References of "Salciccia, Alexandra"
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See detailLes pathologies intestinales chirurgicales chez le cheval: activation neutrophilique, pronostic et complications postopératoires
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Postoperative complications after colic surgery in horses remain of major concern as they are associated with non-negligible mortality rates. Many of these postoperative complications have an important ... [more ▼]

Postoperative complications after colic surgery in horses remain of major concern as they are associated with non-negligible mortality rates. Many of these postoperative complications have an important inflammatory component involving leukocytes, and particularly neutrophils, which represent the majority of granulocytes. Activated neutrophils produce reactive oxygen species and release inflammatory mediators and oxidative and proteolytic enzymes such as myeloperoxidase and elastase, which in turn will exacerbate pre-existing tissue lesions. This cascade of events will lead to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In an effort to improve the understanding of the systemic inflammatory reaction that follows colic surgery in horses, we described the time-trends of blood leukocytes and granulocytes counts and plasma myeloperoxidase and elastase concentrations during the perioperative period. Globally, survivor horses presented curves of blood leukocytes and granulocytes counts evolution lower and curve of evolution of plasma myeloperoxidase concentrations higher than those of non-survivor horses. These findings confirm the major influence of the inflammatory reaction on patient survival and allowed us to determine a prognostic value of blood leukocytes counts, a parameter easily available and routinely used in the aftercare of horses undergoing a colic surgery. We showed that in our population, non-survivor horses were more likely to have at least one blood leukocyte count inferior or equal to 3.9×10³/mm³ between 28 and 60 hours after surgery than survivor horses. Our following research, based on clinical studies, were directly or indirectly related to 2 common postoperative complications: incisional complications and ileus. In a study evaluating more than 600 exploratory laparotomies for colic, we showed that short laparotomy incisions, partially closed with interrupted vertical mattress sutures on the linea alba, and protected and supported by an abdominal bandage applied before the recovery from anaesthesia were associated with relatively low incisional complication and infection rates. These rates were respectively 9,52% and 5,31% after a single laparotomy and respectively 33,33% and 26,67% after repeat laparotomy. Bandage related complications occurred rarely. Risk factors of an incisional complication or infection in our population were prolonged anaesthesia duration, performing an enterotomy and postoperative intravenous lidocaine administration. The knowledge of these elements will certainly contribute to reduce the incidence of these complications in the future. Transabdominal ultrasonography of the small intestine is frequently used to diagnose and monitor a postoperative ileus. In order to improve the interpretation of ultrasonographic images after surgery, we determined the influence of general anaesthesia on these images. Using a protocol including horses anaesthetised for non-abdominal surgeries, we showed that although anaesthesia induces a physiologic ileus of short duration, expressed by a decreased of borborygmi without abdominal discomfort, its effects on the ultrasonographic images of the small intestine consisted mainly of a temporary increase (less than 12 hours) of the jejunal visualisation and diameter (with most of the observations remaining in the normal range) without thickening of the intestinal wall. Therefore the effects of general anaesthesia on ultrasonographic images of the small intestine can be distinguished from those of a pathological process. Our last study, including sound horses revealed that lidocaine, a molecule frequently used for treatment of postoperative ileus, may have a mild hypotensive effect on the arterial blood pressure and a mild prokinetic effect on the duodenum. Nevertheless, these results, original about the hypotensive effect, and controverted about the prokinetic effect, need to be confirmed in longer and larger studies. Our work has allowed us to bring some new elements leading to the improvement of our understanding of inflammatory processes related to the neutrophilic activation during the perioperative period of colic horses. Despite the improvement of methods of prevention, detection and treatment of postoperative complications, prognoses after this type of surgery still need to be enhanced. It seems that a huge work remains to be done to precisely determine the effects of various treatments, such as lidocaine. Numerous perspectives appear in the search of new molecules aiming to reduce the inflammatory reaction and to prevent or treat postoperative complications of horses undergoing colic surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical outcome after tracheal resection and anastomosis for correction of a tracheal stenosis in a sport pony
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Roose, Charlotte; Joostens, Zoé ULiege et al

Poster (2017, July)

Introduction: Tracheal stenosis, which refers to a narrowing of the tracheal lumen, is infrequent in horses. The literature is scarce about outcome after treatment of this pathology. Objectives: To report ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Tracheal stenosis, which refers to a narrowing of the tracheal lumen, is infrequent in horses. The literature is scarce about outcome after treatment of this pathology. Objectives: To report our experience using tracheal resection and anastomosis to treat a severe trauma-induced tracheal stenosis (< 1 cm diameter of lumen) involving 2 tracheal rings causing a loud respiratory noise at rest in a 14 y.o. event pony. Methods: The pony was trained to wear a martingale preoperatively. Before the surgery, a distal tracheotomy was performed for placement of the tracheal tube for maintenance of gaseous anaesthesia. Through a 35 cm ventral midline cervical incision, the trachea was exposed and separated from adjacent tissues. Stay sutures were placed in tracheal cartilage adjacent to the segment to be removed. The 2 tracheal rings involved in the stricture were subsequently removed. On both remaining segments of the trachea, the mucosa was turned back over the open end and sutured to the adventitia. The head was then flexed and tracheal ends were apposed using 5 stainless steel wires placed equidistantly around the trachea without mucosal penetration. The anastomosis was completed by a simple continuous suture of resorbable material on the adventitia. A closed suction drain was applied in the soft tissue before routine closure of the subcutaneous and cutaneous layers. The martingale was applied before the recovery from anaesthesia, which was uneventful. The tracheotomy tube and the suction drain were left in place for 48h. The martingale was removed after 3 weeks. The pony was discharged 1 month after surgery. Control endoscopies were performed during hospitalisation and at 7, 10, 17, 21 and 30 weeks and 1 year after surgery. Results: A moderate cicatrix recurred. The excessive tissue was injected with triamcinolone and then with 4% formaldehyde during the first endoscopies and remained stable thereafter. Some stainless steel cerclages broke and displaced slightly. This caused the formation of a self-resolving seroma caudally to the trachea. A moderate respiratory noise was still audible at low-intensity work, which was resumed 4 months postoperatively. However, work was stopped before achieving the preoperative level because the pony developed a lameness. Conclusions: Although a moderate tracheal cicatrix recurred after surgery, tracheal resection and anastomosis clearly improved the quality of life of this pony. [less ▲]

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See detailModified Thomas splint-cast combination for the management of limb fractures in small equids
Ladefogen, Soren; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege; Busoni, Valeria ULiege et al

in Veterinary Surgery : The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (2017)

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See detailCase report: Ovarian fibroma in a mare – Hormonal considerations
Ponthier, Jérôme ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Parrilla Hernandez, Sonia ULiege et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2016, October 27), 51(supplement 2), 132

This report shows that, as in humans, AMH as well as steroids productions are low in case of ovarian fibroma, thus preserving normal cyclicity.

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See detailEVALUATION OF THE CARDIOMYOTOXIC EFFECTS OF DOXYCYCLINE OVERDOSE IN CALVES USING 2-DIMENSIONAL SPECKLE TRACKING.
Lecoq, Laureline ULiege; Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Brihoum, Mounir et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2015), 29(4), 1254

Doxycycline (DOXY) is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in calves in accidental overdose but not in experimental models when evaluated with classical and Doppler echocardiography. Two ... [more ▼]

Doxycycline (DOXY) is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in calves in accidental overdose but not in experimental models when evaluated with classical and Doppler echocardiography. Two-dimensional-speckle tracking (2DST) is used to evaluate LV dysfunction in numerous species but not in cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiotoxic effects of an experimental overdose of DOXY using 2DST in calves. Ten healthy male Holstein calves. Group 1: 5 calves (mean age 58.0 +/- 16.3 days; mean body weight 72.2 +/- 13.0 kg) received 25 mg/kg of DOXY orally for 5 days. Group 2: 5 calves (mean age 56.4 +/- 15.7 days; mean body weight 73.4 +/- 7.0 kg) received a placebo. Electrocardiography (ECG) and 2DST echocardiography were performed at day 0 and day 8. ECG tracings were analysed for occurrence of arrhythmias. 2DST measurements included global and segmental, peak values for radial and circumferential strains (SR, SC), strain rates (SrR, SrC), rotation (Rot), rotation rates (RotR) and radial displacement (DR). All calves completed the study. ECG recordings were unremarkable in both groups. Heart rate was neither significantly different between groups nor before and after treatment. LV systolic function was affected in calves receiving an overdose of DOXY as shown by a significant decrease of segmental SR (P < 0.05), SC (P < 0.05) and DR (P < 0.05) in treated calves compared to the placebo group in several segments. The SrC in early diastole was also significantly decreased in 1 segment (<0.05). In calves, DOXY overdose induces a LV dysfunction in systole, and to a lesser extent, in diastole. A better comprehension of the pathophysiology involved in the DOXY overdose will help in the treatment of accidental cases. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonographic findings in horses with complete or partial tears of the manica flexoria.
Fonseca, Rita; Evrard, Laurence ULiege; Rabba, Silvia ULiege et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailMuscle Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Horses Affected by Acute Laminitis
Serteyn, Didier ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege et al

in Bioenergetics (2014)

Laminitis is a common and debilitating disease affecting horses and ponies. It often leads to the demise of the animal. Energy deficiency is suspected to entrain the disruption of the hemidesmosomes ... [more ▼]

Laminitis is a common and debilitating disease affecting horses and ponies. It often leads to the demise of the animal. Energy deficiency is suspected to entrain the disruption of the hemidesmosomes leading to the failure of the dermal-epidermal interface. The aim of this study was to measure the muscle mitochondrial function by high resolution respirometry. Muscle micro-biopsies were obtained from 11 horses affected by acute metabolic laminitis, 6 horses affected by acute laminitis resulting from a systemic inflammation response syndrome and 28 healthy horses distributed in 2 control groups: 17 horses with a body condition score [BSC, ranging from 0 (emaciated) to 5 (obese)] of 2 to 3 and 11 horses with a BSC of 4 to 5. During the acute phase of laminitis, a significant reduction of the muscle mitochondrial respiration was observed. The muscle mitochondrial dysfunction occurred independently of the etiology (metabolic disorder or systemic inflammation) leading to laminitis. The reduction of the oxidative phosphorylation and of the maximal respiratory capacity (after uncoupling) may induce depletion of the cell’s ATP content. If the same mitochondrial alteration occurs in the foot lamina, mitochondria targeting should be considered for the future, not only to better understand the physiopathology of the disease but also to maintain and to support the mitochondrial function before reaching the « mitochondrial dysfunction threshold » that may lead to the failure of the dermal-epidermal interface. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of automatic stapling device during castration to prevent (re)occurrence of inguinal hernia in horses with large vaginal rings.
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Ponthier, Jérôme ULiege et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2014, January), 34(1), 99-100

(Re)ocurrence of inguinal hernia in case of very large vaginal rings may simply be prevented by closure of the vaginal tunic by TA staples during castration by inguinal approach. This method provides a ... [more ▼]

(Re)ocurrence of inguinal hernia in case of very large vaginal rings may simply be prevented by closure of the vaginal tunic by TA staples during castration by inguinal approach. This method provides a good resistance to internal pressure, appears to be safe, fast and easy to perform and may therefore be an interesting alternative to laparoscopic techniques when castration is considered. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity and specificity of blood leukocyte counts as an indicator of mortality in horses after colic surgery
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2013), 173(11),

The objectives of this study were to describe and relate perioperative changes in blood leukocyte counts to the outcome of surgical colic horses, determine a cut-off value in the early postoperative ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to describe and relate perioperative changes in blood leukocyte counts to the outcome of surgical colic horses, determine a cut-off value in the early postoperative period to obtain an indicator of the outcome, and compare the obtained value to a validation population of horses. Fifty-three horses undergoing colic surgery were included in the descriptive part of the study. Total leukocyte counts were performed before, during and serially after surgery. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on the leukocyte counts of 45 of these horses to determine a cut-off value for the outcome. The results obtained were validated on a second set of 50 horses that underwent colic surgery in similar conditions. The kinetics of blood leukocytes in survivors was higher than in non-survivors during the first days. Non-survivor horses were more likely to have at least one blood leukocyte count ≤3.9×103/mm3 between 28 and 60 hours after surgery than survivor horses. This cut-off value was confirmed in the validation population. These results suggest that routine values of blood leukocyte counts can be used as an additional prognostic indicator after colic surgery alongside other predictors previously associated with the outcome. [less ▲]

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See detailSurgical treatment of open joint injuries: a retrospective study of 22 horses.
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Evrard, Laurence ULiege et al

Conference (2012, October 19)

Aims: To evaluate the prognosis of horses treated surgically for open joint injuries. Methods: The medical records of horses admitted for surgical treatment of a wound in communication with a joint were ... [more ▼]

Aims: To evaluate the prognosis of horses treated surgically for open joint injuries. Methods: The medical records of horses admitted for surgical treatment of a wound in communication with a joint were reviewed. A telephone questionnaire was used for the long term evaluation. Fisher’s exact tests were used for the statistical analyses. Results: Twenty two horses were included in the study with the following distribution of lesions: 6 carpi, 6 fetlocks, 4 tibiotarsal joints, 2 proximal and 3 distal interphalangeal joints, 1 elbow. The duration of the injury before referral ranged from 3 hours to 10 days. Surgical treatment consisted of 1-3 joint lavages. Of the 22 horses, 4 were euthanatized during hospitalization and 18 were discharged. After discharge, 3 horses died due to colic, 2 were lost and 13 were still alive. The survival was not influenced by the duration of the wound. All horses with cutaneous defects less than 5 cm and all horses affected in the lower limb (below the level of the canon) were discharged. Having an affected joint proximal to the canon was significantly associated to the need of multiple surgeries (OR: 17.5; p= 0.024). Conclusions: Even if the prognosis remains guarded for open joint injuries, a long delay between injury and treatment should not be systematically associated with a bad prognosis for survival. Open joint injuries of the lower limb were associated with survival. They required less often multiple articular lavages than open joint injuries of the upper limb, warranting thus a better prognosis. [less ▲]

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See detailLes kératomes: lésions et traitements chez 19 chevaux
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Bolen, Géraldine ULiege et al

Conference (2012, October 12)

Introduction: Les kératomes, masses hyperplasiques de kératine, croissent entre la phalange distale (P3) et la paroi du sabot et provoquent des boiteries chez le cheval. La littérature comporte de ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Les kératomes, masses hyperplasiques de kératine, croissent entre la phalange distale (P3) et la paroi du sabot et provoquent des boiteries chez le cheval. La littérature comporte de nombreux rapports de cas isolés mais peu de séries cliniques. Matériel et méthodes: Les dossiers cliniques des cas de kératomes présentés depuis 2004 à la faculté de médecine vétérinaire de Liège ont été revus. Résultats: Vingt-trois kératomes ont été diagnostiqués sur 19 chevaux boiteux. Un cheval présentait 2 kératomes sur le même pied et 3 chevaux présentaient 2 kératomes sur des pieds différents. Sur les 22 pieds atteints, les lésions observées étaient: un abcès, souvent récidivant (18 cas), une déformation de la muraille (6 cas), une déviation de la ligne blanche (6 cas) et une seime (3 cas). Un kératome était situé sous la sole et 22 sous la muraille. La durée des symptômes variait de 2 semaines à 15 ans (plus d'un an sur 12 pieds). Sur les radiographies, une lyse par compression de P3 était visible en regard de 20 kératomes. Le cheval présentant 2 kératomes sur le même pied a été euthanasié. Trois kératomes ont été traités de manière conservative. Dix-huit kératomes (chez 16 chevaux) ont été excisés chirurgicalement dont 16 par avulsion complète de muraille, 1 par avulsion partielle de muraille et 1 par curetage d'une portion de sole. Aucune complication postopératoire n'a été observée dans 7/18 cas (39%). Les complications rencontrées étaient: une granulation excessive (10 cas), une douleur importante pendant plusieurs jours (5 cas), une légère infection (4 cas), un enfoncement de P3 en regard de la zone avulsée (2 cas) et une récidive (2 cas, dont 1 a été réopéré avec succès ultérieurement). Un cheval est encore en convalescence au moment de cette étude. Le suivi à long terme d’un cheval a été perdu. Des 14 chevaux repris dans l'évaluation postopératoire, 1 a été euthanasié pour une autre raison que le kératome, 3 chevaux ont gardé une boiterie résiduelle au trot et 10 chevaux ont récupéré leur niveau d'activité. Discussion: La littérature décrit les kératomes comme rares1. Or, 21% des chevaux de cette étude (4 chevaux sur 19) présentaient plusieurs kératomes. De plus, dans 54 % des cas, les symptômes duraient depuis plus d’un an. Dès lors, il apparait que les kératomes sont sous diagnostiqués ou le sont souvent tardivement. La chronicité et l’étendue des kératomes de cette étude n’a que très rarement permis leur résection par avulsion partielle de muraille, technique de choix dont les complications postopératoires sont moindres². Un diagnostic précoce par inspection minutieuse des sabots, particulièrement en cas d’abcès de pied récidivant permettrait une excision par une technique moins invasive, qui diminuerait la convalescence et les complications postopératoires. Bibliographie: 1. Sundberg, J.P. et al. Neoplasms of Equidae. Journal of American veterinary medical association, 1977, 170: 150-152. 2. Boys Smith SJ. et al. Complete and partial hoof wall resection for keratoma removal: postoperative complications and final outcome in 26 horses (1994-2004). Equine Veterinary Journal, 2006, 38 (2): 127-133. [less ▲]

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See detailIntérêt d’un système de traitement des plaies par pression négative chez le cheval : Etat des lieux et cas cliniques
de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Gougnard, Alexandra ULiege et al

Conference (2012, October 12)

Les plaies traumatiques ou chirurgicales nécessitent souvent une cicatrisation par seconde intention lorsque la fermeture primaire n’est pas possible ou échoue. La fermeture assistée par le vide (Vacuum ... [more ▼]

Les plaies traumatiques ou chirurgicales nécessitent souvent une cicatrisation par seconde intention lorsque la fermeture primaire n’est pas possible ou échoue. La fermeture assistée par le vide (Vacuum Assisted Closure : VAC) est une méthode active et non invasive qui expose le lit de la plaie à une pression sub-atmosphérique locale afin de promouvoir sa cicatrisation. Elle stimule la granulation et la perfusion sanguine locale et réduit significativement l’œdème et la charge bactérienne.1 Cette technique s’est révélée efficace dans le traitement des plaies aiguës et chroniques chez l’homme. Chez le cheval, la méthode est encore peu décrite.2,3 Nous rapportons ici l’application et les effets de la thérapie des plaies par pression négative à travers les cas traités à la clinique vétérinaire universitaire de Liège depuis 2010. Les plaies étaient chirurgicalement débridées avant l’application du système VAC. Une mousse en polyuréthane était appliquée après avoir été adaptée à la géométrie de la plaie. Un champ plastique adhésif était alors apposé sur la plaie pour créer un environnement hermétique et un orifice d’1 cm2 était créé au centre du système pour appliquer la ventouse du tuyau d’aspiration. Cette ligne était alors raccordée à l’appareil d’aspiration contrôlée pour maintenir une pression continue de -125 mmHg dans la plaie. Quinze cas ont été recensés: 3 plaies intra-articulaires (au carpe, au coude et au grasset), 3 sur la face dorsale du canon postérieur, 2 sur la face dorsale du jarret, 1 sur la pointe du calcanéum, 2 sur l’encolure et 4 plaies de laparotomie infectées. Le traitement a accéléré la croissance du tissu de granulation, stimulé la contraction des plaies et favorisé la cicatrisation dans la majorité des cas (12/15). Les plaies apparaissaient aussi plus saines et présentaient moins de sécrétions lors des changements de bandages. Des résultats plus modérés ont été notés chez les 3 autres cas. Quelques complications mineures comme des irritations cutanées ont été observées. Le traitement de plaies contaminées nous a orientés vers l’usage d’une mousse de polyuréthane argenté mais d’autres types de matrice sont disponibles et permettent de modifier le comportement de la plaie. L’usage d’une mousse de polyvinyl Alcool s’est ainsi avéré efficace pour améliorer l’adhésion des greffons lors d’une greffe de peau chez le cheval.3 La principale limite du traitement réside dans la difficulté technique de maintenir la plaie sous vide lors d’atteinte de régions très mobiles comme les articulations. En conclusion, le système VAC semble très prometteur pour optimiser la qualité de la cicatrisation et réduire la durée de l’hospitalisation. 1 - Morykwas, M.J., Argenta, L.C., et al. Vacuum-assisted closure: a new method for wound control and treatment: animal studies and basic foundation. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1997, 38, 553-562 2 - Gemeinhardt K.D., Molnar J.A. Vacuum-assisted closure for management of a traumatic neck wound in a horse. Equine Vet. Educ. 2005, 17, 27-33 3 - Jordana M., Pint E., et al. The use of vacuum-assisted wound closure to enhance skin graft acceptance in a horse. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 2011, 80, 343-350 [less ▲]

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See detailTwo-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult Saanen goats
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Moonen, Marie ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2012), 170(6), 154

Echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The ... [more ▼]

Echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the inter-day repeatability and to establish the reference values of two-dimensional (2D-) and time-motion (M-) mode echocardiographic variables in healthy adult Saanen goats. Six goats were investigated three times by the same observer at one day interval using a standardized 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic protocol. The intra-observer inter-day repeatability was tested using analysis of variance, calculation of the coefficient of variation and confidence intervals. A single echocardiographic examination was performed in 6 other goats, and values obtained in the 12 goats were used to establish the 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic reference values in healthy adult female Saanen goats. Statistical analysis revealed a good inter-day repeatability of the echocardiographic cardiac measurements. Echocardiographic reference values obtained in healthy adult Saanen goats seemed slightly higher than those reported in healthy Swedish domestic goats and were similar to those reported in healthy adult sheep. [less ▲]

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See detailDystocies équines: Données descriptives et approche de la gestion des soins intensifs
Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege et al

Conference (2011, December 02)

La fréquence de fourbures rencontrées après une dystocie semble faible par rapport à la littérature. L’ajout d’héparines fractionnées aux traitements habituels de la métrite du post-partum (ocytocine ... [more ▼]

La fréquence de fourbures rencontrées après une dystocie semble faible par rapport à la littérature. L’ajout d’héparines fractionnées aux traitements habituels de la métrite du post-partum (ocytocine, lavage utérins, antibiotiques et anti-inflammatoires) semble intéressant pour réduire le risque de fourbure. [less ▲]

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See detailTime trends of blood leucocytes, neutrophils and plasmatic myeloperoxidase in the perioperative period of horses undergoing colic surgery.
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Grulke, Sigrid ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege et al

Poster (2011, July)

Background: Despite the recent advances in this area, colic remains a major cause of morbidity and death in horses. Neutrophilic activation and degranulation may play a key role in the postoperative ... [more ▼]

Background: Despite the recent advances in this area, colic remains a major cause of morbidity and death in horses. Neutrophilic activation and degranulation may play a key role in the postoperative complications. Activated neutrophils release enzymes like proteases and myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO concentrations in plasma and tissue are considered as a marker of neutrophil activation. (McConnico et al. 1999; Hoy et al. 2002). When freed in the tissue, active MPO is able to oxidize, nitrate and chlorate most organic molecules (Klebanoff 2005). Objectives: The aim of this study was 1) to determine the time trends of blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts as well as of plasmatic MPO concentrations in the perioperative period of horses undergoing colic surgery and 2) to relate these time trends to the location of the pathology, the severity of postoperative complications and to the outcome of the patients. Methods: Fifty two horses undergoing colic surgery at the Equine Teaching Hospital of the University of Liege were included in this study. The location of the predominant lesion of the intestine, the severity of the postoperative complications and the outcome were recorded for each horse. Total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were performed in all of the horses while plasmatic myeloperoxidase levels were determined in 16 of them. The blood samplings were realized before and during the surgery (after correction of the intestinal lesion), during the recovery and every 4 hours during the first 4 days (from day 0 until day 4) and then every 12 hours until day 6 (150th hour after the first blood sampling) or until euthanasia. Hematologic analyses were performed at the time of sampling by use of the Medonic CA 530 (Menarini, Zaventem, Belgium). The blood was then centrifuged and the plasma was aliquoted and frozen at -20° C until assayed. MPO was assayed with a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Equine MPO-ELISA kit, BiopTis, Liège, Belgium). A mixed model was used to analyze the time trends of leukocytes, neutrophils and MPO. All computations were done with the SAS (Statistical Analysis System) procedure Proc Mixed, with Satterthwaite degrees of freedom. The significance level was set at p=0.05. Results: The main pathology was found in the large intestine in 30 horses (58%) and the small intestine in 22 horses (42%). Forty horses (77%) survived to discharge from the clinic. Twelve horses were euthanized during the postoperative period. Their survival time varied from 0.5 day to 20 days with a mean of 7.8 days. Twenty-two horses (42%) showed none or mild complications, 12 horses (23%) showed moderate complications and 18 horses (35%) suffered from severe complications. Time trends for leukocytes and neutrophils were similar to each other (p= 0.7205) and significantly different (p< 0.0001) from the MPO time trend, which increased during the first hours, while the neutrophil time trend decreased immediately after the admission. The time trend of neutrophils was higher in large intestinal than in small intestinal pathologies and the time trend of MPO was lower in large intestinal than in small intestinal pathologies. The time trends of neutrophils were significantly different between the degrees of complications (no/mild vs moderate vs severe). For the first part of the curve, the more severe the complication, the lower is the time trend. The time trend of MPO was lower in survivors. The time trend of neutrophils in survivors was higher during the first 4 days thereafter it becomes lower than in non survivors. Conclusions: These results confirm that neutrophil counts and MPO levels undergo timely changes and that they are related to the severity of the inflammatory reaction in surgical colic cases. Knowing the kinetics of these parameters is an essential step to further determine cut-off values (with a larger group of horses) for the prognosis of horses after colic surgery. References Hoy, A., Leininger-Muller, B., Kutter, D., Siest, G. and Visvikis, S. (2002) Growing significance of myeloperoxidase in non-infectious diseases. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 40, 2-8. Klebanoff, S.J. (2005) Myeloperoxidase: friend and foe. J. Leukoc. Biol. 77, 598-625. McConnico, R.S., Weinstock, D., Poston, M.E. and Roberts, M.C. (1999) Myeloperoxidase activity of the large intestine in an equine model of acute colitis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 60, 807-813. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the effect of general anaesthesia on ultrasonographic images of the small intestine in horses.
Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege; Gougnard, Alexandra ULiege; de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy ULiege et al

Poster (2011, July)

ultrasonography is currently more and more used in equine acute abdominal disease as well as in the follow-up of surgical colic patients because of its sensibility for the detection of small intestinal ... [more ▼]

ultrasonography is currently more and more used in equine acute abdominal disease as well as in the follow-up of surgical colic patients because of its sensibility for the detection of small intestinal distension. General anaesthesia is known to diminish gastrointestinal motility even if there are no clinical signs associated with it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of general anaesthesia on transabdominal ultrasonographic images of the small intestine in horses undergoing routine non abdominal surgeries. The ultrasonographic exams were performed in 19 horses before and after the general anaesthesia (immediately after the recovery and then 2h, 12h and 24h after it). Each ultrasonographic exam focused on the duodenum, the jejunum and the presence of peritoneal fluid. For the jejunum, 5 locations were used: on the ventral midline just caudally to the sternum, on the left and right cranial ventral parts of the abdomen, on the left and right inguinal regions. Other parameters such as the gut sounds and the postoperative fecal output were also recorded. Anova and Chi-square tests were used for the statistical analysis. No horse showed colic signs. No significant difference was found between the pre and post anaesthetic period considering the maximal diameter of the duodenum, the maximal diameter of the jejunum on the 5 locations and the peritoneal fluid. The contractions of the duodenum were increased at the recovery compared to before the anaesthesia (p= 0,0299). The small intestine was most visible at the recovery (57,5%) and then at 2 hours after it (38,3%). It seemed that the ventral midline just caudally to the sternum and the right and left inguinal regions were the best locations to observe the jejunum (with a mean of respectively 44,6%, 39,8% and 38,5% of visualization of the jejunum).The gut sounds were very significantly decreased at the recovery (p < 0,0001) and at 2h after it (p = 0,0006). The postoperative fecal output was not decreased. In conclusion, even if general anaesthesia seems to reduce temporarily the intestinal activity (decreased gut sounds in the early post anaesthetic period), it does not cause significant distension of the small intestine (almost the small intestinal diameters were in the normal range). If an increased diameter of small intestine is observed by ultrasonography after surgery it should therefore be attributed to a pathological process and not to the anaesthesia. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailTwo-Dimensional, M-Mode and Pulsed Wave Doppler Echocardiographic Reference Values in Healthy Adult Saanen Goats
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Moonen, Marie ULiege; Farnir, Frédéric ULiege et al

Poster (2011, March 18)

Echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats ... [more ▼]

Echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. Accurate measurement of cardiac dimensions requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. Goats are animals easy to handle with a body and heart size comparable to humans’. This makes goats an attractive candidate for the development of animal models for human cardiology research. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability and to establish the reference values of bi-dimensional (2D-), time-motion (M-) mode and pulsed wave (PW) Doppler echocardiographic variables in adult goats. Six healthy female adult Saanen goats were investigated three times by the same observer at one day interval using a standardized 2D-, M-mode and PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol. Calculation of the coefficient of variation for each variable measured within day and depending on the day allowed to evaluate their degree of variability. A single echocardiographic examination was performed in 6 other goats by the same observer, and the obtained values were added to these obtained on the third day of the 6 first goats. Then the observed mean, the standard deviation and the range of these measurements were calculated to establish the reference values of echocardiographic parameters in unsedated adult healthy female Saanen goats. Statistical analysis revealed a good inter-day repeatability of the 2D- and M-mode echocardiographic cardiac measurements, but PW Doppler parameters presented moderate to high variability, as documented in other species. Echocardiographic reference values obtained in healthy adult Saanen goats were similar to those reported in healthy adult sheep and in healthy adult humans. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (23 ULiège)