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See detailPrimary versus secondary failure following varicella vaccination: implications for interval between two doses-Literature review
Bonanni, Paolo; Gershon, Anne; Gershon, Michael et al

Poster (2010)

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See detailVaricella-Zoster Virus IE4 Protein Interacts with SR Proteins and Exports mRNAs through the TAP/NXF1 Pathway.
Ote, Isabelle ULg; Lebrun, Murielle ULg; Vandevenne, P. ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2009), 4(11), 7882

Available data suggest that the Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) IE4 protein acts as an important regulator on VZV and cellular genes expression and could exert its functions at post-transcriptional level ... [more ▼]

Available data suggest that the Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) IE4 protein acts as an important regulator on VZV and cellular genes expression and could exert its functions at post-transcriptional level. However, the molecular mechanisms supported by this protein are not yet fully characterized. In the present study, we have attempted to clarify this IE4-mediated gene regulation and identify some cellular partners of IE4. By yeast two-hybrid and immunoprecipitation analysis, we showed that IE4 interacts with three shuttling SR proteins, namely ASF/SF2, 9G8 and SRp20. We positioned the binding domain in the IE4 RbRc region and we showed that these interactions are not bridged by RNA. We demonstrated also that IE4 strongly interacts with the main SR protein kinase, SRPK1, and is phosphorylated in in vitro kinase assay on residue Ser-136 contained in the Rb domain. By Northwestern analysis, we showed that IE4 is able to bind RNA through its arginine-rich region and in immunoprecipitation experiments the presence of RNA stabilizes complexes containing IE4 and the cellular export factors TAP/NXF1 and Aly/REF since the interactions are RNase-sensitive. Finally, we determined that IE4 influences the export of reporter mRNAs and clearly showed, by TAP/NXF1 knockdown, that VZV infection requires the TAP/NXF1 export pathway to express some viral transcripts. We thus highlighted a new example of viral mRNA export factor and proposed a model of IE4-mediated viral mRNAs export. [less ▲]

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See detailVaricella vaccination in Europe – taking the practical approach
Bonanni, Paolo; Breuer, Judith; Gershon, Anne A. et al

in BMC Medicine (2009), 7(26), 1-38

Varicella is a common viral disease affecting almost the entire birth cohort. Although usually self-limiting, some cases of varicella can be serious, with 2 to 6% of cases attending a general practice ... [more ▼]

Varicella is a common viral disease affecting almost the entire birth cohort. Although usually self-limiting, some cases of varicella can be serious, with 2 to 6% of cases attending a general practice resulting in complications. The hospitalisation rate for varicella in Europe ranges from 1.3 to 4.5 per 100,000 population/year and up to 10.1% of hospitalised patients report permanent or possible permanent sequelae (for example, scarring or ataxia). However, in many countries the epidemiology of varicella remains largely unknown or incomplete. In countries where routine childhood vaccination against varicella has been implemented, it has had a positive effect on disease prevention and control. Furthermore, mathematical models indicate that this intervention strategy may provide economic benefits for the individual and society. Despite this evidence and recommendations for varicella vaccination by official bodies such as the World Health Organization, and scientific experts in the field, the majority of European countries (with the exception of Germany and Greece) have delayed decisions on implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccination, choosing instead to vaccinate high-risk groups or not to vaccinate at all. In this paper, members of the Working Against Varicella in Europe group consider the practicalities of introducing routine childhood varicella vaccination in Europe, discussing the benefits and challenges of different vaccination options (vaccination vs. no vaccination, routine vaccination of infants vs. vaccination of susceptible adolescents or adults, two doses vs. one dose of varicella vaccine, monovalent varicella vaccines vs. tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines, as well as the optimal interval between two doses of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines). Assessment of the epidemiology of varicella in Europe and evidence for the effectiveness of varicella vaccination provides support for routine childhood programmes in Europe. Although European countries are faced with challenges or uncertainties that may have delayed implementation of a childhood vaccination programme, many of these concerns remain hypothetical and with new opportunities offered by combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines, reassessment may be timely. In countries where routine childhood vaccination against varicella has been implemented, it has had a positive effect on disease prevention and control. Furthermore, mathematical models indicate that this intervention strategy may provide economic benefits for the individual and society. Despite this evidence and recommendations for varicella vaccination by official bodies such as the World Health Organization, and scientific experts in the field, the majority of European countries (with the exception of Germany and Greece) have delayed decisions on implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccination, choosing instead to vaccinate high-risk groups or not to vaccinate at all. In this paper, members of the Working Against Varicella in Europe group consider the practicalities of introducing routine childhood varicella vaccination in Europe, discussing the benefits and challenges of different vaccination options (vaccination vs. no vaccination, routine vaccination of infants vs. vaccination of susceptible adolescents or adults, two doses vs. one dose of varicella vaccine, monovalent varicella vaccines vs. tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella and varicella [MMRV] vaccines, as well as the optimal interval between two doses of MMRV vaccines). Assessment of the epidemiology of varicella in Europe and evidence for the effectiveness of varicella vaccination provides support for routine childhood programmes in Europe. Although European countries are faced with challenges or uncertainties that may have delayed implementation of a childhood vaccination programme, many of these concerns remain hypothetical and with new opportunities offered by combined MMRV vaccines, reassessment may be timely. [less ▲]

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See detailVaricella vaccination in Japan, South Korea, and Europe.
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Rentier, Bernard ULg; Wutzler, Peter et al

in Journal of Infectious Diseases (2008), 197 Suppl 2

The most extensive use of varicella vaccine has been in the United States and Canada, where it is universally recommended. However, a number of other countries now have recommendations for use of the ... [more ▼]

The most extensive use of varicella vaccine has been in the United States and Canada, where it is universally recommended. However, a number of other countries now have recommendations for use of the vaccine, which has been expanding in Europe and Latin America. In this article, we review information concerning varicella vaccination in Japan, where the vaccine was first developed, and in South Korea and parts of Europe. Despite the worldwide availability of an efficient vaccine, varicella vaccination policy is highly variable from country to country. The recent development of a tetravalent vaccine against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella could modify this variability in the future. It is evident that efforts to control varicella will spread gradually to all continents. [less ▲]

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See detailThe varicella-zoster virus immediate-early 63 protein affects chromatin-controlled gene transcription in a cell-type dependent manner.
Habran, Lionel ULg; El Mjiyad, Nadia ULg; Di Valentin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in BMC Molecular Biology (2007), 8

Varicella Zoster Virus Immediate Early 63 protein (IE63) has been shown to be essential for VZV replication, and critical for latency establishment. The activity of the protein as a transcriptional ... [more ▼]

Varicella Zoster Virus Immediate Early 63 protein (IE63) has been shown to be essential for VZV replication, and critical for latency establishment. The activity of the protein as a transcriptional regulator is not fully clear yet. Using transient transfection assays, IE63 has been shown to repress viral and cellular promoters containing typical TATA boxes by interacting with general transcription factors. In this paper, IE63 regulation properties on endogenous gene expression were evaluated using an oligonucleotide-based micro-array approach. We found that IE63 modulates the transcription of only a few genes in HeLa cells including genes implicated in transcription or immunity. Furthermore, we showed that this effect is mediated by a modification of RNA POL II binding on the promoters tested and that IE63 phosphorylation was essential for these effects. In MeWo cells, the number of genes whose transcription was modified by IE63 was somewhat higher, including genes implicated in signal transduction, transcription, immunity, and heat-shock signalling. While IE63 did not modify the basal expression of several NF-κB dependent genes such as IL-8, ICAM-1, and IκBα, it modulates transcription of these genes upon TNFα induction. This effect was obviously correlated with the amount of p65 binding to the promoter of these genes and with histone H3 acetylation and HDAC-3 removal. Conclusion While IE63 only affected transcription of a small number of cellular genes, it interfered with the TNF-inducibility of several NF-κB dependent genes by the accelerated resynthesis of the inhibitor IκBα. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing coverage and efficiency of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and introducing universal varicella vaccination in Europe : A role for the combined vaccine
Vesikari, Timo; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Rentier, Bernard ULg et al

in Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (2007), 26(7), 632-638

Universal mass vaccination according to a 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine schedule is recommended by the World Health Organization and is fundamental to the control of these important diseases ... [more ▼]

Universal mass vaccination according to a 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine schedule is recommended by the World Health Organization and is fundamental to the control of these important diseases. Very high coverage (first dose, >= 95%; second dose, >= 80%) is necessary to achieve and sustain high population immunity, and eventually interrupt indigenous transmission of these diseases. In 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices issued a recommendation for 2 doses of varicella vaccine to be given universally to children. Coadministration of MMR and varicella vaccines, though efficacious and well tolerated, can be difficult because of the 2 separate injections and associated compliance issues. In addition to the general advantages of a combined vaccine, recently registered measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccines could facilitate introduction of varicella universal mass vaccination by simplifying administration and providing the potential to achieve high coverage rates for these 4 diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailLes virus de l'Herpes, une grande famille très diversifiée
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2007)

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See detailUn vaccin contre le zona?
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2007)

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See detailCaractérisation de la protéine 9p du virus de la varicelle et du zona (VZV)
Joris-Gerards, Aline; BONTEMS, Sébastien ULg; Di Valentin et al

Poster (2007)

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See detailVaricella-zoster virus modulates NF-kappaB recruitment on selected cellular promoters.
El Mjiyad, Nadia ULg; Bontems, Sébastien ULg; Gloire, Geoffrey ULg et al

in Journal of Virology (2007), 81(23), 13092-104

Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression is down-regulated in the center of cutaneous varicella lesions despite the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as gamma interferon and tumor ... [more ▼]

Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression is down-regulated in the center of cutaneous varicella lesions despite the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). To study the molecular basis of this down-regulation, the ICAM-1 induction of TNF-alpha was analyzed in varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-infected melanoma cells (MeWo), leading to the following observations: (i) VZV inhibits the stimulation of icam-1 mRNA synthesis; (ii) despite VZV-induced nuclear translocation of p65, p52, and c-Rel, p50 does not translocate in response to TNF-alpha; (iii) the nuclear p65 present in VZV-infected cells is no longer associated with p50 and is unable to bind the proximal NF-kappaB site of the icam-1 promoter, despite an increased acetylation and accessibility of the promoter in response to TNF-alpha; and (iv) VZV induces the nuclear accumulation of the NF-kappaB inhibitor p100. VZV also inhibits icam-1 stimulation of TNF-alpha by strongly reducing NF-kappaB nuclear translocation in MRC5 fibroblasts. Taken together, these data show that VZV interferes with several aspects of the immune response by inhibiting NF-kappaB binding and the expression of target genes. Targeting NF-kappaB activation, which plays a central role in innate and adaptive immune responses, leads to obvious advantages for the virus, particularly in melanocytes, which are a site of viral replication in the skin. [less ▲]

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See detailVZV mutants: a way to overcome the reactivation of the vaccine virus
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg

Conference (2006, November)

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