. Further work will be done in order to assess the impact of the drying temperature and to characterize the behaviour of these samples during pyrolysis using thermo gravimetric analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailConvective drying of cherry tomato: Study of skin effect
Khama, Réda; Aissani, F.; Alkama, R. et al

Poster (2013, October 03)

A whole single cherry tomato is dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments are carried out under temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C and a constant air flow and humidity. In order to study the ... [more ▼]

A whole single cherry tomato is dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments are carried out under temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C and a constant air flow and humidity. In order to study the effect of the skin two sets of experiments were performed using original tomatoes or after skin was handly removed. The drying kinetics show the existence of two main phases, which are: adaptation phase and falling drying rate phase with an increase of the drying rate with the temperature increase. The observation of the product behavior shows that shrinkage effect is largely happening during the process. It is possible to follow this effect represented by variation of the product volume with its moisture content using X-ray microtomography. This non destructive imaging technique has been proved to find interesting applications in the drying field. In a second part, mathematical modeling using diffusion equation based on Fick’s law is studied. Consequently and using the analytical solutions proposed by Crank (1975), the diffusion coefficient is determined and written as function of the drying air temperature under Arrhenius form permitting by this way the calculus of the activation energy. The skin effect is clearly determined as the calculated diffusion coefficient of an original tomato with skin is largely smaller than the one without skin. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of sludge storage duration on its dewatering and drying ability
Pambou, Yvon-Bert; Salmon, Thierry ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

Poster (2013, October)

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See detailSol-gel preparation and characterisation of SnO<inf>2</inf>powders employed as catalyst for phenol photodegradation
Benhebal, H.; Chaib, M.; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Scientia Iranica (2013), 20(6), 1891-1898

Crystallized pure SnO<inf>2</inf>powders were prepared by the sol-gel process, and were used as photocatalyst for the degradation of phenol under UV light at pH 6.5 and a temperature of 20°C. The physical ... [more ▼]

Crystallized pure SnO<inf>2</inf>powders were prepared by the sol-gel process, and were used as photocatalyst for the degradation of phenol under UV light at pH 6.5 and a temperature of 20°C. The physical properties of photocatalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and Ultravioletvisible diffuse reectance spectroscopy. The inuences of different operating variables, such as the pH, the photocatalyst loading, and the initial concentration of phenol, were studied to improve the efficiency of phenol degradation. © 2013 Sharif University of Technology. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of Moisture Diffusivity During Drying of Mortar Cement: Experimental and Modeling Study
Bennamoun, Lyes ULg; Kahlerras, Loubna ULg; Michel, Frédéric ULg et al

in International Journal of Energy Engineering (2013), 3(1), 1-6

The aim of this study is the experimental characterization of the behaviour of a mortar during convective drying. We focalise on mortar that has a rate water-cement of 0.5. The drying tests are developed ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is the experimental characterization of the behaviour of a mortar during convective drying. We focalise on mortar that has a rate water-cement of 0.5. The drying tests are developed in a micro-convective dryer that can use samples weighing from 0 to 8g. The advantage of these experiments is to reproduce the natural conditions that can be found during the treatment of the mortar-atmosphere problems. The response of the drying curve or the drying kinetic depends on the applied drying conditions. So, the temperature of the air varies from 60°C to 130°C, the velocity of the air is changed from 2 m.s-1 to 5 m. s-1and the relative humidity is kept less than 1.7%. The comparison between the experimental results and the proposed analytical solutions of the equation of diffusion represented by Fick’s law, applied for a finite shape, allows determination of the values of the diffusion coefficient. It has a value of 1.71×10-10 m2.s-1 at 60°C, 13.69×10-10 m2.s-1 at 90°C and 16.27×10-10 m2.s-1 at 130°C. Calculation of the activation energy and the D0 constant are also possible. [less ▲]

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See detailSol-gel preparation and characterisation of SnO2 powders employed as catalyst for phenol photodegradation
Benhebal, Hadj; Chaib, Messaoud; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Scientia Iranica (2013), 20(6), 1891-1898

Crystallized pure SnO2 powders were prepared by the sol-gel process and were used as photocatalyst for the degradation of phenol under UV light at pH 6.5 and a temperature of 20°C. The physical properties ... [more ▼]

Crystallized pure SnO2 powders were prepared by the sol-gel process and were used as photocatalyst for the degradation of phenol under UV light at pH 6.5 and a temperature of 20°C. The physical properties of photocatalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The influences of different operating variables such as the pH, the photocatalyst loading, the initial concentration of phenol, were studied to improve the efficiency of phenol degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotocatalytic degradation of phenol and benzoic acid using zinc oxide powders prepared by the sol-gel process
Benhebal, Hadj; Chaib, Messaoud; Salmon, Thierry ULg et al

in Alexandria Engineering Journal (2013), 52(3), 517-523

Photocatalytic degradation of phenol and benzoic acid in aqueous solution was studied using zinc oxide (ZnO) powder synthesized by sol–gel process. Synthesized catalyst was characterized by X-ray ... [more ▼]

Photocatalytic degradation of phenol and benzoic acid in aqueous solution was studied using zinc oxide (ZnO) powder synthesized by sol–gel process. Synthesized catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area, pHpzc, and the band gap of the catalyst samples were also measured. The influence of various key parameters such as amount of photocatalyst, initial solution pH, and the initial concentration of phenol and benzoic acid was investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of sludge storage on dewatering and convective drying
Pambou, Yvon-Bert ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

Scientific conference (2012, November 10)

Annual production of sewage sludge in Europe is estimated at more than ten million tons of dry matter. Use in agriculture and incineration are the main ways of valorization. In this context, sludge drying ... [more ▼]

Annual production of sewage sludge in Europe is estimated at more than ten million tons of dry matter. Use in agriculture and incineration are the main ways of valorization. In this context, sludge drying appears as an essential step after mechanical dewatering. It reduces the costs of storage and transport, allows the stabilization and the hygienization of sludge while increasing its calorific value. However, this process is highly energy consuming and still needs to be optimized as it constitutes an important economic and environmental issue. This implies the improvement of knowledge about sludge drying, including the impact of the mechanical dewatering step. Before studying experimentally the influence of polymers type and dosage use for dewatering on the rheological properties and the drying process, it is necessary to assess the stability of the sludge during of the storage. Because sludge is a living material that can rapidly change, we use the method of experimental design in order to get maximum information with minimal testing, regarding sludge stability during storage. [less ▲]

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